The Translation of the Meanings of the Glorious Quran

The Opening

(Al-Fatihah)

This Surah was revealed at Makkah before the immigration, and was called “The Opening” because it is the first Surahs of the Qur’an. It sums up the general content of the Qur’an, as if it were a summary followed by details.

The purposes of the Qur’an are: Manifesting Oneness, giving glad tidings to the charitable believers, warning the disbelievers, explaining the ways of worship, guidance to the ways of happiness in this world and in the Hereafter, and telling the stories of those who obeyed Allah and won and of those who disobeyed Him an lost.

This Surah contains all these purposes, and therefore was called “The Mother of the Book”.

  • It starts with the name of Allah, the only and one God Who should be worshipped, the Perfect in every sense, the clear of any defect, the Merciful Who confers His blessings on everybody, The Ever-Merciful.
  • All praise be to Him, the Lord and Sustainer of the worlds.
  • The All-Merciful, The Ever-Merciful.
  • The Absolute Sovereign of the Day of Reckoning and Recompense.
  • It is You and You alone Whom we worship, it is You and You alone Whom we invoke and implore for help.
  • We ask you to guide us to the path of righteousness and happiness.
  • The path of those whom You have guided to believe in You, and favored them with the blessings of guidance and satisfaction, not the path of those who deserved Your anger, missed the way of  truth and goodness as a result of their choice not to believe in you nor follow Your guidance.

« The Cow »

AL BAQARAH

« Madinite »

This Surah was revealed at Madina following the emigration of the early Muslims. It is the longest Surah in the Qur’an, and it started with detailing the meanings of Surat Al-Fatihah, so it assured that the Qur’an is the source of guidance, and mentioned those whom Allah graced with satisfaction, and the infidels and hypocrites on whom Allah has incurred His wrath.

It also talked about the truthfulness of the Qur’an, and assured that its call is indisputable, and that mankind has been divided into three categories: the faithful to Allah, the deniers of Allah and the hypocrites. It also called mankind to worship Allah alone, and warned the hypocrites, and announced joyful tidings to the faithful. Then it gave a special attention to Bani-Israel (Children of Israel), and reminded them of the days of Mūssa (Moses). It also reminded them of Ibrahim (Abraham) and Isma‘il (Ishmael) and their efforts in building the Ka’ba. This covered almost half the Surah, and included advises to thee believers to take what happened to the Jews and Christians into consideration.

Then the Surah moved to remind the people of the Qur’an of  what is common between the people of Moses and the people of Muhammad, and the merits of Abraham, his guidance, and his lineage, as well as the question of Qiblah and other topics.

  In this Surah a discourse is found on Oneness, recurrent reminding of the signs that attest to Allah’s existence, polytheism, forbidden foods, and that judging anything as lawful or unlawful is relegated only to Allah.

All Allah’s statutes have been clearly stated in order to guide mankind to an appropriate way of life in conducting affairs: fasting, will, fraud, retaliation, fighting, pilgrimage, intoxicants, gambling, marriage, divorce and the set period, suckling, spending, commer­cial transactions, usury, borrowing, documenting debts, have all been clearly stated to guide mankind to the appropriate way of life and to the best means of conducting their affairs. The Surah ended with supplications from the believers to their Lord to grant them victory and support them.

The Surah contained some rules, among them are: Following Allah’s ordinance is the best means of acquiring happiness of the soul here and in the Hereafter, conducting the improper practice of advising people to do good while not following the same advice is not a behaviour of wise men, , prioritizing good and rejecting evil, and preferring noble things to mean ones.

The Surah indicated clearly that religion is based on three primary provisions: unconditioned recognition of Allah and faithful belief in Him, acknowledgement of the truth of Resurrection and Judgement, and that deeds must be crowned with wisdom and piety and that all must go together.

Reward will be for faith and deeds together, the fulfillment of faith means complete surrender and acceptance of what has been revealed to the Prophet, and that non-Muslims will never be pleased with Muslims unless Muslims follow their religion.

The general legal guardianship must be assigned only to pious and just people, not to unfaithful or unjust ones. Believing in Allah’s religion as it was revealed prompts unity and agreement, and rejecting it leads to disunity and discord. Achieving sublime aims can only be reached by patience and prayers, and unwise imitation only leads to ignorance and racism.

Surely, Allah Has made all good food lawful for His servants, and made certain bad things unlawful for them. It is an indisputable fact that Allah alone is he who permits and forbids. And that unlawful things are made lawful in cases of necessity, as necessity knows no law. Religion is built on ease and evading hardships, as Allah does not burden any soul with more than it can bear, neither does He order his servants to do what they cannot do, and that destroying oneself is totally forbidden, and that things can only be approached by lawful means, and that compulsion in religion is forbidden, and that fighting is allowed only in cases of self defense, for securing the freedom of religion, and for maintaining the prevalence of Islam in its homeland.

Muslims are entitled to enjoy their life, as they are asked to fulfill their duties to enjoy their hereafter. Blocking the ways leading to dubious behaviour and installing interests of the people are among the purposes of Islamic Law.

Faith and patience are causes for granting just minority victory over unjust majority, and eating up others properties wrongfully is extremely prohibited, and man will be reckoned according to his own deeds not others’ deeds, and that the rationale of legislation can only be recognized by sound minds for what it contains of truth, justice, and observing peoples interests.

In The Name of Allah AL-Rahman and AL-Rahim (The Merciful)

  1. A. (Alef) L. (Lam) M. (Meem). Allah opened this Surah with letters from the Arabic alphabet to draw attention to the miracle of the Quran, though written in the people’s tongue cannot be emulated.
  2. This is the perfect Book -the Quran- which no wise man doubts that Allah revealed it, in which Providence is the Guide, and represents the spirit of truth guiding into all truth; it guides those: who seek the truth and want to save themselves from harm and punishment.
  3. Who are strongly disposed to believe in the unseen, especially angels an the Last Day, as the basis of faith is to believe in the unseen. Who duly engage in prayers with fully surrendering hearts, and spend in benevolence and benefaction of the provisions of life Allah provisioned them,
  4. Who faithfully believe in all that has been revealed to you, O Muhammad, -the Quran- way of life, religious and spiritual virtues and all that has been enjoined, crediting all revelations to those sent before you in AL-Tawrah (the Torah) and AL-Injil (the Bible) and the like, affirming the certainty of the Hereafter.
  5. Those who entertain these qualities, who hold fast to the causes of Divine guidance, it is they who will prosper for their diligence and obedience.
  6. This is the case with the guided people. As to the ignorant who lack any inclination to faith out of carelessness and obstinacy, they will never respond to Allah’s call, it is all the same to them whether you warn them O Muhammad of menacing danger and misfortune or not;
  7. Those people have been overwhelmed with denial as if their hearts were sealed, Allah has closed their hearts’ ears and denied them intellectual sense of hearing, and their minds’ eyes grow dim as if covered with a film; they are disposed to denseness of intellect and shall suffer a fitting punishment.
  8. Among people are those who say with their tongues what is not in their hearts, and give credence to His Omnipotence and Authority and acknowledge the truth of the Hereafter while in fact they hug their old irreverent conviction to their hearts;
  9. They apply their minds to deceiving the believers with what they do, and think that they deceive Allah, Who knows what is secretly suggested to the mind, when in fact, they only deceive themselves, failing to perceive;
  10. Their ill-natured hearts reflect the morbidity inherent in their innermost being, and consequently did Allah make their seats of intellect melt away in disease and lassitude that they addicted themselves to vice, and there awaits them a fitting punishment for their intentional assertion of what is false.
  11. And when directed by believers to stop making mischief on earth nor create discord, they say: «But we only try to bring people to abandon the wrong course of life. This is the case of every evil-doer who sees his perversion as righteousness.
  12. Beware O believers, they indeed are causing corruption, thought they do not realize it, nor do they realize the dreadful end that awaits them for their hypocrisy.
  13. And when told to conform their will to Allah’s will and to recognize Him, believe in Him and give credence to His Omnipotence and Authority as other people have conformed to His will, they mock and say: «Shall we demean ourselves like the simpletons did and follow the same course they followed?» Indeed, they are the fools who said in their hearts, «There is no god,» but they are ignorant and unknowing of the truth.
  14. And when they are face to face with those whose hearts are impressed with the image of religious and spiritual virtues they say : We believe in what you believed, and we follow your faith , and when they are apart with their satanic confederates who delight in satanic wickedness, they assure them of their confederacy and that they confederate in their design but they were only laughing at the believers with an outward contempt of what they esteemed sacred.
  15. Allah will recon them according to their deeds, and will incur humility on them to allow them free scope and action in order to commit themselves to the loss in a maze of error, then inflict His punishment upon them.
  16. These have chosen error in exchange for guidance, like a merchant who chose a bad commodity for his trade, so they were captive victors who lost in gain, nor could they hit the path of righteousness.
  1. Their example stands similitude exact of someone who has kindled a fire to give light to a body of companions and when the surroundings glowed with light, Allah extinguished their fire and left them in utter darkness. He showed them the way to guidance, which they didn’t follow, so, they deserved to be left in want of physical, spiritual and intellectual sight,
  2. They are like deaf, who lost the advantage of hearing, so, they do not hear the call to the truth, and like dumb, insensible to light, they are unable to retrace their steps that lead them into error.
  1. Their example stands similitude exact of a people who are overshadowed with dark thunder cloud floating in the floor of the vault of heaven and sends forth thunder and lightning, terrifying and startling, and they think that by plugging their ears with their finger tips to make them impervious to sound they would avert death.

They evade the Qur’an as it expounds the darkness of disbelief, the glittering light of faith, and warns of different kinds of punishment. They try to rid themselves of it claiming that evading it will exempt them from punishment. Verily, Allah is All-Knowing of the disbelievers, controlling them from every direction.

  1. Lightning very nearly snatches their sense of sight; as often as it emits for them gleams they proceed under its light and when it darkens, their eyes shrivel into darkness in their heads and they stand dead; and had Allah willed He would have deprived them of their sense of hearing and that of sight, faculties divine; He is indeed Omnipotent to effect all things on earth or in heavens.
  2. O you people worship Allah, your Creator, it is He Who brought you into being and caused you and caused all those who preceded you to exist. He is the creator of every thing. This may help you lift to Him your inward sight and entertain the profound reverence dutiful to Him, so that you may fear the dreadful end.
  3. It is He Who set for you the earth at creation in the order of a settled habitation where you establish your abode, and made the heaven with its regions, spheres, celestial bodies and realms of space a construction of imposing magnitude, and He sent down from the floor of the vault of heaven rain water and with it He caused the various products to spring from the soil, products fit to be used as food for human sustenance. Therefore, do not equal with Him deities haunting your imagination when the instinctive perception of the truth is natural to you.
  4. And if this state of affairs is giving you occasion to uncertainty and you are in doubt about the truth and authenticity of the Quran We have been revealing in sequence to Our servant the Messenger Muhammad then produce a Surah the like thereof and call on all those besides Allah who can bear witness to its inimitable nature if you are declaring the truth.
  5. If such an undertaking you fail to fulfil, and fail, you undoubtedly will, then save yourselves the fire whose fuel shall be people and stones; the stones sculptured and statues as false gods; the fire which has been especially prepared for those who deny Allah.
  6. This is the punishment for these who denied Allah, whereas the Heaven will be the abode of the faithful. Meanwhile, announces O Muhammad, blissful tidings to those who believe in Allah, His Messenger, and His Book, who surrendered to the truth and did good deeds, that they shall be welcomed into gardens of bliss and surpassing beauty beneath which rivers flow.  As often as they are offered any kind of the fruit therein, they express their thoughts in words: «But this is what we had before in life for our livelihood.» In effect, they are offered what bears a marked resemblance to what they had in life, but not of a like nature; it has the power to excite relish and ecstatic delight inexperienced before. And therein shall they be accompanied by mates of their design: pure, chaste and holy fellows of their piety and therein they will have passed through nature to Eternity.
  7. Allah makes illustrations to the people for asserting the absolute facts. And gives an allegory applying creatures as small as a gnat or a larger creature to convey a useful lesson by which moral and spiritual relations are typically set forth. As to those whose hearts have been impressed with the image of religious and spiritual virtues, they know well that the simile narrated by Allah, their Creator, is the truth personified as it illustrates and ennobles the subject. But those who deny Allah wonder to hear Allah talk after this manner and they say: «What does Allah mean by such a parable?» In effect, such parables as Allah discourses are intended to stray the many who counsel deaf to the truth and to guide the many who have clean hearts to the path of righteousness and He misguides only the wicked who confirm themselves in the evil purpose and the ill intention.
  8. The wicked who do not fulfill their covenant with Allah after they have solemnly vowed to Him to do what has been enjoined, who disjoin humanity and policy instead of being joined together and separate the two hands that join one another in fidelity, and who disjoin all that Allah has ordained be joined together, such as blood relations, and make mischief on earth and create discord, these are they who were born to be great losers, there is disgrace for them in this world, and painful punishment in the Hereafter.
  9. How strange you are, how could you people deny Allah while you have no reason for denying Him, you have no excuse for your behaviour as you were inanimate and He brought you into being from nothingness and caused you to exist, then He shall occasion your death and then at the predetermined moment He shall resurrect you and back to Him you return for judgment.
  10. To worship and obey Allah is incumbent. He is it Who created for you all that is on earth, then applied He Himself to. the immeasurable expanse of the realm and set it in order and arranged it in seven heavens, and He is All-Knowing who has infinite knowledge of all things.
  1. Allah made it clear that it is He Who granted man life and established him on earth. For once Allah made a proclamation, to the angels of a great event; He said to them: «I am inducting a Vicegerent on earth.» The angels said: «Will You assign the earth to someone who shall make mischief therein, create discord and shed blood, while we adore Your Eternal Name and to You we express our feelings of warm approbation and extol Your glorious attributes!» «But I am,» said Allah, All-Knowing, Who knows what you do not know.»
  2. Then, He created Adam; Foreknowing that he would be destined to inhabit the earth, Allah imparted to him knowledge of all the names denoting members of all classes of beings and objects, the animate and the inanimate, the material and the immaterial. He then presented them to the angels, saying: «Give Me the designations of all that I imparted to Adam if you are declaring the truth.»
  3. Angels, having realized how limited they are said: «Glory to Your Name, we acknowledge our incapability, and that the sum of what we know lies only in the range of the information and knowledge You imparted to us. You are indeed All-Knowing and All-Wise (the Source of wisdom).»
  4. Then Allah said to Adam: «Tell them, Adam, of the designations and the destined purposes of all imparted to you.» and when Adam did , Allah said to the Angels: «Did I not tell you that I am All-Knowing of all that is unknown in the heavens and on earth and of all you declare and of all you tried to conceal!»
  5. Remember O Muhammad when  We said to the angels: «Prostrate yourselves to Adam in adoration.» The angels prostrated to Adam in admiration except Iblis who declined with inordinate self-esteem. He was a disobedient rebel.
  1. Then Allah commanded Adam and his wife to dwell in Paradise saying: “Dwell you and your wife in Paradise and eat as you will and wherever you will. But Allah warned them from eating of a certain tree saying: “Keep off this tree and do not eat of it lest you both should be of the unjust”.
  2. But Iblis, out of jealousy and hatred, kept tempting them both until they ate of it. In consequence, Allah sent them out from the state of supreme bliss, and ordered them to go down to settle on earth with mutual enmity toward each other and have enjoinment for a predetermined time.
  3. Experiencing the sense of guilt, Adam and his wife felt shame, so, Allah inspired Adam with a prayer for invoking His forgiveness, and in return Allah relented toward him, for He is Supremely Relenting. He is the ever-Merciful.
  4. We said to Adam, his wife, his would-be children, and Iblis: ” Go all of you down to earth with certain enjoinments, and when you receive guidance from Me, then those who are steered by My guidance will have no fear, nor will they come to grief. Allah does not let the reward of anyone who does good deeds go to waste.
  5. But those who denied Allah’s messengers and books, will be eternal inmates of Hell.
  6. O children of Israel, remember My favor which I conferred upon you and your fathers and be grateful to Me. And keep your covenant with me to believe in Me, do good deeds, and believing in the prophets who come after Moses, so that I may keep My covenant with you, and regard Me with the awe that is due to me, and beware of my wrath.
  7. And believe in the Qur’an that I have sent down validates the book you have, and consolidating justice among people, and do not haste to disbelieve in it. Do not exchange the truth of My Signs for a little price and be pious to me by following My way, and abandoning falsehood.
  8. Never mix the truth, which I sent to you, with falsehood, which you invented, nor conceal truth when you know it.
  9. Respond to faith, and keep up the prayer and give Zakah (poor-dues), and pray with Muslims to get the reward of praying in congregation, and this requires you to be Muslims.
  10. Do you enjoin people to be benign, stick to righteousness, and avoid disobedience, while you do not do what you say, nor commit yourselves to what you enjoin on others, although you recite the Tourah. Do you have no more sense or consideration?
  11. Seek help in patience and prayer for doing hard duties such as fasting, The practice of praying to Allah is viewed by people as involving labor and effort, and hard to accomplish, but it is not so viewed by those who humble themselves to Allah in submission.
  12. Those are whose hearts find peace in remembrance of Allah, who believe in Allah and the Last day, and surely expect that they will be meeting Allah, and that they will go back to him to reckon them for what they did.
  13. O children of Israel, remember my favor of saving you from the injustice of the Pharaoh, giving you guidance, establishing you on earth after weakness, and be grateful to Me by obeying Me, and remember that I granted to your forefathers what I have not granted to ay other people. This discourse is addressed to the Jews and those who co-lived with the Prophet Muhammad.
  14. And guard yourselves against the Day when none will recompense for another, nor will humble intercession be accepted from anyone on behalf of another, nor will the equivalent of ransom pay for the expiation of the guilt of another.
  15. And remember, among Our favors on you, that We delivered you from the injustice of Pharaoh and his aids, who afflicted you with odious torment, slayed your sons, and spared your women. This was indeed a tremendous trial from your Lord.
  16. And remember the great event of the parting of the sea to make a path for you across it, so you can be delivered from the vengeful people of Pharaoh and his army. You were saved by Our favor, and We drowned them while you were watching them drowning.
  17. And remember when We appointed for Moses forty nights, and when he came back he found you venerating the Calf which the Samiri had made for you to take it as a god, and you were unjust for doing that.
  18. Yet We extended to you Our clemency when you repented and sought forgiveness, that you might thank your Lord for his forgiveness and clemency.
  19. And remember Our favor of sending down the Book to Moses, which imparts sound judgement in the choice of what is morally good, honest, and straightforward so that you may be guided to the truth.
  20. And remember the day when your Messenger Moses said to you: O my people, you have wronged yourselves when you idolized the Calf. Therefore, humbly repent to Allah your Initiator, by being angry with yourselves and humiliating them, then you will have pursued the acceptable course to Allah your Initiator. So, He relented towards you. He is the Sublime Relenting and the Ever-Merciful.
  21. And remember when you said to Moses: “We will never believe until we see Allah openly with our eyes, there and then heaven thundered against you and lightning struck you dead as you looked on.
  22. Then We raised you up after your death so that you might render thanks to Allah.
  23. Among Our favors on you is the We overshadowed you with mist to protect you from the heat of the sun, and We ordained that the heavens provide you with manna and quails, and We said: “Eat of the good food that We have provided you”. Yet you rejected Our favor. This did not actually do injustice to Us, but, it was to yourselves that you did injustice.
  24. Remember O children of Israel when We told you to enter the big town which Moses mentioned to you, and eat as you will opulently wherever you will, but humble yourselves at the door that Moses named for you, and invoke Allah to unload your burden of sins. Hw who does this among you with pure intention , We will forgive his sins and give him increased rewards.
  25. But those who did wrong and unjustly exchanged the virtuous spoken words for false words of their own making, We sent down on them chastisement in requital of their immorality.
  26. Remember O Children of Israel when your Prophet Moses prayed Allah for water and We said to him: “Strike the rock with your staff, and there gushed forth twelve springs, one for each group of you, and each group knew the spring that belonged to it. And then We said to them: “Eat and drink of the blessed food that Allah has provided you, and stop making mischief on earth and refrain yourselves from corruption.
  27. Again remember when your ancestors said to Moses, “We cannot endure to always eat the same kind of food. That is. Manna and squeals, so, invoke Allah Your Lord on our behalf to make the soul produce for us its verdure, and its cucumber, lentils, garlic, and onions”. (Displeased) Moses said: Will you people exchange the worthy and wholesome food for the food of the lower quality? If that is your wish, then leave Sinai and go down to a town and you will have what you asked for. There and then they were humiliated an made miserable and came within the measure of Allah’s anger. This was because they did not believe in Allah’s signs, and because they untruthfully killed the prophets. Such vices were the outcome of disobedience and transgression.
  28. Surely, the prophets who believed before, Jews, Christians, and those who venerate stars and angels, who believed in Muhammad’s message and believed in Allah, resurrection, and judgement on the Last Day, and who do good deeds, will have their rewards from their Lord. No fear or dread will fall upon them, nor will they come to grief.
  29. Also remember when We took a compact with you and raised the Tur above you, and made it with Our Might seem like a shadow above you, and you were caught by fear and surrendered, and We said to you: Diligently adhere to the guidance what We have imparted to you, and be mindful of it so that you may guard yourself against punishment.
  30. Thus still you turned away after that, and had it not been for Allah’s efficacious grace and mercy of Allah, and His delaying of torture  you would have suffered a great loss.
  1. You knew those among you who transgressed the Sabbath, by fishing on it though We set it apart for rest and prohibited working on it. We decreed that they be like monkeys in whims and desires and drove them away from Our mercy. They are spurned and rejected.
  2. Allah made their state a warning and sign to others, so that they may not follow suit, to their contemporaries and those who will come after them, as He made it an admonishment to those who are pious to their Lord, as they are the ones who benefit from the lessons.
  1. And remember when Moses said to his people when a man of them was killed “Allah commands you to slay a cow (so that they might know the killer), but they couldn’t see the connection between killing a man and slaying a cow, so they said “Are you trying to make us a mockery? Moses said “I take refuge in Allah from being among the ignorant who mock people.
  2. They said to Musa, hesitating about the case of the cow, “Invoke your Lord to point out to us what it is.” Musa said to them:” Allah told me that it is neither old or young but a middling, so do what He instructed you to do”
  3. Again they said: ” Invoke your Lord to point out to us its color” Musa said: ” Allah says it is a vivid yellow cow particularly pleasing to beholders.”
  4. They went so far in their questions as they said: “” Invoke your Lord to specify the characteristic features of the cow, since to us the cows are alike, and Allah willing we will be guided to the cow.”
  5. Musa said: “Allah says it is a cow that has not been used in plowing the land or watering the fields, a cow free of all blemishes, with no other color than its color.” There and then they said: “Now you have brought us the truth
  1. And remember when you killed a man, and you all tried to absolve yourselves of the guilt and kept accusing each other. But Allah knows the truth, and He exposed what you tried to conceal.
  2. Their and then We commanded Mūsa to say to you: «Strike the corpse with a piece of the heifer’s carcass,» and there the man was brought to life only for as long as he made known the name of the man who had killed him. Thus, Allah exhibits His unlimited power to effect what He will, in any manner He will and to resurrect all the dead when He will. He displays to you His signs and His marvels demonstrating Omnipotence and Authority so that you may hopefully comprehend and lift to Him your inward sight.
  3. «Thereafter, with all the blessings and mercy Allah extended to you, your hearts have been as hard as stone or even harder. In fact, among massive stones are some from which rivers gush out flowing copiously, others split to allow water to flow in streams and others shake with such fits of awe, shaking and splitting into atoms for the profound reverence dutiful to Allah is not ­unaware of all you do».
  4. You believers should not have expected the Jews to believe in your religion and let you lead them, while they were plagued with all kinds of shameful traits that would keep them away from the truth. A group of them, the Rabi, used to listen to the Word of Allah in the Torah and fully understand it, then they perverted it knowingly what they apprehended to be the truth.
  5. When a group of their hypocrites met the believers they deceived them an said: We believe that you believe in the truth, and that Muhammad is the Prophet who was mentioned in the Torah. And when some of them are with their companions in private, they blame each other for saying things that condemn them and benefit their opponents.
  6. Do they not know that Allah needs not such an excuse, and He is well acquainted with all they hide or utter out loud?
  7. Among them are illiterates who do not know nothing about the Tawrah, except falsehood invented by their Rabbis, and convinced them that they are true facts of the Book.
  8. In consequence, woe upon those who reproduce Allah’s Book by wording it by their hands, and say that it is from Allah in order to trade it for a little worldly price. Woe to them for what they falsely attributed to Allah. They will be miserable for what they have earned from their lies.
  9. Among the lies and falsehood they receive from their Rabbis is their claim that fire will not ouch any Jew but for a certain number of days, so, say to them Muhammad “Did Allah’s covenant secure you against vindication and in consequence you are relieved, knowing that Allah never fails His covenant? Or do you say about Allah that which you do not know?
  10. The truth is that you make up lies and attribute them to Allah. Indeed, Allah’s decree will take effect on all the people, be they Jews or not; whoever earns an odious deed and his offense has encompassed him, such persons are the inmates of Hell (Fire), wherein they last forever.
  11. Surely, the believers who do pious and righteous deeds will be inmates into garden of eternal bliss in which they will last forever.
  12. Moreover, you Jews have a history full of sinning, breaking your covenants, and overstepping Allah’s limits. So, remember when We entered into a Compact with you that you shall worship no one but Allah, and you shall be fair to your parents, and you shall express a friendly and kind disposition to your kindred, to the orphan, and to the poor, and that you shall talk to people fair words (with forbearance); and you shall keep up prayer and give Zakah (poor-due). Yet you turned away except for a few, who opened their hearts, ears, and heeded Our order.
  13. Again We entered into Compact with you in the Turah not to shed your own blood nor expel each other from your dwellings; a Compact the you admit that it exists in your books and witness to that.
  14. Yet, you kill each other and expel some of your people from their homes, and you ally yourselves in thus doing with their enemies in sin and hostility. When some of you fall into captivity, you ransom them, and when you are asked why did you ransom them you say that you are ordered by you book to ransom the Jew captives. Had not your book ordered you not to shed the blood of your brothers or expel them from their homes? Do you people believe in part of the book and disbelieve is some parts? Indeed, he who adopts this line of conduct will be disgraced in this life, and in the Hereafter, Allah, Who knows what they show and what they conceal, will turn them back to the severest torment.
  15. This is because they have preferred the worldly vanities to the everlasting blessings of the Hereafter. They are like those who buy this worldly life for the Hereafter, so, their torment will never be lightened nor can anyone save them from it.
  16. Remember, you Jews, your sinful attitudes towards Musa and those messengers We sent after him to you. We sent Musa to you and gave him the Tawrah, and sent other messengers subsequently, among the Isa son of Mary whom We supported by miracles and the Holy Spirit. Yet, whenever a messenger is sent to you with that which you do not yearn to, you become proud, and cry lies to some of them and kill others.
  1. You took the same stand against our Messenger Muhammad, the last Prophet, you said to him when he called you to Allah’s call: “Our hearts are impenetrably wrapped against whatever you say, so we understand nothing of what you say. The fact is that they preferred the wrong to the right, so, Allah has cursed them for their disbelief, so little do they believe.
  2.  When Our Messenger was presented to them with, a Book revealed from Allah, corroborating AL-Tawrah which attested to what came in it, they refused to accept it, out of envy and obstinacy, only because Muhammad does not belong to their race. Yet, whenever they were in armed or verbal conflict with the idolaters, they used to say that Allah will give them victory on the hands of the last prophet who is mentioned in their book, an whose attributes conform with those of Muhammad. Consequently, Allah has cursed them and those who are stubborn and obstinate.
  3.  How worthless is the price they received for selling themselves to immorality and wickedness, as they followed their whims and their fanaticism to their people, and rejected what We sent to them. Theirs is a defiant impiety induced by transgression and envy, which reflects hatred of those whom Allah Has mercifully chosen as He wills to be the recipients of His revelation. They came again within the measures of Allah’s wrath and incurred wrath upon wrath for their infidelity, obstinacy, and envy. They will be punished for their infidelity. An agonizing torment awaits those who denied their Lord.
  1. That is what they concealed in their hearts, but they used to justify their rejection of Allah’s call saying that they only acknowledge what has been imparted to them, and deny and renounce all else when they knew fully well that it is the truth that corroborates their Book.
  2. You Jews have explicitly rejected your books, and reverted to infidelity at the time of Moses, who came to you with clear miracles that attest to his truthfulness, yet, in his absence to fulfill the divine assignation, you revered and venerated the Calf and committed yourselves to an evil line of injustice.
  3. And when he came to you with the Tawrah, and you realized how heavy the ordinance is, Allah showed you a sign that affirms the truthfulness and the benefit of this book to you, as He stabilized the mount Tur above you, and you showed submission only when you thought that it will fall on you. There and then, We commanded you not to turn away from what We sent to you, and you people said: “We have opened the ears of our hearts”. But your actions revealed your disobedience  and rebellion, and that faith has not mingled with your hearts, as it never mingles with hearts that revered  the Calf . How miserable is what your faith commands you, if you are believers.
  1. You claimed the Allah will choose you for His grace, so, if you truly believe in what you claim, then wish yourselves dead so that you may hasten that bliss.
  2. But they will never wish their death because of their awareness of  the wrong that their hands have committed, and that Allah knows well that they are liars, and that the bliss on the Day of Judgment is for the believers not for the unjust
  3.  You will find them of all people the most eager for longevity, regardless of being dignified or humiliated, even more so than the polytheists who do not believe in hell nor in heaven. Therefore, they wish to live for more than a thousand years. But nothing will save them from what awaits them from Allah’s torment. Allah is All-Knowing of the unjust, and will reckon them with what they did.
  1. Some of them claimed that they antagonize you, an disbelieve the Book you came with, because they antagonize Jibril (Angel Gabriel) who brought you the Book, so, say to them that he who sets himself against and defies Jibril , it is Jibril who imparts the Qur’an with Allah’s authority, the Qur’an that corroborates the Torah, and carries guidance and good tidings to the believers.
  2. He who is an enemy to Jibril or Mikal (Angel Michael) or any other angel or messenger who convey only what Allah instructs them to convey, must realize that he is an enemy to Allah, and Allah is at enmity with the disbelievers.
  3. Jibril only conveys to you clear Qur’anic guidance, and none refuse to acknowledge them but the faithless perverse who are normally depraved.
  4. As they hesitated in accepting faith, they hesitated in implementing the covenants they sign, and as often as they make a covenant to Muslims or to others, some of them break it. In fact most of them do not sanctify a treaty or covenant.
  5.  And when a messenger carrying the same attributes mentioned in their Books came to them from Allah, that is, Muhammad, some of them ignored their own Book and turned their backs upon it as if they were never aware of it.
  6. And they followed the allegation related by devils who attributed Sulayman’s (Solomon’s) prophethood and power to the art of sorcery and occult practices, and that he was not a messenger or a prophet. In fact Sulayman was not a disbeliever, but it was those with satanic characteristics among them who disbelieved. They attributed falsehood to him, and started teaching people necromancy, and the knowledge they acquired from revelations imparted to the two angels Harut and Marut, although these two angels taught nothing to anyone before making clear to him that their art was a source of temptation and an incitement to evil, but the people did not heed this advice, and pursued this evil art to sow discord between husband and wife. Indeed, those with satanic tendencies disbelieved  and taught the people necromancy . Nonetheless, no one will suffer harm, unless Allah wills it. Yet they knew that he who engages in sorcery for vice will have no share in the bliss of the hereafter. How worthless was the price they chose for themselves if they only knew.
  7.  Had they truthfully believed in the truth and revered Allah, Allah would have given them the best reward, and His mercy and blessings would have been better than the legends they spread, and the evil they embraced in their hearts, if they only distinguished between the harmful and the useful.
  8.  O you who believe, beware the Jews, and do not say “Ra’ina” ( a word of ambiguous meaning that can be disrespectful) when you desire his attention, because the evil-minded of the Jew pretend to imitate you in saying so, while they use another word and address the Prophet with it to insult him. But use another word dissimilar to the word the Jews use, so, say Unzurna (meaning turn your attention to us), and listen carefully to that which the Prophet reads to you. And those who mock at the Prophet, Allah will put them to torture.
  9.  You must know that neither the disbelievers among the People of the Book nor the polytheists wish that you receive Allah’s mercy and blessings, but Allah never minds what they wish or hate, He extends His mercy to whom He wills, and His bounty has no limits.
  1. They asked you Muhammad to bring them the miracles that Moses and the prophets of Israel came with, but We supported you with the Qur’an. And when We abrogate a previous miracle or consign it oblivion, We replace it with a better or equivalent substitute. Surely, Allah is All-Powerful.
  2. Allah has the sovereign authority and the kingdom of the heavens and earth. And you people have no patron besides Him, nor can anyone help you.
  3. Maybe you wish to challenge you Messenger to produce miracles as Musa was challenged earlier by his contemporaries, who demanded a special miracle. Your request hides obstinacy and tendency to infidelity behind it, similar to what happened with the Jews. Indeed, he who exchange belief for disbelief will have wandered from the straight path
  4.  Many of the People of the Book wish they could turn you into disbelievers after you have believed, even though they knew from their Book that you follow the truth, and this is only because they are induced by envy, and fear that you may assume power, and leave them powerless. So, turn away from them, and forgive them,  until Allah comes with His command. Allah indeed All-Powerful over everything.
  5. And keep up prayer and give zakah (poor due). And whatever charity and piety you forward toward future security you will find its reward preserved with Allah. Allah sees all that you do.

