Articles and Selections

In Pursuit of Better Investment of Zakah Revenues


   Zakah revenues meets a wide gap in the needs of the poor, the indigent and the public interests of the state if they are invested in a proper way. If the rich people generously donate charities and do their best to feed the hungry, clothe the naked, give medicine to the patient, support the needy and significantly contribute to fulfill the needs of their country of reform, weapons and equipment, life will be much better in this country with no needy or beggar in the community.

   Imam ‘Ali Ibn Abi Talib (may Allah be pleased with him) said, “Allah has apportioned the provisions of the poor in the wealth of the rich. So no poor man becomes hungry except as a result of the miserliness of a rich man and if you found a hungry poor man, know that there is an unjust rich man who did not pay the right of Allah in his wealth and did not fulfill his duty towards his society.”

   In addition, if the endowments are invested in a proper way beside the Zakah and charities for the interests of the country, they would lead to a real renaissance in our country. We may have surplus for impoverished countries that we need to help, such as the Nile Basin countries with which we need to communicate and collaborate scientifically, culturally, charitably and humanely at the governmental and peoples’ levels with their strong civil institutions. These institutions are well placed to carry out large and huge projects in these countries and other African poor countries as a strategic dimension and as a part of our national security. There are numerous successful examples in this field for civil society institutions.

  Zakah is a fundamental right in the wealth of the rich: I would first state some certain facts: First, Zakah is a fundamental right in the wealth of the rich and one of the main pillars of Islam such as prayer and fasting alike. Ibn ‘Abbas (may Alalh be pleased with him) said, “Three things have been revealed in the Qur‘ān associated with three others. They are not accepted separately: the first verse is, “Obey Allah and obey the Messenger.” If a Muslims obeys Allah’s commands and ignores the Messenger’s commands, his effort will not be accepted. The second verse is, “perform the prayer and give Zakah.” Those who perform the prayer and do not give Zakah will have prayer unaccepted. The third verse is, “give thanks to Me and to your parents. Unto Me is the final destination.” Whoever gives thanks to Allah but does not give thanks to his parents, his work will not be accepted.”

   Allah, the Almighty, says about those who hoard their wealth and do not give Zakah: “And those who hoard gold and silver and spend it not in the way of Allah – give them tidings of a painful punishment. The Day when it will be heated in the fire of Hell and seared therewith will be their foreheads, their flanks, and their backs, [it will be said], This is what you hoarded for yourselves, so taste what you used to hoard” (the Qur‘ān, 9: 34-35).

  Second, Islam invites Muslims to generously donate charities. Allah, the Almighty, says, “The example of those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah is like a seed [of grain] which grows seven spikes; in each spike is a hundred grains. And Allah multiplies [His reward] for whom He wills. And Allah is all-Encompassing and Knowing” (the Qur‘ān, 2: 261).

  Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) said, “The wealth of a man is never diminished by charity.” He also said, “The best charity is the one that you give while you are healthy, niggardly and afraid of poverty and wish to become wealthy. Do not delay it to the time of approaching death and then say, ‘Give so much to such and such, and so much to such and such.”

   The Prophet (may Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) also said, “Every day two angels come down from Heaven and one of them says, ‘O Allah! Compensate every person who spends in Your Cause,’ and the other (angel) says, ‘O Allah! Destroy every miser.”

  Allah, the Almighty, says, “Here you are – those invited to spend in the cause of Allah – but among you are those who withhold [out of greed]. And whoever withholds only withholds [benefit] from himself; and Allah is the Free of need, while you are the needy. And if you turn away, He will replace you with another people; then they will not be the likes of you” (the Qur‘ān, 47: 38).

  Reasons Behind Defects and Means to Correction:

  In this regard, the reasons behind the defect are either associated with zakah payer, zakah recipients or intermediaries between the two, a person, an organization or an institution. The reasons associated with the payers are either failure to pay or resorting to trickery or paying the Zakah without consideration of the organization to which they give the Zakah. The religious discourse should focus on the obligation of paying the Zakah and the major sin committed by those who withheld the right of Allah in their wealth in assertion that the rich do not escape blame by merely paying the Zakah in any way.

  Rather, some jurists maintain that if a rich man mistakenly pays Zakah to a rich person thinking he is a poor, he still has to pay the Zakah. The rich people have to make sure that they pay the Zakah to the rightful recipients honestly and accurately in order to absolve themselves of all blame and contribute with their Zakah to the desired fruit for which Zakah has been ordained.