111- Among the falsehood and baseless wishes of the Jews and Christians is what they that no one will be admitted to Paradise but he who conforms to Judaism and Christianity. So, ask them to produce an evidence if they were sincere.

112- Certainly, they will submit no evidence. But it is only those who surrender to Allah and do pious deeds who will find their reward preserved for them with their Lord on the Day of Judgment. They are those who are sincere to Allah, and perfect whatever deeds they do.

  1. No wonder that as they are hostile to Islam, they are hostile to each other, so, the Jew say “The Christians lean on a religion that does not stand upon the truth”, and the Christians say the same thing about the Jews. Both of them brings evidences from their Books. The Arab atheists who know nothing about the scriptures say the same thing about each other. When Allah judges between them on the Day of Judgment in matters about which they were in variance, they will know the truth.
  2. Among the signs of their mutual hatred, and their hatred to Muslims, is that some of their tribes destroyed other tribes’ places of worship. Surely there is no more unjust than he who blocks the way to the mosques of Allah, and purposes to ruin them. Such persons are not to enter these places except humbly in fear. They will suffer disgrace and multiple humiliations here, and in the Hereafter, they will be put to tremendous torment.
  3. Although the atheists could prevent the Muslims from praying in the Inviolable Mosque, they will not prevent them from worshipping Allah and keeping up the prayers, as to Allah belong the east and the west, and therefore to whichever point in the universe to turn, a Muslim will be in the august face of Allah. Allah is Infinite, All-Knowing.

116- He Who Has this sublime status, and to Whom whatsoever exists in the heavens and earth submit, needs not offspring or a son as the Jew and Christians claim.

117- How comes that He needs a son, and He it is Who originated the heavens and earth, and when He ordains something He only says “Be” and it is.

118- The Arab associators go so for in their enmity to Muhammad and ask from him what the previous nations asked from their prophets. So, they said to him “If only Allah would speak to us and display a sign proving your truthfulness”, exactly as the children of Israel said to Musa (Moses) “We will not believe you until we see Allah face to face and speaks to us”, and as the Christians asked Isa to bring down a feast to them from heaven. This is because all of them have hearts of like nature. Only those who have certitude can see the truth.

119- Surely We have sent you with truth as a bearer of good tidings and as warner to all, and you will not be responsible for those who are fuel for hell.

120- Do not exhaust yourself  in seeking the content of Jew or Christian stubborn, as neither of them will accept you until you conform to their faith which they claim is the guidance. There is no guidance but Allah’s guidance in Islam. And he who is tempted to follow their wishes after all the knowledge that has come to you, he will not find other than   Allah to maintain him under His guardianship.

121- There is a group of the Jews and Christians who read their Books with careful scrutiny, and it is only those who will believe in the truth, and accordingly honor the Qur’an. And he who refuses to acknowledge the truth that has proceeded from Allah will be the great loser.

122- O Children of Israel, acknowledge My divine favour which I endowed you with, such as saving you from the Pharaoh, and giving you manna and quails, gave the prophethood to some of you, and taught you the Book, and chose you out of all people (in your time period in the past).

123- Guard yourselves from the horror of the Day when none will be allowed to pay another’s debt, and the equivalent in ransom will not pay for the expiation of the guilt of another, and no protector other than Allah will be of any help in the inevitable trouble.

124- Remember when Allah tested you forefather Ibrahim (Abraham) with divine commands which Ibrahim fulfilled. Allah said to him “I have ordained to appoint you as the leader of mankind”, so, Ibrahim asked his Lord to endow the same favor on some of his descendants, Allah answered that this is not designated to the unjust, and hinted that his descendants will include the good and the wicked.

  1. And remember also the story of Abraham when he built Allah’s Inviolable House in Makkah together with his son Ismail. This story gives a great admonition to whomever has a pure sound heart. We ordained this sacred House to be a safe retreat for mankind and for whomever resorts to it. We ordered the people to take Ibrahim’s station as a place of prayer, and We committed Ibrahim and Ismail to protect it against any violation, and prepare it for those who go around it in procession, and for those who retreat for religious observance, and for those who perform payers.

126- Remember when Ibrahim devoutly and humbly supplicated Allah to bless the town which will be established around House with safety, and provision its believing people with the earth’s fruits, then Allah said that He will also make the disbeliever enjoy up to a predetermined time, then He will drive him into Hell. How miserable is his destiny.

127- And as Ibrahim and Ismail were laying the foundations of the Sacred House, they prayed “O Allah our Lord and Creator, accept this service from us. You are the Ever-Hearing to our supplications, the Ever-Knowing of our intention.

128- And make of us both O Lord, two Muslims who conform their will to Your will, and of our descendants a sincere nation to You, and show us our rites, and turn to us in mercy, and accept our repentance in case we forgot or made mistakes. You are the relenting, the Ever-Merciful.

129- And send in their midst, O Lord, a messenger from among them to recite to them Your revelations, and tech them the Book and the Law, and cleans them from bad manners. You are the All-Mighty, the Source of wisedom.

  1. How excellent is what Ibrahim did and called his people to adhere to, and who would reject Ibrahim’s creed but a foolish simpleton? We have preferred him in this world, and Hereafter he will be among the virtuous and the righteous.

131- Ibrahim positively responded to his Lord’s command when He asked him to submit to His will and said “I surrender myself to Allah the Creator of all mankind, the Jinn, and the angels.

132- Ibrahim also enjoined his rich legacy to his sons, as later did his grandson Ya’qub (Jacob). They both enjoined on their sons the same creed, and told them that Allah Has chosen for them this religion of oneness, and made a covenant with them to devote themselves to Him to their dying moment.

133- You claimed O Jews that you follow the religion of Ya’qub, so, were you present when Ya’qub lay on his deathbed and knew his religion? You should know that Ya’qub and his sons were monotheist Muslims, not Jews or Christians as you are, and that when death approached him he summoned them and said to them: “Whom will you worship after I have departed life?” They said: “We will revere and venerate Allah your God, and the God of your fathers Ibrahim, Ismail, and Ishaq (Abraham, Ishmael, and Isaac) One God to Whose will we surrender.

  1. Why should you keep arguing about those people? These were a people who have passed away. They alone are accountable for their deeds, and you will not be responsible for their deeds, neither will benefit anything from them. You will only accountable for your deeds.
  2. But they never stop arguing, and each group of them claims that their doctrine is the perfect one, so, the Jews say: “Be Jews and thus you will be guided to all the truth”, and the Christians say: “Be Christians and thus you will be guided to all the truth”. Say to them, Muhammad, that we do not follow either ways; both were distorted and deviated from the right path. We follow the religion of Ibrahim, the true and straightforward.

136- O Muslims, declare to them “We believe in Allah and believe in all that has been sent down to us in the Qur’an, and all that was sent down to Ibrahim and Ismail, Ishaq and Ya’qub, (Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac and Jacob), and to their tribes, and the genuine Turah which Allah sent down on Musa (Moses), and the genuine Bible which Allah sent down on Isa (Jesus), and we believe in all that was imparted to all the prophets from their Lord. We do not discriminate one of them from another, and we submit our will to His will.

    137- So, if they believe in what you believe in, then they have been guided, but if they turn away  and kept in continuous discord with you, Allah will guard you from them, and relieve you from their inequities. He is the Ever-Hearing, the All-Knowing.

  1. Say to them, “Allah Has guided us to His religion, and who has a fairer religion than Allah? We do not submit but to Him, neither do we follow but that which He guided us to follow.

139- Say to them, “Do you argue with us about Allah, claiming that He does not choose messengers but from among you, while He is our Lord , your Lord, and the Lord of everything, He chooses for His mercy whom He wills, and accounts every people for their deeds, regardless of their blood kin or status. He guided us to the right path, and to Him we are faithful.

140- Say to them, “Do you claim that Ibrahim and Ismail, Ishaq, and Ya’qub (Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, and Jacob) and the tribes are Jews or Christians like you? You know that the Tawrah and Injil, on which Judaism and Christianity were established, were sent down to Musa and Isa long after them. Allah told us that, so, do you know better than Allah? Moreover, Allah Has told you that yourselves, so, do not hide the truth that is recorded in your Books. Who is more unjust than he who hides with himself  an inscribed attestation from Allah? Allah is not unaware of all that you do.

141- Why should you keep arguing about those people? These were a people who have passed away. They alone are accountable for their deeds, and you will not be responsible for their deeds, neither will benefit anything from them. You will only accountable for your deeds.

142- Feeble – minded people among the Jews, associators and hypocrites, whose whims have led them away from sound thinking and contemplation, will criticize the believers for changing their direction of prayer from Jerusalem, towards which they were praying, to another direction, namely Al-Ka’bah. Tell them,   Prophet, that all directions belong to Allah, with no direction in itself better than another, since it is Allah who chooses from among these directions what He wills to become the prayer direction. By His will He guides every nation to a straight path, which He chooses for them and endows them with. The message of Mohammad (p. b. u. h.) has abrogated all the preceding messages, and the true prayer direction has become the Ka’bah.1

143- It was by this will that We have guided you to the most straight path, and made you a good upright nation by means of Our guiding you to the true religion and righteous deeds so that you are those who tell the truth concerning the previous Sacred Laws, and so that the Prophet becomes overseer over you and sets you right with his guidance during his lifetime, and with his ways and Sunnah after his death. As for the Jerusalem prayer direction,

1 The change of the prayer direction from Jerusalem to Makkah was about seventeen months after the migration of the Prophet (p. b. u. h.) to Al-Madinah.

which We have decreed for you for some time, We have made it a trial for Muslims to distinguish between those who will submit and accept readily, and those who will be overpowered by their Arab bias for the heritage of Ibrahim, and thus disobey Allah’s command and go astray from the straight path. The command to turn to Jerusalem was hard except to those blessed by Allah’s guidance. Complying with this matter was an integral of faith, those who faced Jerusalem, they were commanded to – out of faith and obedience, will not be deprived of the reward for belief and compliance.

144- We have seen how you were looking at the heaven so that the Revelation may descend changing the Jerusalem prayer direction to the Ka’bah, which you like because it is the direction of Ibrahim, the Father of Prophets, and the Father of Jews and Arabs, and which has the Station of Ibrahim, and thus is the all – inclusive direction of prayer, even though it differs from that of the Jews. Here We grant you what you asked for; thus face in your prayer the Sacred Mosque, and you, believers, face it anywhere you are. Those who were given the Book who criticize you for turning away from Jerusalem knew in their Books that you are the  people of the Ka’bah, and that Allah’s command is to set aside a direction for each Sacred Law, and that is the truth from their Lord, but they want to lead you astray and make you have doubts about your religion. Allah is not unaware of them and will hold them accountable for what they do.

145- The criticism by the People of the Book was not for a doubt that can be eliminated by means of evidence, but rather is obstinacy and arrogance. If you, O Messenger have come with every clear-cut evidence that your prayer direction is the true one, they will not follow it. If the Jews among them hope that you go back to their direction and have their acceptance of Islam depend on thus, their hope is lost and you will not follow their direction. Every group of the people of the book themselves stick to their direction: the Christians do not follow that of the Jews, nor do the Jews follow that of the Christians. Each party think that the other is not right. Therefore, hold fast to your direction and do not follow their wishes, since those who follow them after knowing that theirs are invalid and that their own are valid, are among the unjust who are well – established in injustice.

146- The People of the Book know that turning to the direction of the Sacred Mosque in Makkah is the truth, and admit that you are the prophet described in their Books by descriptions among which is that you pray towards the Ka’bah. They know of your prophethood and your prayer direction as they know their sons. But some of them knowingly hide the truth out of following their whims , and of false prejudice towards their religion, in order to keep their authority and to try to mislead you.

147- The truth is what has come to you from Allah Most High, not that which the People of the Book are leading astray with. So, be sure of it, and do not be among the people of doubt and hesitation. Part of the truth is the command to turn the prayer direction to the Sacred Mosque; therefore, abide by it and pay no attention to those who wrangle about it.

148- The prayer direction, to which We turned you, is the Qiblah of you and of your nation. Each nation has a Qiblah to which they turn in their prayer according to their previous sacred law. There is no claim to preference in the matter, but such claim be in doing acts of obedience and in righteous deeds. Therefore, hasten to good deeds and vie in them. Allah will hold you accountable for thus, and will gather you on the Day of Resurrection from anywhere you are, and no one will escape from Him. In His hand is everything, including causing to die, restoring to life and resurrection.

149- O Muhammad and those who follow you, turn at prayer towards the Sacred Mosque wherever you are, whether you are in residence or on a journey. The indeed is the truth, which is compatible with the wisdom of your Lord, Who is kind to you. So be careful to abide by it, you and your nation, because Allah will give you the best reward for it, for Allah is all – knowing and nothing of your deeds is hidden from Him.

150- Abide by the command of Allah concerning the prayer direction, and be careful about it, you and your nation. Turn your face towards the Sacred Mosque from any place you depart in your travels. Face it wherever you are in the corners of the globe, whether in residence or on journey, so that those who are averse to you may not have any argument against you. If you do not adhere with the command of the turning, the Jews will say, “How come that Muhammad prays toward Jerusalem where the prophet described in our Books is said to turn to the Ka’bah?”. Arab associators will ask, “How come he claims the religion of Ibrahim but has a different Qiblah?” The unjust who do not observe the truth on both sides will never stop their arguments and going astray. They will even say, “He has not turned to the Ka’bah except out of inclination toward the religion of his people and love for his own homeland, so do not heed them since their arguments do not harm you, but fear Me and do not disobey My command. By the matter We wanted to perfect the blessing on you and to make the Qiblah to which We directed you a better way to abiding by guidance and success.

151- Directing you toward the Sacred Mosque came through Our sending to you a messenger from among yourselves, who recites to you verses of perfecting Our blessing on you, as We perfected it by the Qur’an. He practically cleanses your hearts from the impurity of associating others with Me, and of bad manners and customs. He perfects you, through knowledge, by the Qur’an and useful sciences and teaches you that which you did not know before, since you were in sheer ignorance and blind misguidance.

152- Remember Me, O believers, with obedience, so that I may remember you with reward. Thank Me for the blessings I conferred upon you, and do not deny these blessings by disobeying My command.

153- O believers, seek consolation in all that you do or leave by means of patience toward hard matters and by prayer, which is the essence of all acts of worship. Allah, with His Omniscience, is with the patient, whom He is their Lord and Supporter. -7-

154- Patience will lead to nothing except good and happiness in this life and the next, so do not shun strife in the cause of Allah, and do not fear death for it, since whoever dies while struggling for Allah’s cause is not dead, but possesses sublime life even though living creatures do not perceive it.

155- Patience is the shield and weapon of the believer by which he overcomes hardships and difficulties. You will come across many hardships; thus We will try you by much fear from your enemies, hunger, shortage in subsistence, wealth, lives and crops. Nothing will safeguard you in this hard trial except patience; so, O Prophet, give blissful tidings to those who are patient, by their hearts and tongues.

156- If a misfortune befalls these people they believe that every good or otherwise is from Allah and that all matters are attributed to Him, and thus say, “We belong to Allah Most High and will return to Him. We have no control over our affairs, and He is to be thanked for His gifts, and we have to be patient in case of affliction, and He possesses reward.

157- Those patient people who believe in Allah are the recipients of good tidings of Allah’s forgiveness and grace, and are the ones who are led to the path of good and guidance.

158- Exactly as Allah has raised the position of the Ka’bah by making it the direction of prayer, He has raised the status of the two mounts close to it, namely As-Safa and Al-Marwah. He made them among the ceremonies of pilgrimage, but making it incumbent after circumambulation to go between them seven times. There were some among you who were embarrassed by this action because it was an act of the Age of Ignorance, but the truth is that it is among the way markers of Islam, and hence there is no blame on any one going on pilgrimage or lesser pilgrimage to go between these two mounts, and a believer is required to do as much good as he can, for Allah is all – knowing of his deeds and rewards him for them.

159- Those who have condemned you for your religion fall into two groups: a group of the People of the Book who knows the truth but conceals it knowingly and obstinately, and a group of those who associate partners with Allah whose eyes are blind to the truth, and thus took lords besides Allah. The People of the Book who know the evidence for your being truthful have recognized the truth of your religion, but then hid this evidence and concealed it from people. These are the ones on whom Allah pours His wrath and keeps away from His mercy, and whom believing humans and jinn will pray to Allah to dispel them from His mercy.

160- No one among the People of the Book will be excluded except those who repent and did good by going back on concealing the truth, and rectified himself by revealing what he had concealed of the description of the Prophet and Islam. Allah will accept his repentance and erase his sins, for it is He who accepts repentance from His bondmen, out of compassion and mercy.

161- As for those who continued in disbelief and died in this state without having repented or felt remorse, their punishment will be curse from Allah, the angels and all mankind.

162- they will continue in this curse and in hellfire, and will not be given respite, and even if they asked to be respited they will not be granted it.

163- your Lord, who is worshiped alone, is One; there is no Lord but Him, and no has omnipotence except Him. He is also characterized by mercy. He is merciful to his bondmen in creating and forming them.

164- Allah, Glorified and Exalted, has established evidence and signs for every sane person for His Existence and Lordship. Among these are the heavens in which you see planets moving regularly without crowdedness or clashing, but emitting heat and light to the world. Among these signs is the earth and all that it includes in the land and seas; the succession of the night and day and the benefits thus includes; the ships sailing in the sea which carry people and goods, moving only by the Will of Allah Who sends the winds which carry rain that comes down and revives animals and irrigates the land and plants; the winds which blow in their different directions; and the clouds hanging between the heaven and the earth. Have all these things, which are characterized by all thus perfection, come by themselves, or are they created by the all – knowing and the omnipotent?

165- Despite all these clear signs, some people whose minds have gone astray have taken gods besides Allah. They obey and worship like the worship of Allah and make them equal to Him. A believer submits only to Allah alone and does not cease in obeying Him. As for them, their loyalty is to their lords, which is shaken in calamities and thus they resort to Allah Glorified Be He. If those who have been unjust to themselves perceived the torment that will befall them on the Day of Judgment when there the Kingdom and obedience is only to Allah alone, they would stop their crime and sin.

166- On that day those who have followed will ask those whom they followed to save them from misguidance but the latter will deny and denounce them and say: “We have not called upon you to obey us in disobeying your Lord, but it is your desire and your misbehavior.” The ties and affinity that were among them in this world will be severed and they will become enemies to each other.

167- This is when those who followed as adherent disciples will realize that they were in error when they followed their seniors in misguidance and will hope for going back to the world so that they may renounce their seniors as the latter will do on that day. Their bad deeds will be manifest to them and will be the source of sorrow and regret when they are cast into the hellfire never leaving it.

168- O people, eat of what Allah has created of the lawful things which was not prohibited by the Revelation and which is wholesome and is palatable to souls. Do not follow the footsteps of Satan who makes it good to eat that which is unlawful or to consider the lawful to be unlawful. You know of the enmity of Satan toward you, and his ugly commands have become clear to you.

169- Satan makes what is bad in itself seems good to you and harms you in yourselves and in your committing bad deeds. Because of him you follow doubts and falsehood, thus attributing to Allah lawful and unlawful things for which there is no evidence from authentic knowledge.

170- Those who have gone astray from the way of guidance are used to stick to what they inherited from their forefathers of faith and deeds. When they are called to revealed guidance they say, “We do not turn away from what our forefathers used to do.” It is the worst ignorance to hold obeying forefathers superior to obeying Allah and following His guidance. How will it be if their forefathers do not comprehend anything about religion and do not follow the light of guidance and faith?

171- The parable of a person who calls those unbelieving deniers to the truth and guidance but they do not respond to him or understand his call is like a shepherd of sheep who speaks to them but they do not comprehend anything of what he is saying and only hear sounds but are not aware of its meaning. Likewise, they are deaf, blind and dumb and do not utter anything good or speak out of reason.

172- We have allowed people to eat of every lawful thing1 We created on earth and forbade them from following the footsteps of Satan. If they do they will be guided, and if they do not, We give Our guidance only to believers and make clear what is lawful and unlawful. O you who have believed, you are allowed to eat of delicious food that is not impure. So thank Allah for making you able to eat good things and making them lawful for you, and for the blessing of obeying Him and submitting to His command so that your worshiping may rendered complete.

173- Unlawful things are not those claimed by the associators and Jews, but, O believers, they are dead animals which were not slaughtered; outpoured blood; the flesh of swine; and animals slaughtered under the invocation of a name other than Allah, like idols and the like. However, if one has no other choice to eat something of these unlawful things because of hunger for which he finds nothing else to satisfy, or because he was forced by another person to eat it, then he is not to blame. But he should avoid the practice of the Days of Ignorance of seeking these unlawful things and desiring them and does not exceed the amount necessary for satisfying his hunger.

174- Among those knowledgeable of what Allah has revealed were a group that hid some of the Revelation in return for worldly gains. For example, the Jews hid much of what the Torah included about the description of the Prophet lest that the followers of their religion may become Muslims and thus they lose their status and gains and their palatable food, which is, when gained in this way, like fire eaten by them since it will lead them to hellfire. On the Day of Judgment Allah will turn away from them and will not purify their impurity, and they will face severe painful torment.

175- Those are the sinners who have chosen misguidance over guidance and thus have deserved torment in the Hereafter instead of forgiveness. They are like those who exchange falsity for the right, and misguidance for guidance. Their status calls for astonishment since they forbear the causes of torment and feel good about what leads to it.

176- They deserve the punishment destined for them because of their disbelief in Allah’s Book which He sent down with the truth and truthfulness. They differed about it greatly, motivated by their love to argue and shun what is right, and following their whims. Thus they distorted it, spoiled it and explained it in ways other than what it means.

177- People have talked much about the matter of the direction of prayer as if it were the only good. This is not the truth; facing a certain direction in the east or west is not the essence of religion or collective goodness, but the latter involves several matters, some of which are integrals of sound faith, and others are fundamental virtues and acts of worship. The first of these is belief in Allah, the Day of Resurrection and Reckoning and what follows such reckoning on the Last Day; belief in angels and the books revealed to the prophets as well as in the prophets themselves. The second matter is to spend money willingly on the poor, including relatives and orphans, and people in dire need, on wayfarers who have no means of transportation that take them to their destination; on those who request aid forced by their need, on setting slaves free and saving them from slavery. The third is to observe the prayer. The fourth is to give the prescribed zakah. The fifth is to fulfill one’s promise as regards self and wealth. The sixth is to be patient over any harm that befalls soul or wealth, and at time of fighting the enemy in wars. Those who combine these beliefs and good deeds are the ones who are truthful in their faith and the ones who shun unbelief and bad deeds and avoided them.

178- Among the rulings of legislation We have made incumbent on the believers are those concerning willful murder. We have imposed on you retaliation because of murder. Do not follow the injustice practiced by people in the Period of Ignorance1 who used to kill a free man who has not committed murder for a slave, a male who has not murdered

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for a female, a chieftain who is not a murderer for a killing inferior, without punishing the murderer himself. The murderous free man should be killed for the murdered free man, a bondman for a bondman and female for a female. The basis of retaliation is to shun transgression in killing through killing the murderer in order to heal the hearts of his people and to stop injustice. If the souls of these who have the right to retaliate have been sublime enough and preferred what is better and to forgive their co – religionists, they are entitled to the blood – money for their murdered person, and the kin of the murdered one should abide by this judgment with tolerance and without being hard on the murderer or rebuking him. The murderer has to pay the money due without delay or reduction. In the ruling concerning murder which We have thus prescribed to the believers there is less hardship on the believers than the Torah ruling which necessitates killing for retaliation. It also involves mercy to them in view of those who call for pardoning the murderer without holding him accountable. Whoever transgresses this ruling afterwards will suffer painful torment in this world and in the Hereafter.

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          179- Allah’s mercy for enjoining retaliation is great. Thanks to it a sound secure life is achieved for the society. This is because a person who is about to commit a murder knows in that lies his demise, he would not carry it out, thus saving his own life and that of the person he was about to murder. In case a superior is killed for an inferior, and an innocent person for a guilty one, as was the practice in the Days of Ignorance, this would be a source of turmoil and imbalance in order and security. Let people of intellect reflect upon the benefit of retaliation, which will make them realize the Compassion of Allah to them, which leads to the way of piety and abiding by the ordinance of Allah The Exalted.

180- Exactly as Allah has legislated retaliation for the good of the nation and preservation of the society, He has enjoined on you a legislation which involves the good of the family and preserving its identity, normally the law of the will. Whoever preserves the signs of death and knows that he will soon die for sure, in case he has considerable property, he has to make part of it go to his parents who survive him and to his relatives .. not of kin, not among the heirs. He should be careful to abide by what is good and accepted in the sight of sane people, so that he may not give the rich and deprive the poor, but rather to give precedence to those in need and does not hold equal except those who are equal in poverty. This enjoining is a duty on those who prefer to be pious and to follow the rulings of the religion.

181- When the will is made by the bequeather it becomes a duty to be fulfilled and cannot be changed or altered, unless it is unfair. Whoever changes this right and alters the sound just will after he knew the ruling and is sure of it, he will have committed a grievous sin and will be punished for it. The bequeather is innocent of any fault, and no one should think that he does that but is not punished for it, since Allah is All – Hearing, All – knowing, from whom nothing may be concealed.

182- But if the will is unfair and away from the right path which We have pointed out, for example by the testator: depriving the poor and giving the rich, or leaving out the next of kin and included the alien poor who are not his heirs, and someone who is trying to do good and bring peace among those concerned to set the bequeath right, he does not incur any sin if he changes the will and alters it according to this, and Allah will not punish him for that since He is the All – Forgiving, The Ever – Merciful.

183- As Allah has enjoined retaliation and the bequeath to you for the good of your society and preserving your families, He has likewise decreed fasting out of polishing your souls and disciplining your lusts, and preferring you to animals which are led by their instinct and lusts. Enjoining fasting(1) on you was likewise enjoined on the nations who came before you. Therefore it should not be hard on you, since it had been decreed upon all people. Enjoining fasting and observing it is for the sake of building your spirit of piety, strengthening your inner selves and polishing your souls.

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184- Allah has enjoined fasting on you for a small number of days, which if Allah willed, He would have made them longer but He did not, or made it too difficult for you. Whoever is sick in a way that fasting may harm him, or was on a journey, he is entitled not to fast and to compensate it after he is healed or after he comes back from travel. As for someone who is not sick or on a journey who cannot fast except with hardship for a permanent reason like old age or an incurable disease, he can break the fast in this case. He has to feed an indigent who does not find his daily food. Whoever volunteers to fast more than the obligatory fast, will receive the reward for it because fasting is always better for those who know the essence of acts of worship.

185- Those days are the days of the month of Ramadan, which is of sublime status for Allah. The qur’an was revealed in it, leading all the people to guidance with its clear verses which lead to the good, and which distinguish between the right and the wrong in passing of ages and generations. Whoever witnesses this month in a sound condition, i.e., not sick, in residence, i.e., not on a journey, has to fast it. But whoever is sick of an incurable disease which makes it harmful to fast, or who is on a journey, he can break the fast but has to compensate for the days he did not fast. Allah does not want to make the obligatory acts of worship hard on you, but wants easiness for you. He has indicated the month of fasting and has guided you to it so that you may fast all its days and glorify Allah for His guiding you and leading you to the right path.

186- I am All – Aware of the bondmen, All – Knowing of all that they do and leave. So if they, O Mohammad, ask you saying, “Is Allah so close to us that He knows what we reveal and conceal and leave ?”. say to them, “I am close to you more than they think, the evidence for which is that the supplication of someone reaches Me at once, and it is I who answers it immediately as well. And if I have responded to them, they must respond to Me by means of faith and obedience, which are the path to guidance and rectitude.

187- Allah had made it lawful for you on the nights of fasting to have intercourse with your wives, whom you mingle with and they with you at day and at sleeping time, and because it is difficult for you to keep away from them and to make things easier for you. Allah knows that you deprived your souls and were hard on them by refraining from sleeping with your women at the nights of Ramadan, so He forgave and pardoned you. Now that you know it is lawful, do not shun from having intercourse with them, and enjoy what Allah made lawful for you, and eat and drink on the nights of Ramadan until you see the light of dawn, as distinct from the darkness of night, like the distinction between the silver strake of day and the black thread of night. If this is clear to you, fast and complete the fast until sunset. And if fasting is an act of worship which one should busy oneself with, and shun the desires of the soul and approaching women during daytime, so is spiritual retract in mosque and staying there, which requires busying oneself with and not enjoying women as long as one stays there. What Allah has ordained for you as regards fasting and seclusion in mosques are ordinances laid down by Allah, so observe them and do not exceed them. Allah has made them so manifest for people so that they may pressure them and avoid the consequence of violating them.

188- Allah had made it unlawful for you to devour other people’s possessions without right. No one should take another’s property as lawful to usurp except by means of the ways ordained by Allah such as inheritance, gift, authentic contract which transfers ownership. One of you may unlawfully claim another’s possessions to be his own, and may file a suit before the ruler or judge so that he may judge for him and usurp his fellow – Muslim’s property by means of a false testimony, false evidence or evil bribe. Fie on what he does and what he is entailing on himself of bad punishment.

189- Some people ask you about the new moon which

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starts as a thread then increases until it is complete, then continues to be reduced until it goes back to the state it started .. something different from the sun. Then what is behind such change that there is a new moon every month, and there are different new moons? Say to them, “The repetition of these new moons and the differences in their increase have a wisdom and religious as well as worldly benefits. They are signs that determine the time for dealings in your life, and decide the time of pilgrimage, which is an integral of your religion. If the new moon stayed as it is like the sun, the timing for your living and pilgrimage would not be sound. That you do not know the wisdom behind the changes that occur to the new moon is not a justification for doubting the wisdom of the Creation. Nor is it in conformity with the divine Law that you enter the houses from the back doors, thus being distinguished from other people, but it is in the piety and sincerity of hearts, and in entering houses from their normal doors as all people do, and in seeking what is right and the straight path. So ask for Allah’s satisfaction, and avoid His torment, and seek by this your prosperity, winning and safety from the torture of hellfire.

190- Part of fearing Allah is to suffer hardships in obeying Him, the severest of which is fighting against the enemies of Allah(1). If they transgress against you fight the transgressors, but do not transgress by starting to fight them or killing those who are not fighting or have no decision in fighting, because Allah does not like the transgressors.

191- Kill those who started to fight you wherever you find them, those who drew you out of Makkah, your homeland, out of which they forced you out. Do not feel embarrassed by this since they did what is worse than murder in the Sacred Mosque, i.e., they tried to make the believers renounce their religion through torturing them in Makkah, until they fled with their religion from their homeland. The Sacred Mosque has its own sanctity, so do not violate it unless they violate it by fighting you there. If they fight you, fight them and you will be victorious by the Grace of Allah, and so will the punishment of the disbelievers be when He does to them what they did to others.

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192- If they desist from their disbelief and obeyed Islam, Islam cancels whatever preceded it, and Allah will forgive them, their past unbelief out of His grace and mercy.

193- Fight those who have tried to kill you and to hold you back from your religion through harming and torturing you. Fight them until you uproot their attempt and the religion of Allah prevails. If they go away from their unbelief, they will save and rid themselves of punishment. They should not be transgressed against them, but the transgression is only on those who have been unjust to themselves and destroyed their souls by disobedience and transgressing justice whether in speech or action.

194- if they transgress against you during a sacred month, do not withhold fighting them during it since it is unlawful to them as it is unlawful to you. And if they violate its sanctity in your area face this by defending yourselves. It is in sacred things that retaliation and equal treatment prevail. Whoever transgresses against your holy things, repel such aggression with equal force, and fear Allah by not exaggerating punishment or retaliation. And know that Allah will make the pious triumphant.

195- Fighting the unbelievers is through sacrificing yourselves and expending. So spend for the preparations to fight, and know that fighting those is in the cause of Allah. Therefore, do not refrain from it, and spend your property on it, because if you refrain and are miserly, the enemy will be victorious and will humiliate you as if you have cast yourselves into ruin. So do your duty well, for Allah loves it, that if you do something you do it well.

196- Perform pilgrimage and Umrah for the sake of Allah perfectly, intending by them the satisfaction of Allah, and not achieving a worldly gain such as good reputation or the like. If you intended Hajj or Umrah and entered the state of sanctity for them but your enemy obstructed your course, you can end your state of sanctity through shaving your beards, but you have, before this, to present a sacrifice animal .. a sheep or cow .. and giving it in charity to the indigent. Do not shave your beards until you perform this rite. Whoever is in a state of sanctity and is harmed by his hair as a result of sickness or insects, there is no harm in his shaving. But he has to make reparation by fasting these days, or feeding six indigent persons for a day, or slaughtering a sheep and distributing its meat to the poor. If you are in a place of safety and peace and no enemy obstructed your way, and intended to perform Hajj and Umrah and performed Umrah first until the time comes for Hajj for you to assume ihram, you have to slaughter a sheep for the poor and indigent people in Makkah. Whoever does not find a sheep or cannot afford it should fast three days in Makka and seven days when he goes back to his family. But if he is a resident of Makkah , he should not sacrifice anything if he performs Umrah and waits until he performs pilgrimage.

197- Pilgrimage takes place during certain months which are known to you. This was known to you since the day of Ibrahim (Abraham) p. b. u. h., namely Shawwal, Thul-Qi’dah and Thul-Hijjah. He, who takes upon himself to perform Hajj during these months and has started it, should observe its rules, including that he should not have intercourse with his wife, and should avoid acts of disobedience such as swearing others, arguing with other pilgrims, but should rather ask reward from Allah through righteous deeds since Allah is All – Aware of this and rewards for it. Fit yourselves with piety and obeying Allah’s commands and shunning what He has prohibited, since this is the best provision. Feel fear of Allah in what you do and leave as required by reason and wisdom, thus not swearing your deeds by whims and worldly matters.

198- There were among you those who found it unfit to practice trade and seek sustenance during the season of pilgrimage, but there is no harm in doing this. You have the right to seek sustenance by legal means or to seek Alla’s bounty and blessing. When the pilgrims throng back from Arafat after standing on it, and they reach Muzdalifah on the eve of the slaughter day, they should praise Allah at the Inviolable Mount, namely Muzdalifah, by means of saying La Ilah Illa Allah, saying Labayka Allaum Labayk, and Allahu Akbar. They should glorify and thank Him for guiding them to the right religion and the upright worship in pilgrimage and other matters, while they were before this astray from the path of guidance and right conduct.

199- There was a group of Arabs, namely Quraysh, who did not stand with people on Arafat although they knew that it was the stand of their forefather Ibrahim. They did this out of pride not to be equal to others which they are the People of the House of Allah and its custodians, and out of claiming that this was glorification of the Sacred Prescient from which they did not want to go out heading for Arafat, which is lawful practice, not unlawful. Allah required them to shun the practices of the Days of Ignorance and to stand on Arafat and throng from it as all people do, since there is no prestige for anyone over another in performing acts of worship, and they should ask Allah’s forgiveness in these blessed places, since this is more likely for them to obtain His pardon concerning the sins they committed and to obtain His mercy through His grace.

200- When you finish the acts and rites of pilgrimage, leave what you were accustomed to at the time of Ignorance of taking a pride in your forefathers and mentioning their accomplishments. Let your extolling and glorification be to Allah and extol Him as you used to extol your ancestors. Even extol Him more than you did your forefathers because He is the Giver of all blessings to you and to your forefathers. The sites of the pilgrimage are places for supplication and asking for bounty, goodness and mercy from Allah. A group of pilgrims used to restrict their supplication to the worldly things and did not pay attention to the Hereafter, and hence they will have no share in it.

201- There are some people who have been guided by Allah and these have made their hearts ask for the good of this world and the world to come, and have supplicated Allah to enable them to avoid the evil of Hellfire and its torment.

202- Those will be given what Allah has destined them to obtain through seeking it from Allah and relying upon Him. Allah rewards everyone with that which he deserves, and He is swift in reckoning and recompense.

203- Remember Allah through Takbir, Tahlil and Tahmid on a certain number of days, namely those in which you throw pebbles in Mina, i.e., the eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth. This is not necessary because the essence of goodness is the fear of Allah, not the number of days. Always fear Allah and know that you will be returned to Him and you will be held accountable for your deeds.

204- If fear of Allah is the essence, then a group of people will be losers because what their hearts conceal is different from what their tongues say. They are gifted in flowery language which you admire, while they seek only benefit in this world, and they assume you by claiming that Allah knows the truthfulness of their hearts through what their tongues say. But they are the worst adversaries and the most cruel to you.

205- If he holds office in which he has power, he does not seek to reform, but to corrupt and ruin crops and cattle or practice what Allah does not like since He does not like corruption.

206- If you then advise him to fear Allah, he is outraged and thought that this was against his dignity and made him commit the sin concerning which you forbade him out of obstinacy. For this he deserves the torment of Hell, which is the evil abode.

207- How remote the distance is between those hypocrites and truthful believers who barter themselves seeking the satisfaction of Allah and holding high the word of truth. This kind of people is in contrast with the first type, and his shouldering the responsibility for people is a source of Allah’s kindness to His bondmen. Allah Most High shows mercy to them through entrusting these people with Muslims’ affairs in order to repel the harm of the evil ones.

208- O you who believe be all peaceful among yourselves, and do not stir the fanaticism of the Days of Ignorance and other causes of strife and difference. Do not go in the way of Satan, who forces you to discord, since he is your avowed enemy.

209- If you fall away from the path to which you all have been invited to follow after the decisive evidence has proven that it is the right path, know that you will be held accountable for the deviation because Allah is All – Mighty and punishes anyone who goes away from His path, and is All – Wise Who punishes justly.

210- Do those who go away from Islam expect to be convinced of it to see Allah Most High and His angels clearly shadowed by a canopy of clouds. The matter has been established; then desires have been revered, since all matters are in the Hold of Allah and He does what He has willed and destined and His Verdict will inevitably be carried out.

211- Ask the children of Israil how many decisive proofs We imparted to them concerning the truthfulness of the Messenger. In this lies the blessing of their guidance to Allah, but they disbelieved these proofs, and by changing them, they deliberately changed their purpose; while these signs were intended for guidance, they became, because of their disbelief in them, a cause for increasing their misguidance and sins. Whoever changes Allah’s blessings in such a way deserves to be punished since Allah is severe in punishment.

212- The reason behind diversion and unbelief is seeking the world. For those who disbelieve the desires of this world have been adorned, and hence they took to mocking those who believe because of busying themselves with the world to come. Allah will make those who believe in a higher position than the unbelievers on the Last Day. As for the abundance of property and the adornment of the world in the hands of unbelievers, it does not show their being preferred because Allah’s sustenance is not given according to faith or infidelity but according to His will. There are people who are increased in sustenance in order to lure them and others who are given little out of testing them.

213- People are of one disposition which is ready to go astray, and there are those whom are endowed with the ways of guidance, and others who are overcome by misguidance. Therefore they differed and so Allah sent to them prophets as guides bearers of glad tidings, and warners. He sent down with them the Books which include guidance so that they become the arbiter among people and thus stop disputes. But the ones who benefited from the guidance of prophets are those who have believed alone, and those who, in case of difference, Allah guided them to the truth. And it is Allah Who guides the people of the right if they are sincere.

214- Have you thought that you will enter Paradise merely for acknowledging the word of Islam, without being afflicted by that which afflicted people before you? They were stricken by hardships and calamities to the extent that their Prophet and they said, “When will Allah’s victory come?” Allah fulfills His promise and they are responded to that Allah’s victory is near at hand.

215- The believers ask you about the matter of expenditure. Say to them: “Expenditure has to be from lawfully earned money, and is given to parents, kin, orphans, the needy and those cut off from their property and family. Whatever good deeds you do Allah knows them and rewards you for them.

216- While expenditure on orphans, the needy and others represents protection of the community from within, fighting is protection for it from its enemies outside. Therefore, O Muslims, fighting has been decreed for you in order to protect your religion and defend yourselves. You, by virtue of disposition, hate fighting very much, but you may hate something that is beneficial to you, and may like something which is harmful to you. Allah knows what is not clear to you of your benefit, but you do not know; therefore obey what has been decreed for you.

217- Muslims disliked fighting in the Sacred Month and that is why they asked you about it. Say to them, “Yes, fighting in the Sacred Month is a grave offence, but graver than it is what your enemies did when they wanted to make you go away from the path of Allah and from the Sacred Mosque.

218- Those who have truly believed and migrated to make the religion victorious and strived for making its word high, should expect a great reward from Allah, even if they fall short of something, since Allah is Forgiving and Ever – Merciful, who shows mercy to His bondmen through guidance and reward.

219- They ask you, O Muhammad, about the ruling concerning intoxicants and gambling. Say, “They involve great harm of destroying health, obscuring the wind, wasting money and arousing hatred and enmity among people, but they have some advantages, some health benefits and easy earning. However, their harm is greater than their benefit, and therefore shun them.” They ask you about what they should spend. Answer them, “Spend for the sake of Allah that which is easy for you, which is not difficult for you to do.” Thus Allah makes His Signs clear so that you may ponder over them for the benefit that you gain in this world and the Hereafter.

220- They ask you about orphans and what Islam makes it incumbent towards them. Say, “The good lies for you and for them in reforming them, in making them join your homes, in mingling with them with a view to redress, not corruption, since they are your fellow brothers in this world, who would like you to mingle with them. Allah knows that who wants to redress, and that who wants to corrupt, so be careful. Had Allah willed He would have made things hard on you, and decreed that you take care of orphans without mingling with them, or have left them without making clear their rights, and thus they are brought up on hating the community, which results in spoiling it and exercising hardship on it. Suppressing and humiliating them makes of them people who hate the community and do corruption in it. Allah is All – Mighty, Who overpowers everything, and He is All – Wisdom, Who legislated nothing but that which is beneficial to you.

221- There is no harm in mingling with orphans, the harm is in mixing with those who associate partners with Allah. A believer should not marry an idolatress who does not believe in a heavenly Book. No one of you should be motivated to marry an idolatress by her wealth, beauty or noble family. No one of you who is patron of women should marry them off to an idolater who does not believe in revealed Books. No one should be tempted to prefer an idolater because of his riches or noble descent, since a believing slave is better than him. Those idolaters lure their associates to disobedience and associating others with Allah and thus deserve to go to Hell. When Allah calls upon you to avoid idolaters in marriage, He is calling you to what is right and guidance so that you may

win Paradise, and go along the path of goodness through His making it easy for you. Allah is making His legislation and guidance clear to people so that they may become aware of their good and guidance.

222- They ask you about having sexual intercourse with wives during menstruation. Answer them by saying that menstruation is an unwholesome phase, so do not approach women during it until they purify themselves. When they do approach them in the normal way. If any of you has done otherwise before, Allah likes His bondmen to frequently repent, and to purify themselves from uncleanness and illegal matters.

223- Your wives are the place of tillage for you, like the place of sowing seeds for plants to grow. It is permissible for you to have intercourse with them in any way you like as long as this is in the place ordained by Allah. Fear Allah and do not disobey Him in mixing with women, and know that you will obey Him and will be accountable before Him. Glad tidings are given to those who observe the bounds of Allah Most High and do not trespass them.

224- Do not make the name of Allah exposed to swearing frequently by it since this contradicts glorifying His Name. avoiding such swearing by the Name of Allah leads to goodness, piety and the ability to establish peace among people, since the one who does so is esteemed highly in the eyes of people and is trustworthy in their midst, and thus they accept what he says. Allah is All – Hearing of what you say and swear, and is All – Knowing of your intentions.

225- Allah pardons you for some of your oaths. What is frequent on the tongues of the forms of oaths and is not accompanied by intention or purpose of heart, or if  made over something in which one believes but it did not actually take place, Allah will not hold you accountable for it, but will rather reckon you on what your hearts have resolved concerning doing or shunning a certain deed, and on lying that is confined by an oath. Allah is All – Forgiving towards all those who repent, and All – Wise towards that which is not determined by the heart.

226- Those who make an oath not to approach their wives are given a respite of four months, during which if they approach them their marriage will continue but have to pay an expiation for their oath, and Allah will forgive them and accept the expiation from them out of mercy towards them.

227- But if they do not approach their wives during this period this would be harm done to the wife, and there is nothing but divorce. Allah is All – Hearing of their oaths, and All – Knowing of their conditions and will hold them accountable on the Day of Resurrection.

228- Divorced women have to wait for three menstrual cycles without looking forward to remarrying in order to make sure that their wombs are free, and to offer a chance for the husbands to take them back. It is unlawful for them to conceal what is in their wombs of an embryo or menstrual blood. This is the way of the women who believe in Allah and in meeting Him on the Last Day. Their husbands have the right to take them back during the waiting period. When husbands use this right they should intend reconciliation not harm. Wives have as many rights as they have duties as long as those are not against the honorable legislation. Men have the responsibility of taking care of women, preserving marital life, and conducting children’s affairs. Allah, Glorified be He, is above His bondmen and legislates for them that which is compatible with wisdom.

229- Divorce is permissible only two times, after each of which the husband has the right to hold his wife through taking her back during the waiting period or, after it, to take her back by means of a new marriage contract. In all cases the purpose should be holding her in equity and good treatment, or to terminate the marital life side by side with good treatment and being generous to her without hard feelings. It is not lawful to you, O husbands, to reclaim any part of what you had given them except when you fear that the rights of marital life which have been made clear and ordained by Allah will not be observed. If you, O Muslims, fear that wives will not meet the obligations of marital life properly as decreed by Allah, it is lawful for the wife to give money in return for separating from her husband. Theses are Allah’s established rulings, so do not contradict or transgress them because whoever does so will be unjust to himself and to the community in which he lives.