  The reasons behind the shortcoming associated with the recipient revolve around the weak religious deterrent of some people, who make it lawful for themselves to obtain money from any means even if it entails loss of respect. We should remind those people of the Islamic approach and common sense, which discourage those who are able to work from begging or face-losing. Our Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) says, “Begging is allowed only for one who is in grinding poverty, one who is seriously in debt, or one who is responsible for compensation and finds it difficult to pay.” Our Prophet (may Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) also says, “Acts of begging are lacerations with which a man disfigures his face, so he who wishes may preserve his self-respect, and he who wishes may abandon it.” Imam Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) said:

   Carrying stones from mountains tops is better to me than accepting favors of men.

   Some say some works are shameful, to me real shame lies in humiliation of begging. 

  Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) says, “One of the sayings of the early Prophets which the people have got is: If you don’t feel ashamed, do whatever you like.”

  Islam strictly prohibits begging when no real need is there and prohibits humiliation of begging. Free men never expose themselves to situations that do not befit them. The upper hand, which gives, is better than the lower hand, which takes. The importance and value of work in Islam should also be stressed and that Islam encourages work. It should also be pointed out that one who strives to help the widows and the poor is like the one who fights in the way of Allah and that the best people are the ones who earn their living from their manual work and are not dependent upon others. The Pre-Islamic poet al-Shanfara al-Azdi said:

   I eat the earth’s dust dry, lest any benefactor thinks me indebted to his favor.

  Mahmud Sami al-Barudi said:

 I was created as a dignified person receiving no favor from a child of a free woman that I remember for him when he gets angry.

  As for the third defect, it is the mechanism of collecting and distributing the Zakah revenues. With our belief in and appreciation of the role of some civil societies in alleviating the suffering of the poor and the indigent whether by providing expenses or by establishing service and medical projects, these institutions need the following:

  • They must be under the complete control of the state apparatuses, which should follow and control them in the best way. There must be a clear transparency in announcing their budgets, expenses and remunerations while rationalizing their administrative expenses to the greatest possible degree.
  • There must be a clear map for the presence of these institutions, their geographical scope and activities in order not to have them all work in the same field or in limited fields while ignoring other fields that might be more important and vital for the society.
  • A public body, such as the Ministry of Social Solidarity, must be responsible for an electronic network to connect and coordinate the work of these institutions and link beneficiaries with donors and civil society institutions in their geographical or service scope in order to put an end to the phenomenon of the beneficiaries who have their names registered in the records of several charitable institutions while the Zakah revenues and charities do not reach those who really deserve them.
  • It is necessary to set clear goals and purposes to which all people might donate their charities or to allocate each institution for a particular purpose, such as feeding the hungry, providing medicine for the patient and paying the debts of those who are heavily indebted which is the goal of the campaign started by the Egyptian Ministry of Awqaf.

Woman’s Rights in Inheritance and Decent Life

أ.د/ محمد مختار جمعة وزير الأوقاف

   The issue of inheritance is a substantial issue addressed by Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) in his comprehensive sermon in the Farewell pilgrimage. He said, “Allah, the Almighty, has given each person, who has a right, his right, but there is no bequest for an heir” (Reported by Ibn Majah in his Sunan).

    Allah, the Almighty, Himself, has determined the shares of each heir and has not left this duty to any. Allah, the Almighty, says, “Allah instructs you concerning your children: for the male, what is equal to the share of two females. But if there are [only] daughters, two or more, for them is two thirds of one’s estate. And if there is only one, for her is half. And for one’s parents, to each one of them is a sixth of his estate if he left children. But if he had no children and the parents [alone] inherit from him, then for his mother is one third. And if he had brothers [or sisters], for his mother is a sixth, after any bequest he [may have] made or debt. Your parents or your children – you know not which of them are nearest to you in benefit. [These shares are] an obligation [imposed] by Allah. Indeed, Allah is ever Knowing and Wise” (the Qur‘ān, 4: 11).

   The Qur‘ān does not only determine the shares of heirs, but it also promises punishments to those who allow themselves to infringe on these rights. Allah, the Almighty, concludes verses on the shares of heirs by His saying, “These are the limits [set by] Allah, and whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger will be admitted by Him to gardens [in Paradise] under which rivers flow, abiding eternally therein; and that is the great attainment. And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger and transgresses His limits – He will put him into the Fire to abide eternally therein, and he will have a humiliating punishment” (the Qur‘ān, 4: 13-14).