230- If a man divorces his wife a third time after the two preceding ones she then is not lawful to him unless she marries another husband and he has sexual intercourse with her. If the second husband later divorces her and became eligible to marry her by means of a new contract there is no sin on him or her first husband in resuming a new marital life with a new contract. They have to intend to establish a sound marital life in which all legislated rulings ordained by Allah Most High are established. These limitations have been made clear to those who believe in Islam Legislation and want to know and implement it.

231- When you divorce women and they are about to end their waiting period, you have the right to reclaim them with the intention of establishing justice and kind company, but not harm. You also have the right to leave them complete their waiting period, observing proper treatment without hard feelings when separating. It is not permissible that the purpose of reclaiming one’s wife be harming the woman and prolonging her waiting period. Whoever does this will have deprived himself of the bliss of marital life and people’s confidence in him, and will have deserved Allah’s wrath. Do not take Allah’s rulings concerning the family, which were revealed in the Verses and made the harness of the family in the hand of the husband, a mock, play or vanity, thus divorcing for no reason and reclaiming out of harming and offending. Remember Allah’s blessings on you concerning highly organizing marital life for you, and remember the Book which clarifies the Mohammedan mission, beneficial knowledge, parables and narrations through which you are admonished and guided. Take a barrier between yourselves and the wrath of Allah, and know that Allah knows what you harbor, what you reveal, your intentions and your deeds, and will reward or punish you for them.

232- If you divorce women and they have completed their waiting period, and one of them wants to resume a new marriage whether with the divorcing husband or another man, the men in charge of the woman and the ex-husband do not have the right to prevent her from this if the two parties agree on a new contract and wish for an honorable life that leads to good co-living between them. Thus are exhorted whoever of you that believe in Allah and the Last Day. This better develops chaste relations in your community, and purer than filth and dishonorable relations, and Allah knows of the interest of people and the inmost secrets of their souls that which they themselves cannot reach.

233- Mothers have to suckle their babies for two complete years in the interest of the infant, if one of the parents or both of them deem it necessary to complete the period of breast – feeding because the baby needs it. The father, on account that the infant is his own and is named after him, has to spend on the mother by feeding and clothing her according to his means without extravagance or stinginess. The mother’s right should not be devoured as regards expenditure or custody of her infant. Nor the infant should be a cause of harm to his father by means of requiring him to do more than he can afford or to deprive him of his right as regards his son. If the father dies or if he is poor and cannot earn a living, expenditure is incumbent on the heir of the infant, if he has money. If one of the parents or both of them wants to wean the child before he is two years and agree on this in the interest of the infant there is no sin on them. If you, O fathers, wish to take a wet nurse instead of the mother there is no sin in this, and pay to them the wages you agree upon with satisfaction and kindness. Observe Allah in your deeds, and know that He is Aware of them and will reward or punish you for them.

234- those men of you who die and leave wives who are not pregnant, the women have to stay after their husbands death for four lunar months and ten days in order to make sure there are no embryos in their wombs. When this period is over, there is no sin on you, O those in charge of them, to leave them do whatever good deeds countenanced by the Sacred Law so that they may remarry. You should not prevent them from doing this but they are not allowed to do deeds that are not compatible with and condemned by the Sacred Law. Allah is Well – Acquainted with your inmost thoughts and knows your deeds and will hold you accountable for what you do.

235- You men incur no sin that during the waiting period of women whose husbands have died to hint at marrying them or to entertain the idea in your hearts. Allah knows that you cannot hold speaking to them because of the natural inclination of men towards women. Therefore He has made it lawful for you to implicitly express it. Do not give them a promise of marriage unless this is by indirect implication which contains no indecency. Do not make the marriage knot until the waiting period has expired. And be sure that Allah is All – Aware of what you conceal in your hearts, and therefore fear His punishment and do not do what He forbids you from, and do not despair of His mercy if you contravene His command because He is All – Forgiving and accepts repentance from His bondmen and forgives bad deeds, and is also Ever – Forbearing Who does not hasten to punish those who commit forbidden things.

236- You husbands incur no guilt or dower if you divorce your wives before consummating the marriage and before deciding a dower for them. But give them a gift or money for them to enjoy and reduce the pain of their souls, and let it be with satisfaction and willingness. The rich person pays according to his wealth, and the poor one pays as much as he can afford. This gift is a deed of goodness which people of conscience and benevolence commit themselves to.

237- If you divorce women before consummating the marriage but after deciding on their dower, they are entitled to half the determined dower and it has to be paid to them unless the wife remises it. They are not given more than half the dower unless the husband willingly gives her all the dower. Exercising will on the part of each of spouses is better and more satisfactory to Allah and better benefits the people of piety, so do not leave it, and remember that goodness lies in benevolence and good treatment because this better brings about cordiality and love among people, and that Allah is All – Aware of your conscience and will reward you for what you voluntarily do.

238- Be careful to perform all prayers and maintain them, and be keen on making your prayer in its best form by means of carrying out its integrals and complete sincerity in performing it. Perfect your obedience to Allah Most High and your remembrance of Him in sincerity and humbleness towards His Majesty. The middle prayer is either the dawn prayer or the afternoon prayer, there being a difference in personal reasoning among scholars.

239- If the time for prayer comes while you are in a state of fear, do not neglect it but pray in any way you can, walking or riding. When the fear is gone perform the prayer with its full integrals as you know them, remembering Allah in it and being thankful to Him for what He taught you and for the blessing of security He has bestowed on you.

240- Concerning those of you who die and leave wives behind, Allah has commanded that they stay in the marital house for a full year out of consoling them and reducing their loneliness. No one has the right to drive them out, but if they go out by themselves during the year, you, people in charge of them, incur no guilt if you leave them do with themselves what is not incompatible with the Sacred Law. Obey Allah in His rulings, and behave according to what He has legislated for you. Allah is All – Able to revenge those who contravene His commands, and He is of extreme wisdom and does not legislate to you anything but what is of interest to you, even though the wisdom behind it is not clear to you.

241- Women who are divorced after the communication of the marriage have the right to take the money which heals their broken hearts. It should be paid to them with good grace according to the means of the husband, whether those are rich or poor, since this is a requirement of being pious towards Allah and a commitment on the people of faith.

242- It is by means of such clear manifestation and legislation which achieve what is right for you does Allah show you His rulings, blessings and signs so that you may ponder over them and apply the good inherent in them.

243- Consider, O Prophet, the strange story and know it well, namely the state of the people who went out of their homes fleeing from strife in the cause of Allah because they fear death. They were thousands and Allah decreed them to die and be humiliated by their enemies, until when the rest of them showed courage and strove for the sake of Allah, He brought their community to life through such strife. This dignified life following the deadly humiliation is from the grace of Allah Whom should be praised, but most people do not praise Him.

244- If you know that fleeing from death does not save you from it, so strive and exert yourselves to hold Allah’s word high, and be sure that Allah hears what those staying behind us well as those who strive say, and knows what everyone harbors in himself, and thus he rewards goodness by goodness, and punishes evil by evil.

245- Strife in the cause of Allah needs money, so give your money. Is there anyone who does not spend his money for the sake of Allah willingly while He promised to return it to him doubled many times? Sustenance is in the hand of Allah, so He reduces to penury whoever He wants, and gives abundantly to whoever He wills according to what is of interest to you. To Him you return and thus He rewards you for what you have spent. Although sustenance is of the bounty of Allah and His care, and it is He Who gives and withholds, He called a person who spends a lender in order to encourage spending and make it likeable to people, and to assure doubled rewards in this world and the world to come.

246- Consider the strange news about a group of the children of Israel after the time of Musa (Moses) who asked of their prophet at that time to make a ruler over them who unites them after they were dispersed and who leads them under this banner in order to hold Allah’s Word high and to restore their dignity for them. To make sure of their seriousness he asked them, “Will you not be too cowardly to fight if fighting is ordained for you?” They denied that they will do so, saying, How can we do not fight to restore our rights when our enemy has driven us from our homes?” When Allah fulfilled what they asked for and ordained fighting on them they retracted their word, except a few of them. Their retraction was injustice to themselves, their prophet, and their religion. Allah knows what they did and will punish them with the punishment which the unjust deserve.

247- Their prophet told them that Allah has answered your prayer and has chosen Talut a ruler over you. But their dignitaries objected to Allah’s choice saying, “How can he be king over us while we have better right to kingship, because he has no noble ancestry or wealth. Their prophet replied to them saying, “Allah has chosen him ruler over you because he enjoys the qualities of leadership, namely great experience in matters of war, politics and bodily strength. Authority is in the hand of Allah, which He gives to whoever He wills of His bondmen, and which does not rely on heritage or wealth. The grace and knowledge of Allah are comprehensive and He chooses whatever is of interest to you.

248- Their prophet said to them, “The evidence of my truthfulness  that Allah has chosen Talut ruler over you is that he will return to you the Ask of Covenant / Torah that was usurped from you. It will be brought carried by angels, and will include some of the traces of the family of Musa and Harun who came after them. By bringing it your hearts will rest assured, and in this there is evidence that forces you to follow him and be satisfied with him, in case you comply with the right and believe in it.

249- When Talut went out with them he said, “Allah will put you to test by a river which you will pass by on your way, so do not drink from it except a scoop. That who drinks more than this will not be of our army or our gathering because he has been disobedient to Allah. No one will accompany me except those who drank nothing more than a scoop. They did not tolerate this test and drank from it a lot except a few people. He accompanied this small patient group and crossed the river with them. When the great number of the enemy became manifest to them they said, “Today we will not be able to fight Jalut and his soldiers because of their large number and our small number. A group of them, whom Allah has made their hearts assured because they hope for Allah’s reward when they meet Him said, “Do not be afraid, often a small number of believing people have defeated a large number of unbelieving people, so be steadfast since Allah’s victory will be won by the patient.

250- When the believers advanced to fight Jalut and his army they turned to Allah beseeching and praying Him to endow them with endurance, to strengthen their will, to make them steadfast in the battlefield, and to give them victory over their unbelieving enemy.

251- They defeated their enemy by the Will of Allah Most High, and Dawud, a soldier of Talut, killed Jalut, the leader of the unbelievers. After Talut, Allah gave him sovereignty, prophethood, useful knowledge and taught him what He willed. It is the way of Allah to make victorious those who make reformation, not corruption, in the land. Had not Allah enabled His soldiers to erase the corruption of the corrupt, and had He not made the evil ones to confront each other, the earth would have never become a proper habitation. But Allah is Ever – Bountiful and Ever – Graceful to His bondmen.

252- This story full of moral lessons which are related  to you in truth so that it may become a model for you and a proof of the truthfulness of your messengership, and to let you know that We will make you victorious, as We did to messengers who came before you.

  1. We favored some of the messengers whom We mentioned over others. Among them was he to whom Allah spoke without a medium like Moses, and some He graded a step higher in rank like Muhammad who was chosen for the completion of religion, perfection of Law, and winding up heavenly messages. Among them also was Isa son of Mary whom We provided with miracle like bringing the dead back to life, and healing the blind and the leper, and We supported him by the Holy Spirit Jibril (Angel Gabriel). All those messengers came with guidance, the true religion, and compelling signs, which were supposed to lead all mankind to believe, unite, and never fight each other. And had Allah willed, never would have the peoples fought against each other, especially they had received the evidence, but Allah did not will that. Therefore, they were in a state of discord; some believed in Allah, and others disbelieved. And had Allah willed, they would not have warred against each other, but Allah does and enacts what He wills.

254- O you who believe, spend some of what Allah provided you with in the cause of Allah before the day comes when there will be no causes for discord, nor can you not make up for what you missed in this life, nor there will be no buying or selling, nor will friendship avail you, nor will be anyone permitted to intercede on behalf of another, and the disbeliever will be the unjust.

255- Allah alone deserves to be worshipped. The Ever-Living, the Omnipotent Sustainer. Neither slumber nor sleep overtakes Him. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on earth. Who is he who can intercede on behalf of another in His august presence but by the grace of His permission? He knows His creatures current events, and their coming events, and no one can comprehend anything of His knowledge, nor can anything be known except as He wills. His Chair extends over the heavens and the earth, whose preservation does not weary Him, and He is the Ever-Exalted, the Ever-Magnificent.

256- There is no compulsion in religion. Now the path of rectitude has been made distinct from the path of error. Therefore, he who was guided to believe, and rejected all false gods, will have firmly grasped the eternal, the unchangeable, and the most secure handhold, which will never separate or break. And Allah is Ever-Hearing, Ever-Knowing.

257- Allah is the guardian of those who believe. He guides them out of darkness into illumination and enlightenment, whereas those who disbelieve are under the guardianship of false gods who lead them out of light and drive them into darkness. Such like persons will be the inmates of Hellfire, which will be there eternal abode.

258- Have you not seen the discussion that was held by the one who argued Ibrahim about the oneness of His Lord, just because he was in a position of power over the kingdom that was conferred on him by Allah? So, Ibrahim said to him “Allah is He Who gives life and death” The man said “So do I, I grant life and cause death.” Then Ibrahim said “Allah causes the son to rise in the east, so then, cause it to rise in the west if you were a god as you claim.”  And there the presumptuous disbeliever was thrown into confusion, and Allah does not guide the stubborn and the unjust.

259- Or again, contemplate this strange story, the story of the one who passed by a town that was empty of life, and he could see nothing but the remains of the decayed and falling buildings. Then he exclaimed, “How will Allah restore life after it has suffered death?” Then Allah caused his death for a hundred years and then brought him back to life and asked him, “How long do you think you have been dead?”  Unaware of its length, the man said, “A day or even less” He was told, “You have been dead for a hundred years.” Then Allah drew his attention to another sign of His omnipotence as He said to him, “And now look at your food and drink, none of them decomposed, and look at your donkey.” We did so to see for yourself what you thought impossible, and to make of you a sign for mankind. And now look at the bones and see how We construct them and clothe them with flesh.” And when the man witnessed Allah’s omnipotence and authority, he said, “Now I realize that Allah is Able to do all things.”

260- Also remember Ibrahim’s story. Once Ibrahim (Abraham) spoke to  Allah and said, “O Allah, show me how you bring the dead back to life” Allah asked him if he believes in the resurrection, and Ibrahim answered that indeed he does, and his question was not to satisfy doubts, but to satisfy his heart. “Then”, said Allah, “take four birds and tame them to get accustomed to you. Then cut them into pieces, place each piece on a different mountain, and call them to you. They will swiftly take wing, and this should make you realize that Allah indeed All-Mighty, All-Wise.

261- The example of those who spend of their wealth in divine service, seeking Allah’s grace and multiple rewards, is similar to a sawn individual grain of corn that grows seven ears, each ear carrying a hundred grains. This depicts the multitude rewards Allah gives for spending in this life. And Allah reimburses many times the like to whom He wills. Allah is All-Sufficient for His creature’s needs, Ever-Knowing.

262- Those who spend of their wealth in divine service, and do not follow up the favors with reproach or hurt will have no fear, nor will they come to grief.

263- In fact, a kind word of friendliness or forgiveness is far better than benevolence followed by hurt. And Allah is Ever-Affluent, Ever-Forbearing.

264- O you who believe, do not render void the divine reward that you merit for your benevolence by hurt. You are then like him who spends of his wealth ostentatiously under the guise of benevolence, while in truth he believes neither in Allah nor in the Last Day. His example is similar to a rock cover with dust that has been exposed to torrential rain, which stripped it of its soil, leaving it completely bare. Such persons are unable to reclaim anything of what they have falsely earned. These are the attributes of the disbeliever, so, evade them, because Allah does not guide the disbelieving people to benevolence.

265- The example of those who spend of their wealth in divine service, seeking the satisfaction of Allah and confirming their belief, is similar to the owner of an orchard at a high elevation. The orchard is exposed to a heavy shower that makes it yield double its normal produce. And if it is not exposed to a heavy shower, it catches the light shower, and Allah is Ever-Beholding of all what you do.

266- None of you would like to have an orchard of date palms and vines underneath which rivers stream, providing him with diversified fruit trees, and when he has advanced in age and his progeny are feeble, the orchard is struck by a fiery whirlwind that burns it away. This is the parable of those who spend of their wealth then follow it with hurt., and, thus, renders his deeds void of reward and cannot spend anymore.  Allah expounds to you people His signs that you may not ponder.

267- You who believe, spend of the lawful and of the good things that you have earned and from the produce that We made the soil yield for you. And do not choose the bad part of it to expend, when you yourselves would reluctantly accept it except with your eyes shut. And know that Allah is Ever-Affluent, Ever-Praiseworthy.

268- Satan makes you fear poverty, and turn you away from every good deed in order that you refrain from spending in benevolence, and tempts you to do evil deeds, whereas Allah promises you forgiveness from Him, and efficacious grace. Ana Allah is All-Sufficient for His creature’s needs, Ever-Knowing.

269- Allah confers wisdom on whom He wills, and he who is gifted with wisdom has been endowed with overflowing goodness and all grace. But no one reflects except those endowed with intellects to know, to remember, and to judge.

270- And whatever you spend, or whatever you vow to solemnly undertake comes to the knowledge of Allah. And the unjust will have no protectors to help them.

271- If you perform benevolence openly and free from hypocrisy, it is meritorious. But when you conceal your charity when you give in benevolence to the needy, it is better for you. Such acts expiate some of your wrongs by benefits, and Allah is Well-Acquainted with what you do.

272- O Muhammad, it is not your responsibility to guide the strayed to the path of rectitude. You are only responsible for conveying Allah’s word to them, and it is Allah Who guides whom He wills to the path of rectitude. And whatever you spend in divine service is but an advantage to you, and Allah will reimburse in your favor. And you will not be done an injustice.

273- This spending should be directed t the poor, who were restrained from earning their livelihood because they participated in the war against unbelief. They keep their countenance exhibited to those unacquainted with them an expansion of happiness and satisfaction because their modesty obstructs their tongues. You know them by their countenance; they do not solicit people for charity. And whatever you spend in benevolence comes to the knowledge of Allah, and He will reward you for it.

274- Those who are generous by nature, spend of their wealth day and night in benevolence, whether they do it openly or secretly. They will be rewarded from their Lord. They will have no basis for fear, nor will they come to grief.

275- Those who deal in riba (usury) take up a position and they assume the attitude that is worn only by one smitten by Satan. That is because they claim that just as trade is a means of livelihood, so is riba. Allah refuted their claim and stated that it is He who defines what is lawful and what is unlawful. And that the similarity they claimed is not true, and that He permitted trade and forbade riba. Therefore, he who receives the admonition from Allah his Lord and followed it may keep the gain he made in the past, and Allah mercifully decides their end. But those who relapse into this evil practice will be the inmates of Hell eternally.

276- Allah expunges riba but repays charitable acts generously. And Allah does not love every disbelieving, vicious person.

277- Those who believe, d good deeds, shunned the forbidden practices, faithfully observe their prayers, and gave zakah (poor due), will be rewarded from their Lord, and no fear will fall upon them, nor will they come to grief.

278- O you who believe, fear Allah, and bear piety to him in your hearts, and relinquish the amount owed to you in riba if you are, in fact, believers.

279- And if you do not obey His rules, then you must expect war from Allah and from His Messenger. But if you repent, then you are entitled only to the principal that you lent, so that you do not do injustice to others nor be done an injustice.

280- And if the debtor experiences difficult or pecuniary embarrassment, then give him respite until he is at ease and is able to return the debt. And if you are able to cancel the debt or part of it is benevolence and you will merit the grace of Allah who teaches you benevolence and kindness.

281- And guard yourselves from the dreads of the Day when you are returned to Allah, and each self will be requited for its deeds, be it evil or good.

282- O you who believe, if you become involved in a debt payable in a fixed date, then commit it to writing to keep yourselves away from conflict. The scribe must be just in what he writes, and should not refuse to fulfill this function, showing gratitude to Allah Who taught him what he did not know. So, he simply should write according to that which the debtor dictates, and the debtor should be pious and fear Allah, and he shall not decrease any amount of what is agreed upon. If the debtor is foolish, weak, or incapable of dictating, then his guardian shall dictate according to equity. And select two of your men to be formally present as witnesses to the transaction. If two men are not available, then one man and two women as witnesses so that later on, if one of the women errs or forgets, the other will remind her of the correct testimony. When the witnesses are called upon for evidence in the future shall not refuse  to give witness. And do not be reluctant to commit the debt – be it small or large- to writing, indicating the due date. This course is closer to the general principles of justice, more solid as evidence, and nearer to freeing you from doubt. This is mandatory unless it be a piece of business involving merchandise that you  exchange with one another; then you are absolved if you do not commit it to writing. And no scribe or witness should be made to suffer any harm as this is immorality. And be pious and fear Allah and observe what He commanded you to do, and what He forbade you not to do. Allah Made clear to you your rights and your duties. He is Ever-Knowing of all things.

283- And if you are on a journey and cannot find a scribe, then place a pledge in the creditor’s possession as a guarantee of good faith. And if the debtor considers the creditor a credible person, then the creditor should prove himself trustworthy and return the pledge once he is asked to do. And he should guard himself from Allah’s wrath in case he cheated in witness. And do not withhold testimony , and he who withholds testimony has, indeed, a sinful heart. Allah is All-Knowing of all what you du, and will reckon you accordingly.

284- Be aware that to Allah belongs all that is in the heaven and all that is on earth, and that His knowledge and omnipotence encompass it all. And whether you express your thoughts or conceal them, Allah will make reckoning with you of them on the Day of Judgment. He will then extend His mercy and forgiveness to whom He wills and put to torment whom He wills, and Allah is Ever-Determiner over everything.

285- All that has been sent down to the Messenger Muhammad is the truth from Allah, he believed in it and so did the believers. All of them believe in Allah, His angels, His Books, His Messengers, and none of them discriminates one messenger from another, and they say, “We do not discriminate one messenger from another.” And they assured their heartily belief by their verbal belief, directing their attention to Allah in their supplication saying, ” O our Lord, we have heard Your message and we obey all Your laws, O Lord, kindly extend to us Your mercy and forgiveness; to You alone is the destiny.”

286- Allah does not burden any soul with more than it can bear. Therefore, every competent person gains whatever deed he has done; good for good and evil for evil. So, pray o believers supplicating your Lord saying, “O Lord, do not take us to task if we forget or make mistakes. Our Lord, do not overburden us with divine commands as You did with the Jews for their injustice and stubbornness. And do not burden us with more than we have strength to bear, forgive us, and have mercy on us. You are our Protector, so help us, for keeping high your word and spreading Your religion, against the disbelievers.

SÛRAH 3

ÂL `IMRÂN

The Family of `Imrân

Revealed at Madînah

In the narration it presents, the Ever-Glorious Qur’ân speaks about Allâh’s signs in the universe and the lessons that can be concluded from them. It also clarifies many aspects of faith, rules, and morals. In the previous sûrah, some aspects of the history of the Children of Isrâ’îl and of their perversions are narrated. This sûrah mentions some other aspects of their deception and perversion. It also guides people to the faith and behavior to which the believer should adhere, explains the reality of the divine religion, points out the manners of arguments, and mentions the reactions that people show at times of victory and of defeat. It shows the position of martyrs on the Day of Resurrection, the rewards for both males and females, and the road to prosperity.

This sûrah begins with the same first verse as the previous sûrah.

In the Name of Allâh,

The All-Merciful, The Ever-Merciful

  1. A (alif). L (lâm). M (mîm). These are letters from the Arabic alphabet mentioned to draw attention to the fact that this miraculous Qur’ân is composed of the same letters so that the people may contemplate.
  2. Allâh, there is no god but Him, and all that exists in the universe attests to this. He is The Ever-Living, The Omnipotent Sustainer.
  3. He has revealed to you, Muhammad, the Qur’ân in truth and in agreement with reality, corroborating and authoritatively validating the authentic books previously revealed, the Tawrâh and the Injîl (the Books revealed to Mûsâ [Moses] and `Îsâ [Jesus], respectively).
  4. All Scriptures were revealed earlier in the spirit of truth in order to guide people to all truth; yet people set themselves at variance to them. So there came the Qur’ân to distinguish right from wrong and to impart sound judgment in the choice of means and ends and in the choice between what is morally good and bad. Hence, it is the truthful, everlasting Book. Therefore, those who disregard Allâh’s revelations and signs that He makes obvious to the senses will suffer grievously. Allâh is All-Mighty. He justly avenges His right.
  5. Surely, Allâh knows everything. There is absolutely nothing that can be hidden from Allâh, be it on earth or in the heavens.
  6. He it is Who forms you and fashions you inside the womb as He wills and determines the characteristics of your form and appearance. There is no god but Him, The All-Mighty, The All-Wise.
  7. It is He Who has revealed to you, Muhammad, the Qur’ân with verses that are precise and exactly defined. These constitute the essential part and the groundwork of Allâh’s system of faith and worship and unequivocal understanding and obedience from every being with intellect. Other verses are allegorical, which puzzle some people, especially those who do not have sound knowledge. These verses were revealed to urge scholars to acquire knowledge, contemplate, and think deeply on the signs of the universe and religion. Those with malignant and perverse hearts choose to follow only the allegories, to interpret them as they please. Motivated by malice, they present the interpretation that causes dissension and discord when no one knows the exact interpretation but Allâh. But those with well-founded knowledge, acquainted with the facts, declare their firm belief in the Qur’ân and say, “It is all disclosed by Providence.” But none reflect except those with sound minds that do not bend to wishes or whims—
  8. Who pray, “O Allâh our Lord, we beseech You not to erase piety from our hearts after You have made us true believers and guided us to the path of righteousness. O Allâh, extend to us Your mercy; it is You Who gives and it is You Who bestows gratuitously.
  9. “You have ordained, O Allâh our Lord, that You will assemble all people together to Your august presence on that inevitable Day to make a reckoning of everyone according to what he did. Blessed be Allâh Who unfailingly fulfills His promise!”
  10. Neither wealth nor progeny will be of value or advantage, on the Day of Judgment, to those who deny Allâh. Nor will these privileges protect them from Allâh; such persons will be the fuel feeding the Fire.
  11. What becomes of them compares to what became of the people of Pharaoh and those who preceded them who refused to recognize Our revelations and signs that evince Our omnipotence and authority. Consequently, Allâh seized them with a calamity and destroyed them in requital of their iniquities. With justness does Allâh punish severely.
  12. Say, Muhammad, to those disbelievers who deny Allâh, “You will be reduced to submission here, and be banished to Hell hereafter. And how evil is the destined habitation!”
  13. There is an ‘âyah (a lesson) to comprehend. Two forces met on the day of Badr: a believing one fighting in favor of Allâh and spreading the truth, and the other disbelieving fighting against Allâh. Their pursuit of an end and their unwavering and positive stand merited the Muslims aid at the hands of Allâh to the end that the enemies of faith were divinely induced to see the Muslims to be twice as many as themselves. Thus, they were horrified and defeated. Allâh confirms whom He wills and gives them supremacy and superiority, and He bestows victory. This is, indeed, an instructive lesson to those who have opened their eyes, which do not deviate from the truth.
  14. People are instinctively allured by a passion for women and children, for amassing gold and silver, for owning purebred horses and an abundance of cattle and fertile land. All in all, these are simply the ephemeral pleasures of life below; whereas in heaven’s realm pleasures are eternal, and the abode is an atmosphere of delight, which is promised to Allâh’s servants who fight in His cause.
  15. Say to them, Muhammad, “Shall I inform you of what excels that which allures your eyes here? Paradise beneath which rivers flow is unsurpassed in beauty and supreme bliss, destined to those who revere Allâh and revere Him as He deserves. They will have passed through nature to eternity companioned by mates of their design, pure and holy, fellows of their piety. Above all, they come in Allâh’s grace and win His satisfaction and esteem. Allâh is Vigilant. He keeps a watchful eye upon His creation and upon the way people conduct themselves in life.
  16. This reward will be given to those whose hearts have been filled with faith and who are vested with the cardinal virtues, praying to Allâh for forgiveness. Thus, they say, “O Allâh our Lord, we responded to Your call and believed in You. We pray and beseech You to forgive our iniquities and protect us from the torment of the Fire.”
  17. It is they who are patient and unwearied in the face of difficulties, who habitually tell the truth with their words, deeds, and intentions. It is they who are obedient and submissive to the will of Allâh, who are charitable in divine service. They are the devout who pray to Allâh and beseech His forgiveness far into the night and before the day dawns, and who attentively meditate on the glory of the Creator.
  18. Allâh’s unique undeniable creation corroborates His statement that there is no god but Him Who handles the matters of His creation with justice, and the angels and the knowledgeable attest to this. He exercises His authority and power in maintenance and vindication of right. His wisdom extends to everything.
  19. The religion, the system of faith and worship, commended by Allâh is Islâm—man’s recognition of Allâh’s omnipotence and authority and His power to control destiny and the acceptance of this feeling as a standard of life. Yet not until they had received knowledge of the truth did the People of the Book (Jews and Christians) fall into dispute and become divided through mutual envy and ill intention. He who disregards Allâh’s revelations and visible signs will find that Allâh is indeed swift in executing the law.
  20. If the People of the Book argue with you, Muhammad, and maintain their irreverent position by adducing their unfounded reasons, then say to them, “I have vowed to resign myself to Allâh and I have conformed my will and my reason to His blessed will, and so have those who follow me.” Say to them and to the illiterates [Arab pagans], “Are you now satisfied with what you heard, and have your doubts been satisfied? If you are (satisfied), then conform to Islâm.” If they do, then they are on the path of righteousness, but if they turn a deaf ear and their hearts cannot hear the truth, you are only responsible for relating the message. Allâh keeps a watchful eye upon His creation and upon the way people conduct themselves in life, and He knows the attributes inherent in each and all.
  21. Indeed, those who disregard Allâh’s revelations and visible signs and who in defiance of Allâh wrongfully kill the prophets whom He sent to guide them and those who enjoin righteousness—they will be miserably disappointed of their expectations. Announce to them, Muhammad, the coming of a grievous torment.
  22. These are they whose deeds and actions, including the good ones, will become devoid of value here and hereafter, and no one will be their vindicators.
  23. Have you not seen, Muhammad, the disposition of those who had their share of the Book and divine knowledge, how evasive they are! When the Qur’ân is chosen as the arbiter in a dispute to settle all matters of difference, some of them turn back veering away.
  24. Those of the Jews who evaded this religion falsely imagine and then exclaim, “Fire will not touch us but for a certain number of days.” They attributed this forgery to their religion and consequently deceived themselves.
  25. So how will they react when Allâh assembles them on the inevitable Day when each self will be requited with what is commensurate with its deeds? And they will not be wronged.
  26. Glorify Allâh and extol and magnify Him with praise. O Prophet, exclaim, “O Allâh, Who has the absolute sovereign authority over the universe with all its realms, You confer sovereignty on whom You will and You divest it from whom You will. You ennoble whom You will, and You humiliate whom You will. In Your hand rests goodness. You are Able to do all things.
  27. “You, according to the reasons and systems You laid down, cause the night to lose itself by absorption into the day and You cause the day to lose itself by absorption into the night, irrespective of the nature of the solar day, civil day, or the period of the year. You cause the living to rise from the dead, and You cause the dead to fall from life. You provide livelihood, and You provide whom You will with what You will. So, You certainly grant Your messengers and Your chosen servants whatever You promised them without reckoning.
  28. Therefore, let those believers refrain from favoring those disbelievers who deny Allâh over their companions in religion. Allâh will renounce him who follows this irreverent course of action, except under compelling circumstances. Then exercise caution beforehand to provide against their mischief. Allâh cautions you not to draw His wrath on you. To Allâh is the Destiny.
  1. Say to them, “Whether you conceal your thoughts and feelings and what your hearts fo rge, or you express them loudly or under your breath, all comes to Allâh’s knowledge, and He knows all that is in the heavens and on the earth. He is Able to do all things.”
  2. On the Day when every self will be presented with a vivid picture of the deeds imprinted in life with wisdom and piety, and with a written description of the evil that was done by thoughtlessness, the self will wish it was as far from that evil as the earth’s distant ends. Allâh cautions you not to draw His wrath on you, in case you will ignore Allâh’s sovereignty, which is the source of goodness, sympathy and kindness to His servants.
  3. Say to them all, Muhammad, “If your claim is true that you truly love Allâh, then follow me. Then Allâh will confer His grace and blessings on you and forgive your iniquities. Allâh is Oft-Forgiving and Ever-Merciful.”
  4. Say to them, “Obey Allâh and His Messenger.” But if they turn a deaf ear, then they must realize that Allâh does not love the disbelievers.
  5. Allâh has elected Muhammad to communicate His message and has made His love and mercy subsequent to obeying him. Similarly, Allâh has preferred Âdam, Nûh (Noah), the house of Ibrâhîm (Abraham), and the house of `Imrân over the worlds.
  6. He has chosen them as a chaste posterity who inherit chastity, virtues, and goodness one from the other. Allâh is All-Hearing and All-Knowing.

35.Remember, Prophet, when the wife of `Imrân siad, “Lord! Surely I have vowed to You what is in my belly for worshiping You. She solemnly and humbly requested Allâh to accept her offering. She prayed, “O Allâh, I beseech You to accept my offering. You are The All-Hearing and The All-Knowing.”

  1. When she gave birth to the child, she said to her Creator “I am delivered of a female,” even though Allâh already knew well what she had brought forth, and the male is not the same as the female. She said, “O Allâh my Lord, I have called her Maryam and I beseech to You to protect her and her progeny from the outcast Satan.
  2. Allâh her Lord accepted the offering and received the child with favor and under His tutelage she grew in grace and piety, and Zakariyyâ fostered her. Every time Zakariyyâ entered into her chamber in the temple, he found her well provisioned. He asked, “O Maryam, from what source do you get this unprecedented provision?” “It is from Allâh,” she said. “Indeed Allâh provides livelihood and fits out meritoriously whom He wills with what He wills and with what He deems without reckoning.”
  3. When Zakariyyâ saw what Allâh had bestowed on Maryam, he prayed and beseeched Allâh to grant him, by His favor and omniscience, a child, for Allâh hears prayers and can fulfill them.
  4. His prayer was met with a most favorable divine response. The angels addressed him while he was at his devotions, performing his prayer in the temple. “O Zakariyyâ,” they said, Allâh announces a happy event, the arrival of a male child to be called Yahyâ (John). His birth will verify that a word from Allâh is all that it takes for anything material or immaterial to be. He will be a chaste master who will be great and illustrious, vindicating the Word of Allâh, and a virtuous prophet whose deeds are imprinted with wisdom and piety.”
  5. Zakariyyâ exclaimed in surprise, “O Allâh my Lord, how will I have a son when I have reached an advanced age and my wife has always been barren?” He was told, “Thus does Allâh accomplish what He wills.”
  6. Zakariyyâ added, “O Allâh my Lord, may I be given a sign.” He was told, “What indicates the fact will not to talk to people for three days. You will be able to communicate with them only by token. Meanwhile, praise Allâh frequently, glorify Him, and extol His glorious attributes in the evening and in the early morning.”
  7. Remember, Prophet, when the angels addressed Maryam, “O Maryam, Allâh has elected you and purified you to be the elected woman over the women of the worlds.
  8. “O Maryam, be thankful to your Creator, obedient and submissive to the will of Allâh, and bow to the ground in reverence, prostrate to divine revelation, and kneel with those who kneel to do homage and honor to Allâh The All-Mighty.”
  9. This narrative that the Qur’ân relates to you, Muhammad, represents some of the great events of those whom Allâh has chosen. You did not know nor did you see. You were not present at their meeting when they cast lots using their quills and arrows to see which of them would be the foster father to Maryam. Nor were you present when they quarreled about the question.
  10. Remember, Prophet, when the angels brought glad tidings to Maryam: “O Maryam, here we relate to you a divine edict. Allâh announces a happy event, the arrival of a male child, the product of a word from Him, designated the Messiah `Îsa, the son of Maryam, who will be distinguished here by prophethood and reverence, and in the hereafter by being one of those prophets near-stationed.
  11. “He will speak to people in his cradle and in maturity, and he will be one of the righteous.”
  12. Maryam asked, “How will I have a son, O Allâh my Lord, when no man has touched me?” She was told, “Thus does Allâh create what He wills; when He decrees a thing He only says ‘Be’ and it is.
  13. “He will teach him the Book and the Wisdom and He will teach him the Tawrâh (the Book revealed to Mûsâ [Moses]) and the Injîl (which Allâh revealed to him).
  14. “He will be a messenger to the Children of Isrâ’îl, performing miraculous signs to demonstrate his delegated divine power and authority to influence their conduct and their actions.” [`Îsâ said,] “I will create for you from clay the figure of a bird and bring it to life, and it will be a living bird by Allâh’s command. I will restore the sight of the man who is congenitally blind and heal the leper, and, with delegated divine authority, I will raise the dead by Allâh’s command. I will also inform you of what you eat and of what you store in reserve in your homes. This should be enough divine evidence to bring you to acknowledge the truth of my mission if indeed you are believers.
  15. “And I have been sent to you to corroborate your faith in the Tawrâh that was revealed to Mûsâ (Moses) and to make lawful to you—by Allâh’s command—some of what was forbidden before to you. Now I have come to you with convincing divine evidence to be pious to Allâh and obey me.”
  16. “Allâh is my Lord and your Lord; so worship Him. This is a straight path.”
  1. But when `Îsâ called his people to the right path, he could sense that they inclined to disbelief, so he asked, “Who will support me in the cause of Allâh?” “We are supporters of the cause of Allâh,” said the disciples. “We believe in Allâh. We hold you as a witness that we are Muslims.
  2. “And we beseech Allâh, ‘O Allâh our Lord, we believe in all that You have revealed to Your prophet, and we have followed the messenger. O Allâh our Lord, include us with those who bear witness to Your prophet that he has communicated Your message.’ ”
  3. And the disbelievers among the People of the Book cleverly schemed, yet in His plan, Allâh also plotted, and He is the Most Charitable Schemer.
  4. Remember, Prophet, when Allâh said to `Îsâ, “O `Îsâ, I am ordaining that you depart from this life. I am taking you up to My august presence and ridding you of the troublesome blasphemers among your contemporaries. I am raising those who recognized your mission and accepted that you are My messenger to higher ranks, and I am exalting them in dignity and power above those who denied you till the Day of Resurrection when all of you will return to Me. Then I will judge between you on the points of dispute.
  5. “There and then I will put to the torment those who did not believe in the truths in this life and in the hereafter, and no one will help them.”
  6. But those who believed and did good deeds, will be rewarded by Allâh with what is generously commensurate with their pious deeds. Allâh does not love the wrongdoers.
  7. What We have narrated to you, Muhammad, is a disclosure of facts and revelations, streaming from the Fountainhead—the Qur’ân, the sublime source of all useful knowledge.
  8. So, Allâh made it clear that, in Allâh’s sight, `Îsâ is like Adam, whom He created of dust, then ordained that he be, and so he was.
  9. This is the absolute truth, declared in words by Allâh your Lord; therefore, do not let their intentional lying make you anxious.
  10. Should anyone contend with you, Prophet, about `Îsâ with opposing arguments, after you have received the unequivocal fact from your Creator, say to them, “Come, let us summon our sons and your sons, our women and your women, and ourselves and yourselves, and pray to Allâh and beseech Him to curse those who intentionally assert falsehood, that is, those who claim that `Îsâ (Jesus) is the son of God and not Allâh’s messenger.”
  11. This narrative is indeed the true story, and (emphatically) there is no god but Allâh; and indeed Allâh is He Who has always been and forever will be The All-Mighty and The All-Wise.
  12. Should they still turn a deaf ear and stick to their falsehood, rest assured, Muhammad, that Allâh is fully aware of the corruptors.
  13. Say to them: “O People of the Book, let us come to fair terms to agree among ourselves that we venerate and worship no one but Allâh and that we will not associate other deities with Him. Nor will any of us take another for a god or a guardian besides Allâh.” If they turn a deaf ear, then say to them, “Do then bear witness that we conform our will to Allâh’s blessed will and abstain from associating any partner with Him, and we worship none but Him alone.”
  14. O People of the Book (Jews and Christians), why continue with arguments to your life’s end about Ibrâhîm’s (Abraham’s) religion, whereas both the Tawrâh and the Injîl were not revealed till long after his time. So how can he be a Jew or a Christian? Can you not see that what you claim contradicts the reality?
  15. There, you continued with arguments about `Îsâ (Jesus) and Mûsâ (Moses), whom you claim to know. So, on what grounds could you argue that Ibrâhîm (Abraham) is a Jew or Christian? That is a matter of which you have no knowledge. Allâh is All-Knowing; whereas you do not know.
  16. Ibrâhîm was neither a Jew nor a Christian but an orthodox follower of Islâm, the true religion. He never associated other deities with Allâh.
  17. Indeed, those who best deserve a rightful claim to affinity to Ibrâhîm are those who followed his religion, inclusive of this prophet— Muhammad —and those who follow him. Allâh loves those who believed in him and guards them, as they are His true servants.
  18. Some among the People of the Book wish they could lead the believers astray and draw them away from their religion, when in fact they alienate themselves from Allâh’s purpose and path of righteousness. But they fail to perceive that the consequences of their wishes and acts will afflict them alone and will never harm the believers.
  19. O People of the Book, why do you always deny Allâh’s revelations and visible signs, which prove the truthfulness of Muhammad’s prophethood, when you yourselves bear witness to their truth!
  20. O People of the Book, why do you always confuse the truth with which the prophets and divine Books came, with falsehood and never proclaim the truth in a clear and straightforward way.
  21. In their malice, some among the People of the Book urged their fellow religionists to pretend at the beginning of the day that they believe what has been revealed to you Muslims. Then at the end of the day they repudiated it, expecting that you may reject it all.
  22. They also said, “Do not trust anyone except those who follow your religion, or that they would argue with you in the Meeting with your Lord.” Say to them, Muhammad, “Indeed, the guidance comes from Allâh, as He chooses it for whom He wills.” Say to them, Muhammad, “Guidance rests in the hands of Allâh. He confers it on whom He wills, and Allâh is All-Sufficient for His creatures and All-Knowing.
  23. “He extends His mercy to whom He wills, and He is the source of sufficient grace that abounds in whom He wills.”
  24. This is the People of the Book’s course as to religion. As to their course in money, you will find among the People of the Book him whom you can entrust with a kantâr [a large amount] of gold or silver and he would return it to you on demand. Also among them is he who if entrusted with one single dînâr, would not return it unless you keep asking and he may eventually be pronounced a defaulter. This is by reason of their folly and want of sense that they put into words: “We are not under any obligation to these illiterate faithless people—the Muslims.” And they intentionally lie against Allâh and they know it.
  25. Indeed, they tell a lie against Allâh. But he who fulfills his promise when he pledges himself before Allâh to do something, who keeps the vow when he binds himself by one, who makes his words accord with his deeds, and who reveres Allâh as He deserves—he will come into the grace of Allâh, for Allâh loves those who are pious.
  26. Those who exchange Allâh’s covenant or a vow to heaven or an oath that is binding for a miserable price in the vanity of the fleeting and ephemeral world will be denied Allâh’s grace hereafter. Nor will Allâh address them or look at them on the Day of Resurrection. He will not bless them or forgive their sins, and there awaits them a persistent, severe torment.
  1. Among the People of the Book are some who seem to recite divine revelations documented in the Book in jest to distort the words from common use. They expect to imprint on your minds that these are verses of the Book, while in fact they are not. They ascribe them to Allâh when, in fact, they are not Allâh’s words. And they relate falsehood about Allâh and they know it.
  2. In no way can a human on whom Allâh confers the Book and the wisdom and the prerogative of prophethood, demand that the people worship him apart from Allâh. Rather, he would ask them to revere and venerate Allâh, the Creator. This is the truth that Allâh has imparted to them—the divine knowledge that they impart to people, the divine knowledge that they themselves acquire.
  3. Nor can a human ask you to take the angels and the prophets as lords. Would he command you to disbelieve Him after you have become Muslims?

81.Say to them, Prophet, that Allâh entered into a covenant with each prophet to whom He revealed a Book and gave the useful knowledge. When there comes a messenger with a Book that corroborates and authoritatively validates the authentic Books you [People of the Book] possess, they will faithfully recognize him, uphold him, and help him accomplish his mission. And they expressed the obligation to which they are bound. So now they all subscribe to this allegiance and will pledge themselves before Allâh to keep the vow. So, they bear witness to this obligation, which they will relate to their people, with the aim that their people fulfill it exactly in the same way their prophets did.

  1. Therefore, those who turn away from this obligation are the perverse who are faithless and morally depraved.
  2. Is it a system of faith and worship other than that ordained by Allâh that they desire, when to His blessed will all creation in the heavens and on earth has submitted willingly or unwillingly, and in the end all will return back to Him!
  3. Allâh asserted the oneness of the Creator and the message, and commanded His Prophet Muhammad to declare in explicit terms, “We Muslims believe in Allâh alone. We believe in all that has been imparted to us in the Qur’ân and in all that was imparted to Ibrâhîm (Abraham) and Ismâ`îl, to Ishâq (Isaac) and Ya`qûb (Jacob), to the tribes of his twelve sons, and to Mûsâ (Moses) and `Îsa (Jesus). We believe in all that was imparted to all the prophets from Allâh their Lord. We do not make any distinction between one and another, and we conform our will to His blessed will.
  4. He who adopts a system of faith and worship other than Islâm simply leans on a system of faith and worship that does not stand on truth. Such a system of faith will not be accepted from him, and he will be a great loser hereafter.
  5. How will Allâh guide a people who intentionally deny Him after they have recognized Him and borne witness to the truth of His Messenger’s mission? How will He guide them after they have received and accepted, then later rejected the clear and plain revelations and signs guiding out of darkness? Allâh does not guide to His path of righteousness those who are wrongdoers.
  6. Those will be requited with what is commensurate with their deeds; they have incurred the curse of Allâh and of the angels and of all mankind.
  7. This curse will beset them to Eternity. Their torture in Hell will not be abated, nor will their torment be put in respite.
  8. However, the penitents who humbly repented and reformed themselves so their thoughts were governed by a new and divine principle, will find that Allâh is Oft-Forgiving and Ever-Merciful.
  9. Allâh confers mercy and forgiveness upon the penitents so long as they stick to faith. Indeed, those who deny the truth after they have recognized it and are so bold as to display their disbelief by acts of sedition and hostility in defiance of piety—never will their penitence be accepted by Allâh, and these are they who have been lost in the maze of error.
  10. Those who deny the truth and whom death claims when they are clothed with disbelief, none of them will be able to redeem himself from Allâh’s punishment. The offer of as much gold as the earth can treasure will not be accepted from any of them in expiation for his guilt. Such persons must expect endless suffering, and they will have no vindicators.
  11. You believers will not attain piety, which you seek and which Allâh accepts, until you spend in divine service of what you treasure and cherish. Whatever you spend in this respect comes to Allâh’s knowledge.
  12. The Jews were critical of the Muslims for permitting the consumption of certain foods, notably camel’s flesh and camel’s milk, and claimed that these are prohibited in Ibrâhîm’s (Abraham’s) Law. In response, Allâh says that all articles of food were lawful to the Children of Isrâ’îl long before the revelation of the Tawrâh, except what Ya`qûb (Jacob) forbade to himself for personal reasons, and his children followed suit. Allâh commanded His Prophet to ask them to bring a proof to what they claim from the Tawrâh (the Book revealed to Mûsâ [Moses]) if what they are negating is true. Indeed, they failed to do so.
  13. Henceforth, those who lie against Allâh and intentionally assert what is false will be the wrongdoers.
  14. Allâh commanded the Prophet to say to them, “Allâh has declared the truth; therefore, follow the religion of Ibrâhîm (Abraham), the true and straightforward devotee. He never associated other deities with Allâh.
  15. And it is a sign of committing oneself to the religion of Ibrâhîm to face the House (the Ka`bah), which he built, while performing prayers and to fulfill the duty of pilgrimage to it, as Allâh says that the first house devoted specifically to divine worship and appointed to assemblies for the adoration of Allâh, with appropriate acts and rites, was the house founded in Bakkah (Makkah). It has been blessed and is a guidance for all beings to all truth.
  16. It is dignified with outward and visible signs of grace, including the station of Ibrâhîm, where he performed the prescribed acts of devotion. Whoever comes into it will have the privilege of a sanctuary; he comes to be vested with security. The pilgrimage to there is a duty incumbent on people who can afford to do it, to do homage to and honor Almighty Allâh. He who refuses to acknowledge this religious rite will be the loser and must realize that Allâh is Independent of all creation, Self-Existent and Absolute.
  17. Allâh commanded His Messenger to reproach the People of the Book for their disbelief, deception, and misguidance, by saying to them, “Why do you deny Allâh’s revelations and visible signs that prove the truthfulness of Muhammad’s message, when Allâh is Witness of all that you do?”
  18. And ask them, “Why do you stand in the way, preventing Allâh’s truth from guiding people to all truth? Why do you make it your aim to pervert the truth and crook the path of righteousness to your own ends when you bear witness that this is the path where Providence is the Guide? Allâh is not heedless of all that you do.”
  19. Allâh made the believers aware of the suspicions raised by the unbelievers and addresses the believers: If you listen to the suspicions raised by some of the People of the Book, they will alienate you from Allâh’s way. They will turn you renegades and you will leave your religion after you have embraced Islâm.
  20. Imagine how bad your image will be if you disbelieve after you have adopted faith, when Allâh’s revelations are narrated to you and Allâh’s Messenger is in your midst! He who turns his mind to Allâh and chooses to be under His guardianship will have been guided to the path of righteousness.
  21. So, you who believed in the Prophet’s mission, revere Allâh in the manner appropriate to His absolute sovereignty. Revere Him as He deserves and adhere to His system of faith and worship so that when death takes you, you will have conformed your will to Allâh’s blessed will as muslims.
  22. Hold firmly together and grasp the eternal and unchangeable sublime system of Allâh! Grasp it and do not be discordant among yourselves. Call to mind Allâh’s favor that you were enemies and He reconciled your differences; you cherished different principles and practices, and by Islâm you are now in one accord. You were on the edge of the bottomless abyss of Hell and He saved you from eternal disaster. Thus Allâh expounds to you His revelations so that you may be guided to His path of righteousness.

104.The only way to hold firmly together in conformity with the teachings of the Qur’ân and Sunnah is to be united in enjoining the conformity of life and conduct to the requirements of divine law, and in forbidding all that is wrongful and obscene. Such people who do so will be the prosperers.