   The Qur‘ān denounces the people of ignorance for devouring the rights of some heirs without right; He says, “No! But you do not honor the orphan. And you do not encourage one another to feed the poor. And you consume inheritance, devouring [it] altogether, And you love wealth with immense love. No! When the earth has been leveled – pounded and crushed – And your Lord has come and the angels, rank upon rank, And brought [within view], that Day, is Hell – that Day, man will remember, but what good to him will be the remembrance? He will say, “Oh, I wish I had sent ahead [some good] for my life.” So on that Day, none will punish [as severely] as His punishment, And none will bind [as severely] as His binding [of the evildoers]” (the Qur‘ān, 89: 17-26). Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) said, “Whoever withholds the inheritance that Allah and His Messenger have decreed, Allah will deprive him of his inheritance in Paradise.”

   It is narrated that a man deprived his daughter of inheritance. She waited until he passed away and entered upon him when he was bathed after death. She looked at him and said, “O Allah, You know that he deprived me of some pleasures of this world and I ask You to deprive him of the delight of the hereafter.”

  Depriving women of their inheritance may take place on unreasonable grounds or old customs and traditions that have no foundation in the Islamic Sharī‘ah. The man who denies someone their due rights and favors another is similar to a person who thinks himself more knowledgeable of worthy and deserved interests of people than the Lord of the worlds, the Most Just Judge, Who creates everything in this world. It implies that he is not pleased by the way with which Allah determines the shares and claims that he has a better way for distribution of inheritance shares, God forbid. If he believes that the shares that Allah has determined in His Mighty Book are the best, he will not interfere and favor a person and deprive another.

   As for women generally, be they mothers, sisters, wives, daughters or otherwise, Islam prohibits us from preventing them from marriage, wronging them or devouring their rights. Allah enacts that justice, which men shall show to women, and indiscrimination between daughters and sons are the means to earn the Divine Pleasure and Paradise. Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) said, “Whoever has a female child, and does not bury her alive, or slight her, or prefer his children (i.e. the male ones) to her, Allah will bring him into Paradise.” This tradition implies lofty meanings and eloquence as the Prophet used the relative pronoun “whoever” which indicates generality and comprehensiveness. He also used the noun “female” and not the noun “daughter” because “female” is more general as it includes all females, such as daughters, sisters, granddaughters and others.

   Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) advised us to take care of women, honor them and treat them well in several occasions. The Prophet says in the divine tradition, Allah says: “Obey me in protecting the rights of the two weak ones: Orphans and women.”

   The Prophet (may Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) also said, “Whoever has three daughters and is patient towards them, and feeds them, gives them to drink, and clothes them from his wealth; they will be a shield for him from the Fire on the Day of Resurrection.”

   The Prophet (may Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) also said in another narration: “Whoever has two daughters or sisters” and in a third narration: “If it were a single daughter that was educated and treated well by her guardian, she would be a shield for him from the Fire on the Day of Resurrection.” A man was sitting with the Prophet (may Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) when his son came to him. He held his son, kissed him and put him in his lab. His daughter then came. He held her and put her beside him. Prophet Muhammad, said to him, “You did not treat them equally” i.e. he should have put the girl on his lap just as he placed the son.

  It is noticeable in our contemporary world that some kinds of nasty discrimination occur; some families prefer sons to daughters and give more attention to boys’ education. In inheritance, girls are either totally deprived of their rights or they are given less than what is rightfully due to them, which is falsely called compensation. In fact, it has nothing to do with real compensation, but it is a kind of silencing, oppression and deception which you may call as you like except being a compensation or enforcing what is right or a fair implementation or distribution of shares in line with the divine Sharī‘ah’s truth, justice and laws.

The Concept of National Security


There is no doubt that the stability of any country is closely associated with protecting the national security and the extent to which each citizen is concerned about the level of security and protection, especially of those close to the circles of decision-making in issues related to international relationships and their mechanisms.

If the national security of an independent and a sovereign country is a red line that cannot be crossed or whose crossing cannot be tolerated, the preservation of this line requires an ongoing, scholarly and methodical awareness, culture and education about the concept of national security. I can say that holding intensive courses about this concept for persons expected to occupy leading positions has become an urgent necessity, because the technical, technological and administrative skills may not be sufficient in forming a comprehensive vision that leads to the correct direction and course as long as persons have no farsighted and comprehensive vision of the effect of any decision they take on the national security.

It may not occur to some people that the decisions or the actions that they take or the relationships that they establish may have a negative effect on the national security. This might not be intentional, but it might be the result of lack of knowledge or insufficient knowledge of national security. However, the current stage and the circumstances that the country, the region and the whole world undergo necessitate that ordinary citizens, let alone those in charge or the decision-makers, be thoroughly familiar with the national security of their country whether in taking the decisions or in establishing relations or in concluding agreements and protocols.

If the level of awareness of the importance and danger of everything related to national security varies from one person to another for many considerations including: culture, keenness on the national interests, showing concern for the homeland and giving the national interests priority above any other considerations, then the following procedures are necessary:

  • More education and awareness of the concept of national security through holding intensive courses for all those who are going to occupy leading positions.
  • Raising awareness of the concept of national security and the necessity of preserving it on the part of politicians, thinkers, writers, intellectuals and the media, especially those who have a penetrating vision and mature awareness of the concept of national security. This should be considered one of the most important elements of the country’s stability.
  • The necessity of advance coordination with the concerned bodies before concluding any agreements or protocols with any foreign institutions to avoid any penetration or negative effects on our national interests even if not on purpose.

Before any important decision, the concept of national security requires familiarity with the internal and foreign political conditions as well as the regional and international political conditions along with the consideration of our Arab and African depth and Muslim world dimensions. The positive and negative effects of important and vital decisions on each of these relations as well as the priorities, the significance positions and the margins of movement in all directions must be studied.

There is no doubt that the political, military, economic, cultural, technical and media relations affect one another because it is no longer possible to separate them completely so that each institution can act as if it lives in a world that is specific to it. However, each institution should take into consideration the effect of their procedures on other national institutions. There is no doubt that this consideration requires a deep national sense and a considerable practice and experience. It also requires that we all work as a team. All people in charge must shoulder full responsibility for the tasks assigned to them with a high level of understanding and awareness of the work of their team and the requirements of taking decisions in the institutions to which they belong.

It is a truism that nations cannot achieve stability only with good intentions without awareness, planning and watchfulness in a world where the strong devour the weak. The Second Caliph, Umar Ibn al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) used to say, “I am not to deceive, nor do I allow someone to deceive me!”

Al-Mughira Ibn Shu‘ba said, “Were it not for Islam, I would use cunning that the Arabian Peninsula would not tolerate.” There must be good work with good intentions. Allah, the Almighty, says, “Say, [O Muhammad], Shall we [believers] inform you of the greatest losers as to [their] deeds? [They are] those whose effort is lost in worldly life, while they think that they are doing well in work” (the Quran, 18: 103-104). That is why the Quran stresses the conditions of trustworthiness and competence, because none of them alone is sufficient. Allah says at the tongue of the daughter of Prophet Shu‘ayb, “O my father, hire him. Indeed, the best one you can hire is the strong and the trustworthy” (the Quran, 28: 26). Allah also says at the tongue of Prophet Yūsuf (Joseph) (peace be upon him), “Appoint me over the storehouses of the land. Indeed, I will be a knowing guardian” (the Quran, 12: 55).

Muhammad, the Prophet of Mercy


Prof. Dr. Muhammad Mokhtar Jum‘ah Minister of Awqaf

Allah, the Almighty, sent our Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) as a mercy to the worlds. Allah, the Almighty, says, “And We have not sent you, [O Muhammad], except as a mercy to the worlds” (the Qur‘ān, 21: 107). Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) introduced himself saying, “O People! Verily, I am a gifted mercy.” The Qur‘ān asserts this meaning declaring, “There has certainly come to you a Messenger from among yourselves. Grievous to him is what you suffer; [he is] concerned over you and to the believers is kind and merciful” (The Qur‘ān, 9: 128).

The Book sent with Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) is a Book of Mercy; Allah, the Almighty, says, “And We send down of the Qur‘ān that which is healing and mercy for the believers” (the Qur‘ān, 17: 82). His religion is the religion of mercy, security, safety and peace for all human beings. It is a religion that lays firm foundations of peaceful coexistence among all people in a way that saves the lives of all people and protects the property of all people on pure human bases without discrimination among people on the basis of religion, color, race or ethnicity. All lives are safeguarded; the honor and property of all people are protected; and all trusts are to be rendered to whom they are due without exception. This is our Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) entrusting his cousin Ali when he migrated to Medina to return the trusts to those who harmed him, drove him out and stripped many among his Companions of their wealth and property.