  1. Do not be like those who neglected to enjoin the good and forbid the wrongful and obscene so that you may not be divided among yourselves as they were. They also were discordant after they had received divine revelations and signs guiding them. Such people will suffer grievously.
  2. This grievous suffering will be on the Day when countenances speak different languages. Those of the believers will be glowing with splendor and bright light, beaming with joy and hope, while others are dark and gloomy. Rebuked for want of faith, they will be told, “How could you deny Allâh after you recognized Him, submitted to the truth, and received clear signs attesting to its truthfulness? You have well deserved to be put to the torment in requital of disbelief.”
  3. Whereas those whose countenances express joy and hope will be the dwellers of heaven; they will receive Allâh’s infinite mercy.
  4. These revelations of Allâh regarding the requital for both good doers and evil doers We narrate to you in truth, Muhammad, and it has never been Allâh’s will to be unjust to people or jinn.
  5. To Allâh alone belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on earth, and to Allâh, the ultimate authority, are committed and submitted all matters and all affairs for consideration, decision, and execution here and in the hereafter.
  6. You Muslims are the best people as long as you enjoin good and forbid evil, and believe in Allâh. Had the People of the Book conformed their will to Allâh’s blessed will, it would have been more profitable for them. Among them are some who are true believers, but most of them are morally depraved.
  7. They will not hurt you nor will they harm you. They will only be a source of annoyance. If they war against you, they will turn tail and seek safety in flight and will not be victorious so long as you adhere to enjoining good and forbidding evil.
  8. Allâh informed that they (the Jews) have been stamped with humiliation wherever they are found, except when they come to be under the guardianship of Allâh and at peace with people. They drew Allâh’s wrath on themselves and they were stamped with humiliation due to their denying the signs attesting to the truthfulness of Muhammad’s prophethood and their unjustifiable slaying of the prophets. They became addicted to disobedience and transgression.
  9. But in fairness to them, the People of the Book are not all alike. Among them are people who recite verses of Allâh’s revelations by night and prostrate to divine revelation.
  10. They believe in the existence and oneness of Allâh, believe in no god but Him, and they believe in the hereafter. They enjoin equity and justice and they condemn the bad and emulate the best. Such people are enrolled among the righteous.
  11. Whatever good they do, they will never be denied the fruit nor the reward of any deed imprinted with wisdom and piety. Allâh is fully aware of them and will confer the appropriate requital on them.
  12. Indeed those who denied Allâh are losers; neither their wealth nor their progeny will profit them or help them against what Allâh has in store for them. These are the inmates of Hell to endure there forever.
  13. Whatever they spent in this world that was not pertaining to Allâh is like the crop of farmers who were wrongdoers. Their yield was hit by an icy cold wind that reduced it perishing. It was not Allâh Who did them injustice, but it was they who wronged themselves by denying the signs of faith and denying Allâh.
  14. O you who believe, do not have as intimate associates a body of persons of another religion to whom you reveal your secrets; they will not hesitate to pervert you. They eagerly wish to overthrow you or bring a disaster upon you. Such hatred is in their thoughts and expressed in words, but worse is what their hearts conceal. We have made clear and plain to you that with signs if only you have sound judgment.
  15. You see how you hold the disbelievers and hypocrites dear and entertain great regard for them. You believe in all the Books that Allâh has revealed while they do not. When they come face to face with you, they declare that they have conformed their will to Allâh’s blessed will, but when they are apart from you, they bite their lips and their finger tips in rage. Say to them, Muhammad, “Perish you in your rage! Allâh is indeed All-Knowing of all private thoughts and feelings in the chest and will requite you for them.”
  16. If fair reward falls to you, be it through victory or through martyrdom, they are envious and grieved at heart. If a disaster or a calamity befalls you, be it through defeat or barrenness, they rejoice. If you are patient and revere Allâh as He deserves, you will not be hurt by their wicked plots and intrigues. Allâh besets them on all sides and He is All-Knowing of all the plots they do.
  17. Remember, Muhammad, that once when you left your household early in the morning resolving to take your station for battle by the mountain of Uhud and to command your faithful followers to take their posts. And Allâh is All-Hearing and All-Knowing.
  18. When two sections of you almost lost heart, however, they were saved by the graceful protection of Allâh, and they were steadfast in fighting. In Allâh should the believers put their trust to gain victory.
  19. Allâh reminds the believers of His victory He conferred on them at Badr. When they adhered to patience, He assured them that He would give them victory even though they were a humble force. And He ordered them to revere Allâh so that they might be thankful.
  20. The victory was attained when the Messenger said to the believers, “Is it not enough for you to have peace of mind that Allâh your Lord upholds you with an array of three thousand angels specially dispatched from heaven’s realm to support your cause?
  21. “Indeed, this support is certainly enough for you, and if you exercise patience and revere Allâh, you will be able to do battle against your enemy. Should you be taken by surprise and be suddenly attacked, you will receive Allâh’s aid. He will uphold you with an array of five thousand angels distinguished with onslaught.”
  22. Such an announcement of Allâh’s aid was meant to be cheerful news to raise your spirits and to ease your anguish. It should have made you realize that victory is an attribute and an act of Allâh, The All-Powerful, The All-Knowing Who puts everything right, and The All-Wise Who settles matters for His believing servants.
  23. Allâh ordained His victory on you. He purposed to strike a part of the evil group of disbelievers at the root—and so with one single blow they would be severed—or to disgrace them and enrage their blood and put them into such a commotion that would precipitate their humiliation and defeat.
  24. It is none of your concern, Muhammad. It is all up to Allâh, whether Allâh relents and pardons their offense and guides them to faith, or requites them with killing and shame and punishment on Doom’s Day. They are an unjust people.
  25. To Allâh belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on earth. He alone is The All-Powerful, and He has authority over everything. He forgives whom He wills and punishes whom He wills. Allâh is Oft-Forgiving and Ever-Merciful.
  26. O you who believe! Do not eat up whatever interest you can get for the money you lend, doubling and redoubling the interest as you go. Revere Allâh and eat up not one another’s property unjustly (in any illegal way) so that you may prosper by avoiding interest (ribâ), be it much or little.
  27. And save yourselves from the Fire especially prepared for those who disobey Allâh’s commands and make interest (ribâ) lawful.
  28. Obey Allâh and His Messenger so that you may come to be recipients of His mercy in this life and in the hereafter.
  29. Compete swiftly with each other for forgiveness from Allâh your Lord, and for a hearty welcome in a Paradise as extensive as the heavens and the earth, specially prepared for those who piously revere Allâh and fear His punishment.
  30. Those who spend in divine service in prosperity and in adversity, who suppress their anger so as not to punish those who wronged them—they are righteous. Allâh likes those who are fair-doers.
  31. Those who, as soon as they commit an immoral act, large or small, recall Allâh to mind and invoke His forgiveness. Who can forgive transgression of the divine Law and the offense against Allâh but Allâh? They do not insist on their course of action when they know it is wrong.
  32. Such persons will merit forgiveness from Allâh their Lord and the life in supreme bliss in Gardens beneath which rivers flow after they have passed through nature to eternity. How excellent is the reward of those who strive for a good end!
  33. O believers! Allâh’s Law was ordained on nations (disbelievers) that have passed away before you. Allâh gave them respite, then took them in requital of their sins. Therefore, journey the land, you Muslims, and pause to think on what you see in order to realize the fatal consequence of the beliers.
  34. This is a proclamation for mankind in which Providence is the guide, and an admonition to those who piously revere Allâh.
  35. Do not falter in your war of belief against positive unbelief, nor grieve at heart for those whom you lose in the fight, for you will gain the upper hand by Allâh’s support and by your faith, if you adhere to your faith.
  36. If you have sustained a heavy blow with injuries, do not falter nor grieve. So have the enemies suffered on the Day of Badr. We rotate fortune and alternate the days of gratification and the days of distress so that each people have their day in order that Allâh may distinguish the steadfast among the believers who are immovable in faith and confer the prerogative of martyrdom on those of you who qualify. Allâh does not love the unjust.
  37. And Allâh purges those who have believed and of those who are hypocrites, and expunges the disbelievers who deny Him.
  38. Never reckon that you would be heartily welcomed in the realm of unsurpassed beauty and supreme bliss before Allâh has distinguished among you the patient fighters who are unwearied in the face of difficulties.
  39. Before the encounter with death, you had always wished yourselves dead in the cause of Allâh, and now you have seen it executed in your companions.
  40. When a report was circulated among the Muslim troops during the battle that the Prophet Muhammad was slain, this led some to entertain the idea of turning renegades and returning to idolatry. In reproach, Allâh says to them: Muhammad is but a messenger like those who have passed away before him, and he will die as they died. Do you mean that if he dies or is slain in battle, you would turn renegade and return to idolatry? Indeed, he who turns back on his heels and reverses his position will never hurt Allâh in the least, but, to the contrary, he will harm himself by exposing himself to punishment, and Allâh will reward the thankful.
  41. Nor can anyone die except by Allâh’s permission according to a predetermined time that Allâh has entered in a Book. He who sets his mind upon the mundane things for his enjoyment and content here below will be requited with what is apportioned to him in this world. He who sets his mind upon the divine things conducing to Allâh’s mercy and grace hereafter will be requited with what is commensurate with his deeds of piety. We will generously reward those who are thankful.
  42. Many of the prophets fought and with them fought countless numbers of devotees whose hearts had been touched with the divine hand. Never did they falter or surrender to their enemies, nor were they disheartened in consequence of the misfortunes they experienced in the cause of Allâh. Allâh likes the patient who are unwearied in the face of difficulties.
  43. All they said nothing was but their invocation: “O Allâh our Lord, forgive us our iniquities and the excesses into which we might have been driven. Help us take a firm position, set our feet firm in time of war, and give us victory over the disbelieving people.”
  44. In return, Allâh requited them with what they merited for their deeds of piety here below and with the unsurpassed merit hereafter. Allâh rewards those who perfect their illustrious toils and achieve moral excellence and benevolence.
  45. O you who believe, if you lend an ear to the disbelievers who deny Allâh, or open your hearts and ears to them, they will be able to turn you renegades and you will relapse into disbelief and come to be great losers of this life and the hereafter.
  46. Indeed, Allâh is your Supreme Patronizer, so fear them not. He is the Most Charitable of vindicators.
  47. Do not falter due to the consequences of Badr. We will inspire terror in the disbelievers’ hearts and dishearten them for associating with Allâh other deities that He never authorized. They are powerless, and their destined abode is Hell. Evil indeed is the destined habitation of the unjust!
  48. Allâh has kept His promise to you, as was shown in your putting the enemy to rout, by His permission, until you began to falter by arguing over the Prophet’s orders not to leave your posts. Some were in favor of obeying the Prophet’s command and maintaining their posts while others went against his command and ran after booty when the Prophet was about to gain victory. Among you are those who are concerned only with the interests of life below and its mundane things, and others whose main concern is Allâh’s grace hereafter. Then Allâh made you draw off from the battlefield to test your true inclination and distinguish the sincere group. And He forgave you when you showed regret. Allâh’s bounty abounds to the believers.
  49. Remember, believers, when you forced your way up the hill, paying attention to no one, while the Prophet in the rear called you to come to fight. There Allâh requited you with grief upon grief for being balked of your booty and for fleeing in the face of danger, so that you would learn not to grieve for what you miss nor to despair for what befalls you. Allâh is All-Knowing of all that you intend and do.
  1. Thereafter Allâh replaced the sorrow with peace and a sense of security, which induced the sincere and pious of you to slumber. Others were aroused to emotion, which begot unjust ideas of Allâh and a state characteristic of ignorance analogous to the ignorance of paganism. The latter kept their thoughts to themselves and said to themselves, “If we had a say in the matter we would never have been slain here in battle!” Say to them, Prophet, that indeed the affair belongs wholly to Allâh in both victory and defeat. Allâh alternates victory and defeat among His servants in case they adhere to the means that lead to victory or those that lead to defeat. They hide within themselves what they dare not reveal to you, saying, “If we had anything to do with the affair, none of us would have been killed here.” Say, “Even if you had remained in your homes, those for whom death was decreed would certainly have gone forth to the place of their death, but Allâh ordained defeat upon you in Uhud so that He might test what is in your hearts and purify your hearts. And Allâh is All-Knowing of all that is in your hearts.”
  2. Those of you who turned tail and abandoned their posts on the day the two forces met were but victims of Satan, who dragged them to error and took advantage of their disobedience to the Prophet and led them to their fall. However, Allâh has granted them forgiveness. He is Oft-Forgiving and Forbearing.
  3. O you who believe, be not like those disbelievers who denied Allâh and thought that on every occasion when they lost some of their fellow countrymen in journeys of trade or in wars, that had they been with them and remained there, they would not have died or been slain. Allâh filled them with this feeling and thought in order to move their hearts to grieve. It is Allâh Who gives life and death, and He sets everything to a certain destination. He is All-Knowing of all that you do, be it good or evil, and He will requite you.
  4. If you are slain in the course of a hostile encounter between belief and disbelief, or if you die in battle or from another cause, you will have merited Allâh’s forgiveness and mercy. This outweighs all that you might have earned or accumulated had you lived to an advanced age.
  5. Whether you die or are slain, all of you will be mustered to Allâh to be rewarded for your striving and sincerity.
  6. Allâh of His mercy made your heart, Muhammad, ever tender in the treatment of the calamity that your people brought upon themselves. He made you speak to them in the gentle voice of peace. Had you been unsparing in censure and reproof and harsh-hearted, they would have broken away from you. Therefore, give up resentment against them and invoke Allâh’s mercy on their behalf. Consult with them upon matters of great moment, matters on which you received no divine authoritative instructions. So when you have reconciled their discord and resolved on a course of action, then trust in Allâh, for Allâh likes those who put their trust in Him.
  7. If Allâh upholds you (Muslims) and confers on you His protection, as happened on the day of Badr, no one can gain advantage over you. And if He should deny you protection, as happened on the day of Uhud, who else is there besides Him who can protect you or help you in distress and misfortune? In Allâh should those who have submitted to Him put their trust.
  8. It is not true that any prophet would illegally take part of the booty (as rumored by the hypocrites) since this act contradicts prophethood. He who withholds from anyone what is his by right, will carry the insignia of fraud and misappropriation on the Day of Judgment when every self will be requited with what is commensurate with its deeds and they will not be done an injustice.
  9. He who obeyed Allâh’s orders in quest of Allâh’s satisfaction is not to be compared with the one who draws on himself Allâh’s wrath due to evil deeds and who has been destined to the abode in Hell, which is an evil destiny!
  10. These two groups of people are not alike. They are divided according to grades of quality, disposition, and attributes as determined by Allâh. Allâh is All-Seeing. He sees all that they do, and they will be requited with what is commensurate with their deeds.
  11. Allâh has been gracious to those who have believed and accompanied the Prophet. He raised in their midst a messenger who is related to them by kinship and by the qualities into which they all entered. He is a messenger who will recite to them His revelations, sanctify them, and teach them the Book—the Qur’ân—and the Sunnah, although they were once lost in error and literally were in evident error.
  12. Have you raged and faltered and when you met with a calamity that does not compare with what you brought on your enemy, which was twice as severe, now you say “How did this defeat befall us while we are Muslims and Allâh’s Messenger lives among us? What was it due to?” Say to them, Muhammad, “You brought it on yourselves for your wrongful action. Allâh, indeed, has power over all things, and He has requited you with what is commensurate with your deeds.
  13. What befell you that day when your forces and the disbelievers’ forces met in Uhud was justly brought about by Allâh’s permission to distinguish those who believed in Allâh.
  14. He exposes the hypocrites who pretended to be other then they are. When they left the battlefield on the day of Uhud, they were asked to join the Muslim forces to fight in the cause of Allâh or at least to repel the enemy, but they made excuses. They said, “We would gladly follow you if we knew that you will actually fight.” They were then furthermost from Allâh and their words did not accord with their inmost thoughts. Allâh knows best their secret feelings.
  15. They were those who stayed at home who had something to say in defense and extenuation of their conduct. They made unfavorable comments about their fellow Muslims who were slain in battle: “Had they obeyed us and remained here, they would have been saved as we have been saved.” Say to them, Muhammad, “If this be the case, then avert death and prevent it from befalling you if indeed you are declaring the truth.”
  16. Do not consider the martyrs in the cause of Allâh dead, for they are living in Heaven’s realm in the venerable and august presence of Allâh their Lord, and they have divine provision.
  17. They rejoice exceedingly at Allâh’s bounty and for those who are yet to join them, for they will have no grounds for fear or grief.
  18. They have assumed a state of favor and bounty conferred on them by Allâh, that is, martyrdom. It is an assurance that Allâh does not withhold nor withdraw the grateful return due to those who have believed—
  19. Who responded favorably to Allâh and to His Prophet and resumed fighting after they had stopped after the calamity of Uhud. It was those who excelled at the battle and revered Allâh and His Prophet. They will be requited with what is generously commensurate with their deeds.
  20. The news simply confirmed their faith in Allâh and His victory, when the people told them that their enemies had mustered a great number of troops to fight against them so they should be fearful of them. It was those who did not fear fate; they feared nothing but Allâh and said, “Allâh is the answer to our purpose, our hopes and our needs, and how excellent He is for a Trustee.”
  21. The believers set out for the battle with greater determination, which the enemy sensed and consequently they fled from the rage of those whom they considered persecutors. Then the Muslims returned, by the grace of Allâh and His bounty, unharmed. They espoused the cause of Allâh and His satisfaction and were consequently qualified to receive His blessings. And Allâh’s bounty is plentiful.
  1. Allâh clarifies to the believers that it was only Satan, who inspired terror in the hearts and minds of those who were submissive to them, who in turn tried to transmit it to some of you. Therefore, do not fear them but fear Allâh alone if indeed you are true believers.
  2. Let not those who hasten heedlessly to disbelieve grieve you, Muhammad. They will not harm Allâh in the least. Allâh is The All-Mighty. He has intended to allot to them no share of the bliss hereafter, and, moreover, there awaits them a tremendous torment.
  3. Those who exchanged faith for disbelief and who sought disbelief and abandoned faith will never harm Allâh in the least. And their awaits them the torment that will be laid on the damned.
  4. The disbelievers must not think that the respite, the long lives, and the comfort that We grant them in this life are for their own good. This simply gives them plenty of rope to allow them free action in order that they commit themselves further to the evil line of conduct. There awaits them a condign and humiliating torment.
  5. It was never in Allâh’s will to let you believers remain in this present state that is a combination of faith and hypocrisy, but only to distinguish between the bad from the good by trials and commitments, to expose the malevolent and distinguish the benevolent. And Allâh did not intend to endow you people with the prerogative of divination nor with power of knowing the unknown or realizing the unseen or the invisible. Yet He chooses from His prophets whom He wills and gives them knowledge of events to come according to His will. Therefore, believe in Allâh and believe in His prophets, for if you believe and revere Him as He deserves, you will be requited with a great reward.
  6. Those who are unwilling to spend of what Allâh has conferred on them in divine service should not consider this tight-fisted disposition an advantage to them. To the contrary, it is an injury to their interest and prejudice to their credit. They will be fitted round their necks on the Day of Judgment with what they hoarded. To Allâh will be the inheritance of the realms of the heavens and the earth, and Allâh is All-Knowing of all that you do and will requite you accordingly.
  7. Despite the fact that to Allâh belong the earth and the heavens, some said that He is poor and that He asks us to give Him loans through spending; whereas we are rich and spend as we like. Allâh has heard their speech and recorded it as well as their unjustified slaying of the prophets. And He will say to them at the predetermined moment, “Now taste the torment of burning in the Fire.
  8. “This is the evil that your wrongful hands have drawn after them.” Allâh is not unjust to His servants
  9. Who said, “Allâh has enjoined us not to believe in a prophet until he has presented to us an offering, which must be devoured by a fire from Heaven.” Say to them, Muhammad, “Many prophets before me presented you with clear evidence of Allâh’s omnipotence and of their delegated divine authority and with such divinely miraculous acts as you have described. Why then did you kill them if indeed you are declaring the truth?”
  10. If they disbelieve you, they have already refused to believe the messengers sent before you who were sent to them with clear and plain revelations and signs that prove the truthfulness of their message.
  11. Every self is certainly destined to the encounter with death, and if you encounter pains in this life, you will be requited on the Day of Judgment only with what is due to you. He who is diverted from the path leading to Hell to the path leading to Paradise will have triumphed. Life here below is but an animate existence affording pleasure and delusion.
  12. Be sure that you believers will be afflicted with some disagreeable events and misfortunes. You will experience loss in wealth through loss or spending in the cause of Allâh, and in lives through jihâd and illness, and you will hear contemptuous insults from the Jews, the Christians, and the polytheists. If you are patient and forbearing and revere Allâh, you will have then considered matters with true resolve.
  13. Remember, Prophet, that once Allâh made a covenant with the People of the Book that they should make the Book genuinely known to everyone and not hide the least part of its text and its precepts. However, they cast it behind their backs and exchanged the truth for the worthless vanity of the fleeting and ephemeral world. How evil and how ill indeed is the advantage they gained!
  14. Do not think, Muhammad, that those who rejoice at their successful perversion and love to be credited with theological virtues that they do not possess will escape torment! They bar themselves from the faith and the truth. They will, in fact, be put to the torment.
  15. To Allâh belongs the absolute sovereignty of the heavens and the earth. Allâh has power over all things. He rewards the good doers and punishes the evil doers.
  16. Indeed, the creation of the heavens and the earth, with all their subtlety and fineness, and the variation in duration and the constant alternation of the night and the day are signs of Allâh’s omnipotence and authority that are sensed by those who reflect.
  17. Those who reflect think of Allâh with reverent feeling, standing, sitting, and lying on their sides, and they meditate on the infinite creation of the heavens and the earth and the wonders they exhibit. They pray, “O Allâh our Lord, You did not bring all this into being but for an effect which you have predestined. Glory be to You and extolled are Your glorious attributes. Certainly, it reveals Your omnipotence and shows Your infinite wisdom. We beseech You to ensure us immunity from the torment of the Fire.
  18. “O Allâh our Lord, our Provider and Preserver, indeed, he whom You destine to the abode in the Fire of Hell, You will have vested with the insignia of shame, and no help will be given to the wrongful.
  19. “We heard, O Allâh our Lord, our Provider and Preserver, we heard Your prophet calling us to believe in You, and we responded favorably by adopting Your system of faith and worship. O Allâh our Lord, we pray and beseech You to forgive our iniquities and to remit Our evil deeds and to take us to join those of the righteous.
  20. “O Allâh our Lord, our Provider and Preserver, we pray and beseech You, O Allâh, to bestow on us what You promised us at the hands of Your prophets, to grant us support and victory in this life, and not put us to shame on the Day of Resurrection. You certainly never fail to fulfill a promise.”
  21. There did Allâh respond favorably to their invocation and answer their prayer. He said, “Indeed I do not annul, or withhold, the deeds of anyone of you, man or woman. They spring one from the other. Therefore, those who emigrated seeking Allâh’s satisfaction and were ousted from their homes and suffered in My cause and fought the war of belief against disbelief and have survived or been slain will be entitled to a great reward. I will remit their evil deeds, I will welcome them in Gardens of bliss and unsurpassed beauty beneath which rivers flow, a highly appreciated reward from Allâh, and in Allâh’s grace rest hope and mercy and the best requital.”
  22. Let not the instances of prosperity falling to the disbelievers by the labor of trading from one place to another deceive you, Muhammad.
  23. It is nothing but prosperity of short duration, and then punishment must follow conviction. They are destined to the abode in Hell, and evil indeed is that abode.
  24. Whereas those who revered Allâh will be welcomed in Gardens of bliss beneath which rivers flow in a perpetual ecstatic delight that characterizes the abode prepared for them by Allâh. Whatever Allâh has in His Heaven’s realm is better reward—which merits expectant waiting by those who conform their life and conduct to Islâm—than that which the disbelievers entertain in this life.
  25. Certainly, among the People of the Book are those who believe in Allâh and believe in all that has been revealed to Muhammad and to the other prophets before him. They humble themselves to Allâh and never exchange the truth and the established divine principles for the worthless vanity of the fleeting world. Allâh will reward such people with what is generously commensurate with their deeds of piety. Allâh is swift indeed at the reckoning.
  26. O you who believe, endure and be patient. Outdo all others in exercising patience in the face of difficulties, and protect your borders, and revere Allâh as He deserves so that you may prosper.

SÛRAH 4

AN-NISÂ’

The Women

Revealed at Madînah

This sûrah was revealed over a period of months shortly after the Battle of Uhud, in which many of the Muslims were killed primarily due to disobedience and lack of discipline. The event caused great concern with regard to orphans, widows, and captives of war. The sûrah declares some rights of women that they were denied under paganism. The sûrah, for the first time in the history of religions, deals with the law of limiting polygamy. The Tawrâh (the Book revealed to Mûsâ [Moses]) permitted multiple wives, and the rule was not abrogated in the Injîl (the Book revealed to `Îsa [Jesus]). The Church permitted polygamy in medieval times, but Islâm limited polygamy to four wives and permitted it under certain conditions. The sûrah also deals with the hypocrites who were supporters of the enemies of Islâm, and at this stage Islâm began to acquire its own characteristics and be purified of paganism. The sûrah considers some basic principles to guide mankind in general and Muslims in particular: elegance, manners, equity and justice as applied to family life, care of orphans, marriage, divorce, and trusts. The sûrah insists on reconciliation [between spouses when there are marital problems], if feasible, and considers it consistent with piety. Allâh proclaims in this sûrah His mandates of inheritance of property. It also defines those women who are forbidden in marriage (due to close relationship). Other subjects that this sûrah deals with include the act of worship in war time, the irreverence displayed by some People of the Book, those whom Allâh will forgive, and those whom He will not forgive. Above all, He will never forgive the impiety of associating other deities with Him, but He forgives all else to whom He wills.

                                                            In the Name of Allâh,

The All-Merciful, the Ever-Merciful

  1. O people, revere Allâh your Lord as He deserves. He brought you into being from one single self, and from it He created its mate, and from joining both in matrimony He propagated multitudes of men and women. So all of you belong to that one self. And revere Allâh Whom you invoke for aid and protection and to Whom you appeal in witness that a statement or the like is true. And revere the wombs and never abandon them, whether they are close to you or far from you. Allâh is All-Watcher. He always keeps a vigilant eye upon you, and He will requite you according to your deeds.
  2. And give to the orphans their property and do not exchange the worthless which you might own for the good and valuable which they own, nor incorporate their property with your property. This has always been regarded by Allâh as a great sin.
  3. If you fear that you will be unjust to the orphans—as injustice to them is regarded a great sin—so you should have the same feeling if you are not just among your wives. And never have more than four; you may join in wedlock with as many as two, three, or four of other women of your choice, if you are sure that you can achieve justice among them. But if you fear that you will not be able to be just among this many, then do not marry more than one; or, under the circumstances, you may take the captives on hand into intimate relation of marriage. This prudent course of action is less likely to make you depart from moral righteousness and to have children whom you cannot supply with the necessities of life.
  4. And give the women whom you wed their dower with good will. But if the women willingly remit a part of it of their own accord, then you may take it and enjoy it. May it give you pleasure; may it do you good!
  5. And do not hand over the property to those who are foolish; this property is, in fact, the trust of the community but held in trust by a particular individual. If they are incapable, then exempt them from this responsibility, but gently and with kindness. And the property will serve as the source from which you sustain them and clothe them. And speak to them kindly and justly.
  6. And test the orphans now and then until they reach maturity and are fit for marriage. If you feel they have good sense and prudence, then hand over to them their property. And you must not abuse it or absorb it or devour it before they come of age. And he who is entrusted with the property must not impose a liability or charge a fee for the execution of his functions; but he should be virtuous if he is wealthy. But if he is poor, then he may remunerate himself with equity. And when you hand over the property to the orphans, have others witness the transfer. And Allâh is All-sufficient in taking account.
  7. Men have a rightful claim to the property left by parents and kindred, and women have the same rightful claim to the property left by parents and kindred. It is a clearly defined portion allotted to them by Providence, be it little or much.
  8. And if the poor relatives, the orphans, and the needy who are not entitled to have a portion of the inheritance are present when the inheritance is divided and distributed among the heirs, then provide them with some portion of it as a gesture to avoid a disappointment of their expectation and the envy they feel at the superior advantages of others. And speak kindly and justly with them.
  9. And let people not take unjust action against the orphans, and let them be disposed to be pious to Allâh, and to propose what is right as they would like others to do with their heirs on whose account will they be deeply concerned should they be left young and helpless. And let them say the truth that does not entail wrongful action against anybody.
  10. Indeed those who wrongfully eat the orphans out of their property simply consume but fire into their bellies, and they will suffer the fire on the Day of Judgment.
  11. Allâh commands you regarding your children’s inheritance, in case you die, that which achieves justice and reformation thus:
  12. a) The male will inherit the equivalent of what is apportioned to two females in case the heirs are males and females.
  13. b) If the heirs are females and their number exceeds two, then they equally share two-thirds of what the deceased has left. It is implicitly concluded from the verse that if they were only two, they would have the same portion, that is, two-thirds.
  14. c) And if one daughter is the only heir, then she has a rightful claim to one-half.
  15. d) If the deceased has left a child, male or female, and his parents, then each of the parents will have a rightful claim to one-sixth.
  16. e) But if the deceased has left no child and his immediate heirs are the parents, then one-third goes to the mother, and the rest to the father.
  17. f) Unless he has also brothers and/or sisters; then the mother inherits only one-sixth, and the rest goes to the father.

These proceedings are concluded after any legacy he might have bequeathed and any due debts have been paid. Commit all your causes to Allâh, Who knows what is best; whereas you do not know which of your parents and your children is best to you. This is an ordinance (authoritative direction) decreed by Allâh. Indeed Allâh is All-Knowing and All-Wise.

  1. a) The husband has a rightful claim to one-half of what his wife has left if she has no child from him or from anyone else.
  2. b) But if she has a child, then her husband is entitled to only one- quarter of what she has left after any legacy she might have bequeathed and any due debts have been paid.
  3. c) And the wives—one or more—will have a rightful claim to one- quarter of what their husbands have left in the event he has no child from her or from any other wife.
  4. d) If he has a child, then one-eighth only of what he has left goes to the wives—one or more— after any legacy he might have bequeathed and any due debts have been paid.

(All the aforementioned rules regarding the son also apply to the grandson).

  1. e) And if the deceased, a man or a woman, has no immediate heirs but only a maternal brother and/or sister, then each of them will have a rightful claim to one-sixth.
  2. f) But if the maternal brothers and/or sisters are more than two, then they have shares in one-third, man and woman alike, after the payment of any due debt, or a legacy that does not exceed one-third of what the deceased has left. So, believers, commit yourselves to Allâh’s command. Allâh is All-Knowing of those who are fair or unfair among you, and He is All-Wise, Who does not immediately punish the wrongdoers.
  3. These rules of the system of inheritance are the limits defined by Allâh to His servants to follow them and never go beyond them. Those who obey Allâh and His Messenger will receive Allâh’s blessings; Allâh will welcome them into Gardens of eternal bliss beneath which rivers flow, and this is, indeed, a triumph supreme.
  4. And whoever disobeys Allâh and His Messenger and goes beyond the limits prescribed by Allâh will be charged with his transgression. Allâh will admit him to Hell, wherein he will last forever, suffering a humiliating torment.
  5. And those of your women who commit themselves to acts of sexual immorality will be punished on the testimony of four witnesses of your men (co‑religionists) who are known to be just. Should these men attest to the truth of the act, then confine them (the women) indoors to protect them and deter evil until death claims them or until Allâh ordains for them a special providence (construed to mean repentance and marriage).
  6. And if any two of you, unmarried man and woman, commit themselves to the same evil line of conduct, punish them both with a defined punishment if their conduct was proven by the witness of four pious men. But if they repent and abandon wrongdoing, then disregard their past act and do not reproach them to induce mental pain. Allâh always accepts true repentance and atonement made by the people; He is always Ever-Relenting, Ever-Merciful.
  7. Allâh takes upon Himself to accept the repentance of those who commit themselves to an evil line of conduct proceeding from undue haste and want of thought and soon thereafter wake up before death. Allâh will give up resentment against such persons and pardon their offense. Allâh is always All-Knowing, Who recognizes sincere repentance, and All-Wise (Who never fails in judgment).
  8. But in no case will Allâh take upon Himself to accept the repentance of those who consume their life in wrongdoing until they encounter death and then say, “Now do I repent.” Nor of those who are caught in the jaws of death while they are disbelievers. Such persons will be denied Allâh’s forgiveness, and He has prepared for them a painful torment.
  9. O you who believe, you are not entitled to treat women as property to be inherited against their will following the death of their husbands. You are forbidden to ill treat them to force them to give up a part of the dower or of the property you have given them, unless they have been proven guilty of an evil line of conduct. And you must live with them in equity and honor. And should you take to them so much dislike (due to ill manners or lack of beauty), it may happen that you dislike something whereby Allâh makes all grace abound.
  10. And if any of you decides to substitute one wife for another, and you had dowered your divorcee when you married with a talent of gold, you shall not recover the least part of it. Would you reclaim by fraud and dishonesty what is their right, and you stand in manifest deceit and falsehood?
  11. And how could you reclaim it when you have already entered into matrimony and communion with one another and your vows and solemn promise of allegiance and good will have been pledged to them before Allâh?
  12. And do not marry the women whom your fathers (deceased or divorced) have married before, as this incestuous union is regarded by Allâh and the people as an immoral act, a degrading vice, and an evil line of conduct. Allâh will overlook what happened in the past.
  13. Forbidden to you to marry are your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, your paternal and maternal aunts, your nieces on the brother and sister’s side, your foster mothers, your foster sisters, your mothers‑in‑law, your step‑daughters with whose mothers you have consummated marriage, your daughters‑in‑law whose husbands are your own sons from your own loins. Nor may you marry two sisters at the same time, except for what has already passed. Indeed, Allâh is Oft-Forgiving and Ever-Merciful.
  14. Nor may you marry the women who are married (be they free or slaves) except the captives on hand whom you captured in war between you and the disbelievers, as their previous marriages are nullified by captivity and they become allowed to you after you have made sure that they are not pregnant; Allâh ordains that you observe this rule. But lawful to you are all who are beyond these limits, with the proviso that you seek to win, with your resources, the women of your choice in wedlock, other than in fornication. And pay those of them whom you will enjoy their dowers; it is a duty incurred by such bond. Nonetheless there is no consequence if you mutually agree to give her more than what you have dutifully paid or you take back from her what she wishes to remit of her own accord. Indeed, Allâh is All-Knowing of His servants’ affairs and All-Wise in settling for them that which is good for them.
  15. And those of you who do not have enough resources to marry in wedlock the Muslim women who enjoy civil liberty, may resort to the young unmarried Muslim women among those reduced to a servile state (slavery). And Allâh knows best those of you whose faith shapes their character and will. Take them in marriage, without feeling the least shame, as you are alike in faith, by permission of their guardians and pay to them (your wives) their dowers with good will. And choose those of them who are characterized with chastity, faith, fidelity, and honesty. And when once they are united in wedlock, they have to guard themselves from temptation. And if they commit themselves to an evil line of conduct [adultery], then they will suffer for their offense, but their punishment will be half that inflicted on free women for the same offense. This is ordained for those who are afraid to live in celibacy lest they should commit themselves to an evil line of conduct and incur the undesirable consequence. And if you be patient, it is better for you, and Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Ever-Merciful.
  16. Allâh intends to indicate to you the best course of action and to guide you to divine providence and to the habits of life acquired by those who came to this world before you, and to give up resentment against you and to pardon your offense. And Allâh is All-Knowing and All-Wise.
  17. But whereas Allâh takes upon Himself to extend His mercy to you and give up resentment against you and pardon your offense, the wicked who follow their lusts wish to alienate you from Allâh’s purpose and see you depart far from the path of righteousness.
  18. Allâh means to unburden you from the sins and sorrows of life. Man was created lacking in moral strength, endurance, and resistance; hence, the easy duties that Allâh ordains for him suit him more.
  19. O you who believe, do not eat your property out of each other in irreverence, unless it be a trade or exchange of commodities for a profit consented to by both the buyer and the seller. Nor will you endanger yourselves by disobeying Allâh’s commands; nor will any of you kill his Muslim brother. Allâh is All-Merciful to you.
  20. And he who sinfully and wrongfully commits himself to such line of action will suffer grievously. We will subject him to a dreadful Fire, and this is easy for Allâh to do.
  21. If you avoid and refrain from committing the major sins that have been forbidden to you, We will remit your iniquities—so long as you strive to be pious—and admit you into favor and grant you an honorable entry into the realm of bliss.
  22. Neither men nor women should long for the superior advantages or privileges Allâh has given to some of you over others. Each of you has a rightful claim to be apportioned, the proper share of what they have earned (by labor or inheritance). Therefore, each of you should long for the bounty of Providence and show that you have fulfilled the requirements for deserving what you prayed for. Allâh is ever All-Knowing of everything and gives each what is best for him or her.
  23. To all We have determined successors lawfully entitled to inherit what they have left—that is, the parents, the kindred, and those to whom the deceased has given an apportioned share of the inheritance in lieu of supporting him if he needed support. Therefore, give to each party what he or she is entitled to get, and keep in mind that Allâh is Witness to all things and knows what you do.
  24. Men are the guardians of women’s interests and welfare by consequence of the inherent constitutional qualities and attributes Allâh has invested in some over some others, and by virtue of what they strive to earn to spend on their families. Virtuous women are obedient to Allâh and to their husbands, and they are capable of fulfilling an obligation and trust in their husbands’ absence. As to those of them who you consider persistent and you have a cause to fear, simply exhort them and urge them by kind words to laudable conduct. Then absent yourselves from their society in bed, then slightly beat them without causing any injuries or humiliation to them. But if they submit to your good will at any stage and surrender themselves to correction, then do not transgress by seeking a higher stage of punishment. Allâh is ever The Unique Whose attributes belong to the highest regions of thought and reality, and He will punish you if you harm them or do an injustice against them.
  25. And if you suspect a breaking of the union between them or impending ruptured relations, then you may choose an arbitrator from the husband’s side and an arbitrator from the wife’s side, in order to obtain an equitable decision. Should the arbitrators both be willing to reconcile the differences and quarrels, then Allâh will reconcile them (the couple) and make sympathy of love unite their thoughts. Allâh is All-Knowing, well acquainted with all that you are doing.
  26. And worship Allâh alone and do not associate anything with Him, and commit your parents to your kind care and display a friendly and kind disposition to them and to the kindred who are related by blood, to the orphans, and to those who have been impoverished by disability or disaster. A similar disposition is extended to the neighbor, whether related to you or not, to the companion, to the wayfarer, and to male and female slaves. And realize that Allâh detests every boastful one who exalts himself unduly and is arrogant—
  27. Those boastful who are also miserly, unwilling to give in benevolence, who induce others to be mean and parsimonious, and who hide Allâh’s grace that He has bestowed, hence refraining from doing good to themselves or to others. We have prepared for disbelievers a humiliating torment.
  28. Allâh does not favor those who spend of their wealth ostentatiously under the guise of benevolence while, in fact, they believe neither in Allâh nor in the Last Day, as they have bound themselves to the footsteps of Satan. And he who associates himself with the devil has, in fact, espoused evil, and evil indeed is the companion.
  29. What would the disbelievers lose if they believe in Allâh and the Last Day and spend with good intention and hope of reward of what Allâh has bestowed on them? Indeed, Allâh is ever aware of them, All-Knowing of all that they do, be it in secret or in public.
  30. Allâh is never unjust to anyone in the least. He does not scale down his good deeds or increase his punishment. He mercifully requites the pious deed with double what is commensurable with it, and He requites those who are faithful to Him with a great reward.
  31. How will it be for those miserly who refrain from Allâh’s commands if and when We call upon the Messenger of every nation to bear witness to his people’s deeds, and We call upon you, Muhammad, to bear witness to your people.
  32. There and then those who disbelieved in Allâh or His statutes or both and who disobeyed the Messenger will wish they could be leveled to the dust like the dead. And not one fact can they hide from Allâh, Who reveals all their states and deeds.
  33. O you who are believers, do not engage in the act of worship while you are under the influence of intoxicants until you recognize what you say, nor enter into a mosque when you are in a state of major ritual impurity—unless you are on the road—until you have bathed. And if you are sick and water would increase your sickness; or you are on the road and obtaining water is difficult for you; or you have defecated or have come in contact with women and the sensation or contact stirred you to passion and you did not find water for ablution; then dry ablution (tayammum) is a religious rite: apply clean sand, dust, or dry earth lightly to your faces and hands. Allâh is Ever-Indulgent, Oft-Forgiving.
  34. Have you, Muhammad, not seen into the irreverent disposition of those who had their share of the Book and of divine knowledge, how they exchange the guidance of Providence to the path of righteousness for the perplexed path of error, and how they wish to alienate you from the path of Allâh and err and stray from the way of righteousness!
  35. Allâh knows best those who are at enmity with you, who seek to injure you and afflict you, if they could, with a disaster. But Allâh is enough to be your Guardian and enough to help you, so never seek help from any but Him.
  36. Among the Jews are some who alter the intended sense of Allâh’s words. And they say to you, Muhammad, “We have heard your words but we disobey.” And they say to you, “We need you to apply your ears to us, and you are excused if you do not listen, but please attend to us.” In fact, the way they pronounce the words gives them a secondary bad meaning and insults the religion, thus: “Listen, may you never hear and be afflicted with deafness, you are a thoughtless bad one.”

(And they say “attend to us” in a way that shows that they want the Prophet to give them some attention; whereas they insult him and describe him as hasty and irrational.)

But had they said “we open to you our hearts’ ears and we obey” instead of saying “we have heard your words but we disobey” and said “please listen to us” without saying “may you never hear” and “direct your eye to us,” it would have been much better for them and indeed honorable. But Allâh has expelled them from His mercy for their disobedience and their disbelief. They do not believe in Allâh’s call but a few of them.

  1. O you to whom the Book has been given, believe in the Qur’ân, which We have revealed to Our Messenger Muhammad, corroborating and authoritatively validating the authentic Book, the Tawrâh, which you possess, before We efface faces and wipe out their features beyond recognition and eclipse their splendor. Or before We afflict you with such evils as indicate divine wrath and a malignant fate, just as We cursed those who broke the Sabbath. Allâh’s command always comes to pass.
  2. Allâh will never forgive the impious irreverence of associating other deities with Him, but He forgives all else to whom He will. And he who associates other deities with Allâh will have committed the most heinous unforgivable sin.
  3. Do not wonder, Muhammad, into the manner of those who vindicate themselves and justify their wrongs! Although We have shown them how bad their deeds are, they see them as good and praise themselves for committing them. Indeed, it is only Allâh Who has the absolute authority to distinguish the bad from the good, and no one is ever wronged not even to the equivalent of a single date-plaiting.
  4. Look how they forge lies against Allâh, and that is enough to be manifest sin.
  5. Have you not seen, Muhammad, the irreverent disposition of those who had their share of the Book and of divine knowledge—the People of the Book—how they are strongly disposed to believe in falsehood, rendering idolatrous worship to idols, priests, necromancers, and to the devil, and how they admire the disbelievers and consider them the guideposts of faith compared to those who took Providence as their guide!
  6. These are they whom Allâh has cursed and expelled from His mercy as indications of divine wrath and a malignant fate. He whom Allâh has cursed will find no one to help him and protect him from Allâh’s wrath.
  7. They have been deprived from the bounty of entertaining power. But if they did, they would never have bestowed on mankind even as little as the speck in a date stone.
  8. Why do they envy the Arabs for what Allâh has endowed upon them, sending a Prophet from among them, despite that Allâh has bestowed on Ibrâhîm (Abraham)—your father and their father—and his family the divine prerogative of prophethood and the Book and the wisdom that go with it, and He privileged them with sovereignty and a great kingdom.
  9. And among those to whom Ibrâhîm was sent, were some who recognized him and believed in him and others who declined to accept him. And enough is Hell to lay claim to those disbelievers to infuriate its blazes.
  10. Those who deny Our clear revelations and refuse to recognize Our Prophets will be put to torture. We will expose them to the protracted and dreadful conflagration. As often as their skins are consumed, We will replace them with new skins so that they taste the merciless but just punishment. Indeed, Allâh is All-Powerful and All-Wise.
  11. But those who believed and behaved with wisdom and piety will be recipients of Allâh’s mercy and. blessings. We will welcome them into Gardens beneath which rivers flow wherein they will have passed to eternity. They will be companioned with mates of their design, pure, chaste, and holy, fellows of their piety, and will be overshadowed with Allâh’s gracious favors.
  12. Allâh commands you believers to restore the property and whatever you hold in trust—be it from Allâh or from people—to those who have the rightful claim to it and or to those who have entrusted you with it, and to exercise justice. This is Allâh’s admonition to you; stick to it. How morally excellent is what He exhorts you to do. Allâh is All-Hearing and All-Seeing.
  13. O you who believe in the revelation that Muhammad has received, obey Allâh and obey the Messenger and obey those among you who are in authority. Nonetheless, if you seem resolved to dispute any subject or any concern, then resort to Allâh and the Messenger, in case you believe in Allâh and the . This is the right resolution to your disputes. This is a wise course of action ensuring safety and leading to the intended purpose.
  14. Have you seen, Muhammad, the irreverent disposition of those who allege that they believe in all that has been revealed to you and to all that was revealed to Messengers before you—how they wish to resort to the devil and to false deities for judgment of their disputes! Yet Allâh has commanded them to reject and renounce every deity besides Allâh. But Satan intends to mislead them into the maze of error.
  15. When the hypocrites are advised to resort to the Law sent by Allâh to be the standard for judgment and to go to you (the Messenger) for aid, you see them turn away their faces in repugnance, turn their eyes and their thoughts from you.
  16. And so, how will it be if and when a misfortune or a calamity befalls them in consequence of what their wrongful hands have committed, while they have no one to resort to but you! There and then they will go to you solemnly swearing by Allâh that they meant nothing but peace upon earth and concord and good will among men.
  17. Allâh is All-Knowing of the irreverence in the hearts of these and such persons who appeal to Allâh that they meant nothing but good deeds and good will. Therefore, disregard what they say, Muhammad, and exhort them with words that reach their ears and their hearts.
  18. Never did We send a Messenger but to be obeyed, Allâh willing, and he who exercises hypocrisy or lies or opposes the Messenger is unjust to himself. And if they had turned to Allâh as soon as they wronged themselves and gone to you to invoke Allâh’s forgiveness, and you, Muhammad, had invoked Allâh, on their behalf, for mercy and forgiveness, they would have found Allâh All-Forgiving and All-Merciful to His servants.
  19. But never, by Allâh your Lord, will they be recognized as believers until they have willingly accepted you as the judge or the arbitrator and accepted your judgment and submitted reverently to your authority.
  20. And if We had enjoined them to engage in the ultimate strife of incessant fighting, or sacrifice their lives, or to go out of their homes to fight against positive disbelief, they would not have obeyed the injunction, with the exception of a few. Allâh enjoins them only to what they can bear. If they had obeyed Allâh’s authoritative admonition, it would have been much better for them here and hereafter. Such obedience would have confirmed their belief and position of authority.
  21. There and then they would have merited a great reward from Heaven.
  22. And moral straightness and the path of righteousness would have been all before them, and Providence would have been their guide.
  23. He who obeys Allâh and His Messenger by submitting to their commands and judgment will be placed in the distinguished position of those in whom all divine grace abounds: the Prophets, the veracious, the martyrs, and the pious in a perverse world; and how celebrated is the society.
  24. Such a distinguished position assigned to whoever obeyed Allâh and His Messenger is a manifestation of Allâh’s grace, and enough for any believer is Allâh to be All-Knowing of his state while he obeys Him and seeks His favor.
  25. O you who believe, take all precautions to provide against a surprise attack and be always ready to repel them, and advance in single battalions or advance in regiment.
  26. And beware of the disheartening and discouraging individuals among you who detach themselves from you (when you go to fight) in thought and action so that if you happen to suffer loss or a calamity, any one of them would say, “Allâh has been gracious to me, for I was guided to detach myself from the pursuit of their fight.”
  27. But should you gain victory and you gather the booty, he says, “I wish I were a part of them, I would have achieved a great victory and gathered some booty,” as if he is not bound to you by ties of affection.
  28. Since the like of these aforementioned whose faith in Allâh is greatly shaken are among you, O Muslims, then let those of you who have the world all before them but choose to exchange it for the better world in Heaven’s realm hereafter, fight in the cause of Allâh. And he who fights in the cause of Allâh, whether he loses his life or is victorious, will merit Our blessings and We will repay him an imposingly beautiful reward.
  29. And why should you not fight in the cause of Allâh when the helpless and the oppressed among the men, the women, and the children appeal to Allâh for aid: “We pray and beseech You, O Allâh our Lord, to deliver us out of the sovereignty of the unjust who are tyrannous and oppressive, and confer on us Your patronage and Your victory.”
  30. Those who believe in the truth fight in the cause of Allâh; whereas those who disbelieve in Allâh fight in the cause of injustice and corruption and became advocates of the devil. Therefore, fight them, O Muslims, because they are the advocates of the irreverent system of worship instituted by Satan, and be sure that you will win victory over them by Allâh’s support. Indeed, the cunning of Satan is taken to be weak.
  31. Have you not seen, Muhammad, the disposition of those who were told to restrain their desire for fighting and to faithfully observe the prayer and give zakâh (poor-dues). Yet when Allâh enjoined them to fight, some of them feared the enemy—to a degree comparable to or even higher than the degree of fear that is due to Allâh, Lord of all beings. And they exclaimed against fighting, saying, “O Allâh our Lord, why enjoin us to fight?” Thinking that fighting would soon end their lives, they said, “If only You would put fighting in respite and postpone this obligation to a future date in order that we may enjoy our lives!” Say to them, Muhammad, “Go ahead to fighting even if it leads to death. The enjoyment experienced here below, no matter how long it lasts, is fleeting and evanescent compared with the enjoyments and everlasting bliss of the Hereafter. The Hereafter abounds in the best for those who revere Allâh as He deserves. And you all will be requited according to your deeds, and no one will ever be wronged, not even to a single date-plaiting.”
  32. Wherever you may be, you will be caught by death even if you happen to be in fortified strongholds. Yet when good fortune falls in the way of those with shaken belief, they attribute it to Allâh, and if misfortune comes to them, they attribute it to you, Muhammad. Say to them, “All happenings, good or bad, are authorized by Allâh as a test.” What ails these people that they hardly comprehend a word?
  33. In effect, whatever good fortune comes to you is endowed with grace from the bounty of Allâh, and whatever misfortune befalls you is the consequence of your own doings. We have sent you, Muhammad, to human kind as a Messenger, and enough is Allâh to be a Witness to all deeds.
  34. He who obeys the Messenger has, in effect, obeyed Allâh, as the Messenger only enjoins that which Allâh has enjoined and forbids only that which Allâh has forbidden; so, he who obeys the Messenger has, in effect, obeyed Allâh. And he who turns away must realize that We did not send you as a preserver over them.
  35. They whose faith is greatly shaken show obedience in your presence, Muhammad, and say to you, “We obey all that you exhort us to do.” But when they depart from you, some of them design by night a scheme of action not according with your commands, and Allâh puts in writing all that they propose to do. Therefore, disregard them; and rely upon Allâh, and enough is He to be your Guardian Who exercises protecting vigilance over you.
  36. Do those hypocrites not ponder the Qur’ân to know Allâh’s command, to obey Him and follow your orders, and to know that this Book is revealed by Him as shown by its coherence and integrity? If it were revealed from a source other than Allâh, they would have found it abounding in discrepancies and variations.
  37. When these people learn, by credible or incredible sources, a subject or report or talk to the credit of the Muslims or against them, they spread it as news and circulate it as rumor to terrorize them or to inform their enemies against them. Had those hypocrites referred the matter of security and fear to the Messenger and, in his absence, to the leaders who are in authority among them and inquired about the reality from them, they would have known the facts from the Prophet and the leaders. Had it not been for Allâh’s grace and mercy that enabled you to win and prosper, you people would have followed Satan except a few.
  38. Disregard those hypocrites who live among you, Muhammad, and fight in the cause of Allâh and the truth. You are not responsible for anyone but yourself. But incite those who believe to make war against disbelief; perhaps Allâh may curb the hostility of those disbelievers. Allâh will support you and give you victory. Allâh’s omnipotence infinitely exceeds man’s might, and when He avenges His right, He is more strict in torture.
  39. Those hypocrites side with corruption; whereas believers side with the truth. He who sides with the good will have a share of his good grace allotted to him by Providence. And he who sides with the bad, for the purpose of an evil cause or for selfish motives will share the consequences of his ill deed. Allâh is Supreme Overseer.
  40. When you are greeted with words or gestures, acknowledge the greeting with a more courteous recognition or at least return the same formula; it is an obligation. Allâh takes account of all things and all actions.
  41. Allâh—there is no god but Him, and none besides Him has the least authority—will inevitably revive you all after death for the Day of Resurrection, the Day which admits no suspicion. He says that, so never doubt what He says, and who is more truthful than Allâh?
  42. How can you Muslims be divided regarding the hypocrites who show Islâm and hide disbelief; are they Muslims or not? Are they capable of being guided to Islâm or not? In effect, Allâh has cast them back to disbelief. Do not wish to guide those whom Allâh has declined to guide to His path of righteousness! He whom Allâh does not guide to His path of righteousness will not be able to be guided by anyone.
  43. You wish to guide those hypocrites, but they wish you would desert faith in favor of disbelief as they do, so that you be both alike. Therefore, do not take patrons of them until they have emigrated as purposed by Allâh and have resolved to fight in His cause. Should they turn a deaf ear and join your enemies, then beset them on all sides. And kill them wherever you find them and join none of them patrons nor lean upon any of them to help you.
  44. But exempt from aforesaid prescriptive right are those hypocrites who take refuge with or are related to a people with whom you are bound by a covenant relating to peace, truce, or alliance. Or also exempt are those hypocrites who are perplexed by reason of their kinship to your opponents; they do not have the heart to fight on your side against their people nor to side with their people against you. The first group is protected by the covenant, whereas the other is protected because they are perplexed. Had Allâh willed, He would have incited them against you, and then they would have waged war against you. Therefore, if they are disposed to let you alone, to proceed no further and offer you peace, then do not kill them, for there is no reason to do that.
  45. If you have victory, they apply for security from you; and if their people have victory, they apply for security from their people. Hence, they always exercise hypocrisy and turn to it. Then, unless they let you alone and proceed no further and offer you peace, kill them wherever you find them or whenever you gain mastery over them. Allâh gives you a free hand against them and complete liberty of action.
  46. The above mentioned grouping of hypocrites is only made for precautious measures, so that no Muslim would be taken for a hypocrite and get killed. It is not right to kill a believer unless it be by unintentional mistake. In case a believer who lives in a Muslim state is killed by mistake, then diyah (blood-money) should be paid to the deceased’s family to compensate them for their loss, and a Muslim slave is to be released to make up for the loss inflicted on the Muslim community unless they donate it, since manumitting a Muslim slave is in effect reinstating him in the Muslim society. And if the victim is a Muslim whose people are your enemy, then there should be a freeing of a Muslim neck. If the victim is of a people with whom there is a binding peace agreement, then a Muslim slave should be released from bondage and the blood-money is to be paid to the deceased’s family. If the (accidental) killer does not have the means to fulfill the divine Law as indicated above, he will have to fast from dawn to sunset for two consecutive months. Allâh is The All-Knowing Who knows the intentions. And He is The All-Wise Who sets the right penalty for the offense.
  47. And he who kills a believer intentionally will be destined to Hell, wherein he will have passed to eternal suffering, and he will have drawn Allâh’s wrath and curse on himself. This is besides the torment prepared by Allâh to lay upon the damned.
  48. In case of war, it is incumbent to take all possible measures not to kill a believer. So, when you journey into a foreign land in Allâh’s cause, you must distinguish the disposition of the people whom you will fight—whether or not they have conformed to Islâm. Nor should you say to anyone who greets you and shows you signs of peace “you are not a Muslim” in quest of money and booty, but accept their peaceful signs and greetings, as Allâh Has prepared for you better and sublime booty. Remember, if he is not a believer in Allâh, thus were you before, but Allâh of His grace guided you to His path of righteousness. Therefore, discern the reality of the people you are about to fight. Allâh is Ever-Knowing of all that you do and will requite you according to your deeds.
  49. Indeed, it is a sublime honor to exercise such a cautious jihad, as they are not alike, those who stay at home for no valid reason and those who strive in the cause of Allâh with their wealth and their lives. Allâh has graced those who strove with their wealth and their lives in His cause with special distinctions a step higher in the scale of dignity and rank than those who stay‑at‑home, unless they have valid reasons that prevent them from going out for jihâd. Yet, although Allâh will distinguish those who strive from the stay‑at‑home by quite a rich reward, Allâh promised to both efficacious grace effecting the end for which it is given.
  50. This grade assigned to those who strive in the cause of Allâh is very high due to the great disparity between it and others. Yet Allâh confers it on them, in addition to great forgiveness and vast mercy.
  51. The Muslims should depart from humiliation and move to the Muslim state, as they will be questioned by the angels, “What became of you, and what was your reaction to oppression and humiliation?” The answer will be, “We were oppressed by tyrannical exercise of power.” The angels ask, “Was Allâh’s earth not extensive enough for you to move to another country and settle there?” Such persons are destined to Hell, and evil indeed is the intended end (as the Muslim should not accept humiliation, but he must live in dignity and honor).
  52. But exempt from this are the men who are weak to age, the women and the children who are weak in bodily or muscular strength who have no stratagem to use against the enemy or who are unable to lead any course of action or determine the course of events.
  53. Such persons may be excused, and there is hope that Allâh may give up resentment against them; Allâh has always been All-Tolerant and All-Forgiving.
  54. And he who emigrates in the cause of Allâh to support the truth will find many places of refuge in which he humiliates the enemies of the truth, and abounding resources of freedom and dignity and multiple reward. And he who quits his homeland in the service of Allâh’s purpose and His Messenger but happens to meet death, will win Allâh’s grace; his reward has thus early been incumbent on Allâh.
  55. Prayer is incumbent in all circumstances and cannot be dropped during a journey. Yet, you incur no guilt if you should shorten your prayer (reduce the number of rak`ahs) if you fear you might be exposed to a willfully inflicted injury by those who are an enemy of the faith. Therefore, be cautious; the disbelievers are indeed your avowed enemy.
  56. And if you, Muhammad, happen to be with the Muslims and it is time to observe a congregational prayer, then you should divide the Muslims into two groups so that you may keep on guard. Perform your act of worship as indicated here: You lead the prayer with the first group, who will remain carrying their weapons while the second group stand guard over you in the rear. When you have (prostrated) completed the first rak`ah, then the first group withdraws to the rear to replace those in the second group, who now join you during your second rak`ah, at the end of which you, Muhammad, will have completed your two rak`ahs. Now there remains one rak`ah for each group to perform. The first group (armed) now performs the second rak`ah with the second group standing guard over them in the rear. Then the groups reverse their position until each group has completed its two rak`ahs, being cautious at all times. The disbelievers wish you would neglect your arms and your equipment so that they attack you once for all. Yet you are absolved to lay down your arms if it rains or if you fall sick, but be constantly on your guard. Allâh has prepared for the disbelievers a tormenting punishment, humiliating indeed.
  57. When you have completed your prayer, keep remembering Allâh and standing, sitting, and lying on your sides. However, when you feel safe and secure, then perform the act of worship in the proper manner as prescribed by Allâh, for the act of worship is incumbent on those who believe to observe at the scheduled hours.
  58. And do not relax in strictness and severity nor weaken in your fighting power against those who are an open enemy of the faith. If you are suffering war injuries, they are suffering just the same; but you are unlike them, for they are staking their very lives on some dark hope, whereas you are hopeful of Allâh’s guardianship, mercy, and blessings. And Allâh is All-Knowing of your deeds and theirs, and He is The All-Wise Who requites everyone according to his deeds.
  59. We have sent down to you, Muhammad, the Book (the Qur’ân) in truth and inclusive of all that is right to the Last Day, so that you judge between the people in the manner shown to you by Allâh. And so, do not be deceived by the wicked who attempt to prejudice you and deceive you into using your authority to favor and vindicate those who are treacherous.
  60. And when judging between people, invoke Allâh’s forgiveness and mercy and remember His grace. Allâh is Ever Oft-Forgiving and Ever-Merciful.
  61. And you should not plead on behalf of those who deceive themselves and assert what is false and lead others into error. Allâh detests the one who deceitfully violates faith and betrays trust.
  62. They hide their evil deeds from the notice of others, but how can they conceal them from the notice of Allâh when He is with them (by His knowledge). They plot when they are alone at night and their dispositions go against the principles of Allâh. But Allâh is Ever-Cognizant of all that they do.
  63. If you people have pleaded on their behalf here below so that they may not be punished for their evil deeds, who is going to plead on their behalf on the Day they rise again and come to Allâh’s final judgment? Or who will then take them under his guardianship?
  64. The door of repentance is open. He who commits himself to an evil line of conduct or wrongs himself and invokes Allâh’s forgiveness and mercy will find Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Ever-Merciful.
  65. The consequences of sins are only inflicted on those who commit them. And he who commits himself to an evil line of conduct will have only committed it against himself and to the hurt of his own interest. Allâh is All-Knowing of what he has done and requites him according to His wisdom.
  66. And he who makes a mistake or does something in a manner contrary to equity and uprightness or commits a crime and throws the blame on someone who is innocent (as someone who steals something then accuses an innocent one of stealing it) will have burdened himself with two sins: the guilt of intentional assertion of falsehood and of the crime.
  67. And had it not been for Allâh’s efficacious grace and mercy abounding in you, Muhammad, some of those would have resolved to lead you in the wrong, when in fact they will only mislead themselves, as Allâh has informed you with the truth, and your wisdom leads you to it. Even though they desire to harm you, they cannot get you into harm’s way. Allâh has revealed to you the Book—the Qur’ân—to guide you and acquaint your heart with wisdom, and He imparted to you the knowledge of what you never knew except from Him. And Allâh’s grace and blessings on you have, indeed, been abounding.
  68. There is nothing useful nor reliable for a purpose or efficient in a function in much of their secret counsel and thoughts, as evil multiplies as long as it is hidden. Unless that secret talk be in accord with wisdom and piety, enjoining benevolence, equity, the inducement to peace among people, and the principles of justice. And he whose character features willingness to comply with divine principles for the sake of piety will be a recipient of Allâh’s grace. We will requite him with a great reward in this world and in the Hereafter.
  69. And he who contends with the Messenger with opposing arguments after he has clearly sensed the spirit of truth guiding to all truth and who follows a path other than that followed by those who believe and who enters into loyalty with the enemies of the believers—he will be deemed as belonging to those enemies if he takes them as his masters. Allâh will punish him in Hellfire.
  70. Such a fatal end never fails such people who are the enemies of Islâm. Like them are those who associate other deities with Allâh, since every sin is forgivable except associating other deities with Allâh or worshiping other deities besides Allâh and opposing His Messenger. Never will Allâh forgive the impious irreverence of associating other deities with Him, but He forgives all else to whom He will. And he who associates other deities with Allâh will have lost himself in the maze of error.
  71. The most obvious manifestation of association of other deities with Allâh is that they worship that which neither hears nor sees, harms nor benefits. They simply revere and venerate idols designated by female appellations—goddesses like Lât, ‘Uzzâ, Manât and others—and invoke them besides Allâh. It is a visible manifestation of Satan.
  72. Allâh has cursed him and afflicted him with such evils as indicate divine wrath and a malignant fate. His insolence was such as to promise Allâh to incite a determinate number of His servants to evil.
  73. He vowed that he would lead them into error and would lead them to an evil line of conduct and arouse in them vain desires and stir up their sinful, sensuous appetite. Thus he puts them under his control and pushes them to do unreasonable things that they consider as worship; whereas they are nothing but false illusions. So, he incited them to cut the ears of cattle and to change the course and order of things wherein they were set at the creation, and made them believe that the cattle whose ears were cut should not be slaughtered, worked, or prevented from any grazing ground according to his orders, and convinced them that this is a religion. And thus they follow him and take him as a refuge besides Allâh. And he who puts himself under the guardianship of Satan besides Allâh will be a great loser and deserves punishment in this life and in the Hereafter.
  74. He stirs them to do evil, promises them, and arouses in them vain desires when, in fact, he promises them only what is vain, deceptive, and deluding.
  75. Such persons who abandoned their mental faculties and followed his vain desires are destined to make abode in Hell where the flames will lay upon them a sure watch that they cannot evade.
  76. This is the inevitable end of Satan’s followers, but those who believe in Allâh will be requited with what is commensurate with their deeds. They believed in Allâh and His Messenger, did righteous deeds, and never followed false illusions. Allâh will welcome them into Gardens of bliss beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will have passed through nature to eternity, a solemn promise made by Allâh. And who is more truthful than Allâh?
  77. The hope of some reward, whether merited or unmerited, peculiar to man is a desire not in accord with Allâh’s legislative and religious code. Therefore, it is neither according to your desires, Muslims, nor is it according to the desires of the People of the Book (Jews and Christians) that Allâh proceeds. He who commits himself to an evil line of conduct will be punished for it and will suffer for his offense; he will not find a guardian besides Allâh, nor can anyone help him.
  78. And whoever does good deeds according to his capacity while he believes in Allâh and His Messenger, will be welcomed into Paradise. They will never be wronged, not even as little as the speck in a date stone. There is no distinction between male and female.
  79. Righteous deeds stem from pure faith, and the best of them are those done only for Allâh’s sake. So man should turn his face to Allâh, seeking nothing but Allâh’s favor. Here and then his senses get purified and he realizes the message brought by the messengers, practices the best of deeds, and follows Ibrâhîm (Abraham), the father of the prophets, as his religion is the true religion of Allâh that always guides to the truth. Ibrâhîm is the converging point at which the religious unity of Muslims, Jews, and Christian meets. So, follow his track. Allâh has distinguished him by His outstanding bondman!