On the day when Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) went to Ta’if to invite people to Islam, they denied his mission and bestirred their slaves and street boys to throw stones at him until his feet bled. Thereupon, the angel of mountains came to him and said, “O Muhammad, Allah listened to what your people had said to you. I am the angel of the mountains, and Allah has sent me to you so that you may give me your orders. If you wish I will bring together the two mountains that stand opposite to each other at the extremities of Mecca to crush them in between.” To all surprise, Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) said, “No, but I would say, O Allah, guide my people for they have no knowledge. I rather hope that Allah will raise from among their descendants people as will worship Allah alone and testify that there is no god except Allah.” When asked to pray against the disbelievers, Prophet Muhammad said “I was not sent as a curser, I was sent as Mercy.”

Islam is the religion of mercy and peace for the whole world. Islam does not sanction killing any person for his beliefs. When Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) saw a woman who has been killed in the battlefield, he said: “Who killed her? Female is not the one with whom fighting should have taken place.”

This asserts the fact that disbelievers are not to be killed just for their disbelief and that fighting has been sanctioned to repel aggression, because there is no compulsion in religion. Moreover, rudeness in speech should be shunned as Allah, the Almighty, says to our Prophet Muhammad, “And if you had been rude [in speech] and harsh in heart, they would have disbanded from about you. So pardon them and ask forgiveness for them and consult them in the matter. And when you have decided, then rely upon Allah. Indeed, Allah loves those who rely [upon Him]” (the Qur‘ān, 3: 159).

The Qur‘ān addresses the disbelievers at the tongue of our Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) and the tongue of his Companions saying, “And indeed, we or you are either upon guidance or in clear error” (the Qur‘ān, 34: 24). The Qur‘ān does not say, we are upon guidance and you are in clear error even though their misguidance is clear. This is known among the rhetoricians as the style of fairness and this is our culture that treats the other with fairness even in speech.

Islam ordered us to speak to people good words as He says, “And speak to people good [words]” (the Qur‘ān, 2: 83), i.e. to all people. Indeed, we have been ordered to say that which is best, “And tell My servants to say that which is best” (the Qur‘ān, 17: 53) and do that which is best, “And not equal are the good deed and the bad. Repel [evil] by that [deed] which is better; and thereupon the one whom between you and him is enmity [will become] as though he was a devoted friend. But none is granted it except those who are patient, and none is granted it except one having a great portion [of good].” (the Qur‘ān, 41: 34-35). This is our Prophet and these are the manners of our Prophet who said, “I was sent to perfect good character.”

If our religion is the religion of mercy and our Book is the Book of mercy and our Prophet is the Prophet of mercy, then what is the problem with us and what has befallen us? How did some of those who are counted as Muslims reach this degree of harshness? And what is the way out?

There is no doubt that many factors lie behind this phenomenon including the domination of unqualified and unspecialized persons over the Da‘wah discourse and their hijacking of it for long periods and the wrong belief that is common among some of them that going to the extreme bolsters one’s religion. There is a pressing need to correct all these misconceptions while asserting that Islam is the religion of mercy, tolerance and ease. Learned jurists have agreed that jurisprudence implies ease. No jurist ever said that it implies extremism; Allah, the Almighty, says,

  • “Allah intends for you ease and does not intend for you hardship” (the Qur‘ān, 2: 185).
  • He, the Almighty, also says, “And He has not placed upon you in the religion any difficulty. [It is] the religion of your father, Abraham. Allah named you “Muslims” before [in former scriptures] and in this [revelation] that the Messenger may be a witness over you and you may be witnesses over the people” (the Qur‘ān, 22: 78)
  • He, the Almighty, also says, “And know that among you is the Messenger of Allah. If he were to obey you in much of the matter, you would be in difficulty, but Allah has endeared to you the faith and has made it pleasing in your hearts and has made hateful to you disbelief, defiance and disobedience. Those are the [rightly] guided. [It is] as bounty from Allah and favor. And Allah is Knowing and Wise” (the Qur‘ān, 49: 7-8).
  • Whenever our Prophet (may Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) was given an option between two things, he used to choose the easier of the two as long as it did not involve any sin or severing ties of kinship. However, if it involved sin or severing ties of kinship, he was the farthest from it.