126.Genuine belief in Allâh and submission to Him are genuine belief in Him Who created this universe and controls it, for to Allâh belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on earth, including stars, celestial bodies, the sun, the moon, and the earth. And Allâh is Ever-Cognizant of all things.

  1. And those who conformed to Islâm seek counsel from you, Muhammad, concerning women—how to act toward them and deal justly with them. Allâh replied to their question regarding women, helpless members of the family, and orphans. And He mentions that the orphan females who marry but are denied their due, young children, and orphans should be kindly and justly treated. And whatever deed you imprint with wisdom and piety is an honorable deed; it always comes to Allâh’s knowledge.
  2. And if a woman is apprehensive about her husband’s ill treatment—that is, neglect or desertion—they incur no blame should they reconcile their quarrel and reconcile themselves with Allâh, for the action of reconciling persons is consistent with piety. Greed and failure to admit a point in argument or to concede anything asked or required end in prejudice. But if you turn your thoughts on moral excellence and benevolence and revere Allâh, you will find that Allâh is Well-Acquainted with all that you do.
  3. You will never be able to do equity and justice to women through love and absolute equity in the case of multiple wives, however much you wish to do so. Therefore, do not disincline yourselves altogether from any of them so as to keep her in suspense and anguish. But you must reform yourselves and establish family life on piety, and revere Allâh as He deserves. Thus you will find that Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Ever-Merciful.
  4. And should they fail to reconcile and thus divorce, then Allâh will make them independent of each other. He will compensate each of them for what has been lost out of His bounty, which flows freely and abundantly from the fountains of His grace. Great is Allâh the Lord. He is ever All-Sufficient. His mercy is vast and His wisdom is infinite.
  5. The essence of religion is to surrender to the Lord of the universe, to acknowledge His infinite authority. To Allâh belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on earth. And by virtue of this infinite authority He said: We have enjoined those who were given the Book before you as well as you Muslims to revere Allâh, worship Him, and acknowledge His Authority. Then you must realize that to Allâh belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on earth. And Allâh is Ever-Affluent, Absolute, and Worthy of all praise.
  6. And to Allâh belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on earth, as He is the infinite authority. And enough is Allâh to be your Guardian Who keeps protecting vigilance over the people so that they may worship Him, rely on Him, and revere Him.
  7. O people, you live in Allâh’s dominion. He is Ever-Powerful, All-Mighty. If He wills, He can do away with you people and replace you with others. And Allâh is Ever-Able to do all things to effect this.
  8. And whoever seeks the mundane things that minister to his enjoyment and content here below through the righteous ways and means, must realize that Allâh will confer all the divine things that conduce to His mercy and grace in this life and in the Hereafter. Allâh is ever All-Hearing and ever All-Seeing of all that you do.
  9. Equity is the basis of life and the uncontroversial law. So, you who have conformed to Allâh and the call of His messengers, charge yourselves with equity, recourse to the principles of justice, and exercise your authority and power in maintenance of right. Rich or poor as they may be, Allâh is He Who is more capable of guarding their interests. Therefore, do not be influenced by emotion, nor let passion conquer reason and sway you from justice. And if you should swerve from this course of action, you must realize that Allâh has always been ever Well-Acquainted with all that you do.
  10. Indeed, the heavenly messages are one, as the Sender is One, that is, Allâh. O you who believe, submit to Allâh and be sincere to Him; believe in His Messenger Muhammad and in all that is mentioned in the Book revealed to him; act according to its teachings; and believe in the Book He sent down before (without any distortion or change). Believe in all of that, for he who disbelieves in Allâh, the Lord of the universe, His angels, His Books, His messengers, and the Day of Resurrection will have erred and strayed far into error.
  11. Indeed, belief is absolute submission and incessant commitment to the truth. Those with hesitant and shaken belief are not believers. That is, those who conform to Islâm, then turn apostates, then again conform to Islâm and again go over from Islâm and, thus, sink deeply in disbelief—Allâh will never forgive the evil they do, nor guide them to the right path, as Allâh’s forgiveness requires total abandonment of evil, and His guidance is only given to those who direct their faces to the right and seek it.
  12. Announce to the hypocrites, Muhammad, that they must expect a painful torment.
  13. Those hypocrites favor to take the disbelievers who deny Allâh as their guardians and to abandon the believers. Do they seek honor and power at their hands and pride themselves in so doing? But all power, omnipotence, and honor rest in Allâh’s hands. He confers it on His believing servants. He who seeks honor from Allâh gets it.
  14. Allâh has been sending to you “Muslims” in the Book (the Qur’ân) that whenever you hear a verse from the Book, you believe in it; whereas the disbelievers deny and ridicule it. So, if you hear Allâh’s revelations challenged and denied and ridiculed by those who are losers, then do not keep company with them until they have changed the subject of conversation, and virtue and wisdom no longer sit in want, lest you be like them. Allâh will gather the hypocrites and the disbelievers all together in the kingdom of Hell.
  15. Such persons watch you closely with hatred and envy and wish you the worst when you are fighting the enemies, and they are on the watch for opportunities. If Allâh graces you with His guardianship and victory, they, stunned by your victory, say to you, “Have we not been on your side as a part of your community?” And if good fortune comes to the disbelievers who deny Allâh, they say to them, “Did we not back you up and avert the disaster that would have befallen you at the hands of the Muslims?” Allâh will judge between you on the Day of Resurrection and Judgment, and Allâh will never give the advantage to the cause of the disbelievers over that of the Muslims so long as the Muslims are committed to belief and righteous deeds.
  16. The hypocrites imagine that they deceive Allâh and hide their reality from Him, while, in fact, He deceives them by giving them enough rope to allow them free scope of action in order that they commit themselves to an evil line of conduct, then He requites them for their deeds. The material aspect is manifested when they stand to perform prayer: they are dispirited and despondent; they perform their prayer only to attract notice and win the admiration of people. They hardly remember Allâh; had they mentioned Him, they would have cleansed themselves from hypocrisy.
  17. They are swayed in their opinions and their actions, while in truth they belong neither to these nor to those due to their lack of faith and their shaken character. You will never find a way to guide him whom Allâh does not guide to the path of righteousness.
  18. Among the reasons for hypocrisy is that the hypocrites took the disbelievers as intimate friends and patrons. So, you who believe, do not take the disbelievers who deny Allâh as intimate friends nor favor them as patrons. If you do that, Allâh will take fault with you and include you in the circle of the hypocrites and humiliate you, as you do not seek your honor from Allâh, from the truth, and from righteous deeds.
  19. Indeed, the hypocrites are destined to the abode in the deep bottomless abyss of Hell, and you will never find anyone to vindicate them.
  20. But such a misfortune would be cancelled in favor of those who repent, amend their ways, declare the truth, choose to be under His guardianship, and faithfully conform to His system of faith and worship. Allâh will include such persons in the circle of those whose hearts have believed, and Allâh will requite the faithful who are firm in belief and allegiance to Him a great reward in this life and in the Hereafter.
  21. Indeed, Allâh only asks you to believe in Him and acknowledge His favor upon you. If you do so, Allâh will not inflict any punishment on you, but He will reward you for being grateful. Allâh has always acknowledged what is esteemed a worthy deed; and He is All-Knowing of all that you do, be it good or evil.
  22. Allâh forbids His servants to utter evil words unless it be in redressing grievances. Then they are allowed to complain against the aggressors. And Allâh is ever All-Hearing and ever All-Knowing of the aggression and requites the aggressor.
  23. Whether you make your wise and pious deed publicly known or you conceal it from the notice of others, or if you forgive and give up resentment against an offender or remit the penalty for an offense. You must realize that Allâh is ever Oft-Pardoning, All-Powerful.
  24. Indeed, those who disbelieve in Allâh and refuse to acknowledge His messengers and wish to dissociate them from Allâh and say that they believe only in some messengers, and thus they believe in whom they like and deny whom they dislike taking a way in-between, whereas it is incumbent to believe in all of them—
  25. These and such persons are disbelievers, indeed, and Allâh has prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating punishment.
  26. Whereas those who believe in Allâh and recognize His messengers and do not discriminate one from another, will be recipients of the grace of Allâh, Who will requite them with what is commensurate with their deeds. And Allâh is All-Forgiving, Ever-Merciful.
  27. And the People of the Book insolently ask you, Muhammad, for evidence that proves the truthfulness of your prophethood, that is, a Book that you would cause to descend upon them from heaven to attest your message, and call upon them to believe in you and obey you! But greater was their irreverence to Mûsâ (Moses), whom their ancestors asked to show them Allâh openly so that they might perceive Him by sight. Then heaven thundered against them and the fearful echoes struck with thunderbolt in consequence of their blasphemy against Allâh. And worse was the reverence and veneration they paid to the Calf that they worshiped and adored besides Allâh. And this odd disposition strangely ran in their heads after they had received enough signs to guide them out of darkness into illumination and enlightenment. Yet Allâh pardoned them and remitted the penalty of their serious offense and conferred on Mûsâ delegated power and made him stand manifest of authority.
  28. And Allâh raised the mount above the Children of Isrâ’îl to force them to reconsider the Law of the Tawrâh (the Book revealed to Mûsâ [Moses]) until they did. Then Allâh made a covenant with them and commanded them to enter the town humbling themselves to Him and refraining from breaking the Sabbath that Allâh had set apart for rest and worship. Allâh entered into a paramount covenant with them to bind them by it.
  29. Allâh brought His wrath on them because they broke the divine covenant, denied Allâh’s revelations, wrongfully slew the prophets, and insolently said that their hearts were deaf and that their hearts treasured every branch of divine knowledge and wisdom so that they could absorb no more. In fact, Allâh imprinted their hearts with disbelief and impiety for how greatly shaken was their faith in Allâh.
  30. They incurred Allâh’s wrath for their disbelief and their slanderous calumny against Maryam (Virgin Mary).
  31. And for their false allegation that they slew the Messiah, `Îsâ the son of Maryam (Jesus the son of Mary), the Messenger of Allâh, when in fact they never killed him, nor did they crucify him but they thought they did, but a resemblance of him was presented to them. Then they disputed his fate in a state of uncertainty as to the truth and reality of the incident. Their belief was based on empty knowledge and their supposition was formed on grounds admittedly insufficient, for, indeed, in no way did they kill him.
  32. But Allâh took him up to His august presence and saved him from his enemies. And Allâh is All-Mighty and All-Wise.
  33. And there is no one among the People of the Book but will recognize the reality of `Îsa before his death—that is that he is Allâh’s Servant and Messenger. And on the Day of Judgment, `Îsâ will be a witness against them, stating that he conveyed the message to them and that he is Allâh’s Servant and Messenger.
  34. And in consequence of their iniquities and wrongdoing, Allâh denied them some good and wholesome foods that were lawful to them previously, and for their frequent standing in the way to prevent Allâh’s truth from guiding people into all truth.
  35. Also for their ill-gotten gain from interest (ribâ), which they had been utterly forbidden to practice, and for their unlawful organized scheme to eat people out of their property. And Allâh has prepared for those of them who are disobedient rebels a painful torment.
  36. But those of them with well-founded knowledge and the believers from your followers who are acquainted with the facts, believe in all that has been revealed to you, Muhammad, and in all that was revealed to those who were sent before you. They constantly observe their act of worship and give alms, they believe in Allâh and in the Day of Resurrection. It is those whom We will requite with a great reward.
  37. We have revealed to you, Muhammad, a Book and a divine message, as We revealed before you to Nûh (Noah) and to the prophets who followed him. And We revealed divine messages to Ibrâhîm (Abraham) and Ismâ`îl (Ishmael), to Ishâq (Isaac) and Ya`qûb (Jacob) and to the tribes of his twelve sons, who are Allâh’s prophets and descendants of Ya`qûb, to `Îsâ (Jesus) and Ayyûb (Job), to Yûnus (Jonah) and Hârûn (Aaron) and to Sulaymân (Soloman). And to Dâwûd (David) We gave the Zabûr (Psalms).
  38. And We (revealed) divine messages to many messengers whom We mentioned to you before and to others whom We did not mention to you. And to Mûsâ (Moses) Allâh spoke, and to him He declared the divine message in eloquent speech.
  39. Such messengers were sent as bearers of good news and of warnings so that people have no excuse, nor can they plea against Allâh after they had been warned by Allâh’s messengers. And Allâh is All-Mighty; there is no authority besides Him. And He is All-Wise in whatever He decides.
  40. But if they have not acknowledged the truthfulness of your message, Allâh is a Witness of all that He has revealed to you by His authority, and to this effect do the angels bear witness, and enough is Allâh Himself to be the witness.
  41. Indeed, those who did not believe and who stood in the way to prevent Allâh’s truth from guiding people to all truth have been led far into the depth of the maze of error.
  42. And those who denied Allâh and wronged themselves and were wrongful to the Prophet by denying his message, and were wrongful to the people by barring them from the truth—Allâh will never forgive them or guide them to the path of righteousness,
  43. But only to the path that leads directly to Hell, wherein they will have passed to eternal suffering. And this is indeed quite easy for Allâh to effect.
  44. O you people, the Messenger of Allâh has come to you with the divine message of the truth authorized by Allâh. Therefore, you had better conform to Allâh’s system of faith and worship. And if you deny Allâh and the mission of His Messenger, then (you must realize that) to Allâh belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on earth. And Allâh is All-Knowing of His creation and All-Wise in His decisions.
  45. O People of the Book, do not carry your religious beliefs to excess and beyond the truth, nor should you say anything about Allâh but the truth. You should not deny the message of `Îsa (Jesus), for `Îsâ is the Messenger of Allâh. He is simply His Word He authoritatively cast forth to Maryam (Mary) and a spirit that proceeded from Him. Therefore, you had better believe in Allâh and acknowledge His messengers. Abandon this wrongful saying; this is only to your benefit. Allâh is only and absolutely One, glory be to Him and extolled are His glorious attributes. His omnipotence precludes begetting a son when all that is in the heavens and all that is on earth belong to Him. And enough is Allâh to be your Guardian Who exercises protecting vigilance over you.
  46. Indeed, the Messiah, `Îsa son of Maryam (Jesus son of Mary), will never turn indignant for being a Servant of Allâh, nor will the angels nearest to Allâh. And he who turns indignant for serving Allâh and becomes arrogant and displays inordinate self‑esteem will be gathered to His august presence on the Day of Judgment.
  47. But those who believed in Allâh and did deeds with wisdom and piety will be requited by Allâh with what is commensurate with their deeds. And out of His bounty He will reward them even more. Whereas those who turned indignant and were arrogant will be requited with a painful torment. And they will never find a guardian besides Allâh, nor can anyone vindicate them.
  48. O people, now a proof has come to you from Allâh your Lord, a convincing proof of the truthfulness of Muhammad’s message. And We have sent down to you illumination and enlightenment.
  49. Therefore, those who accepted Allâh and His messages and chose to be under His guardianship—He will admit their claim to His blessings and extend to them His mercy, grace them with His bounty, and guide them to His path of righteousness.
  50. Your people seek counsel from you, Muhammad, concerning the deceased who is childless and parentless. Say to them, “Allâh announces the reply to your question concerning the childless and parentless thus: If a man dies and he has no child nor a parent but he has a sister, then she has the rightful claim to one half of what he has left. And should the reverse be the case, then he inherits all her property if she has no child. And if the deceased in question has two sisters, then they share equally in two-thirds of what he left. And if they are a mixed company of men and women—brothers and sisters—then the male inherits the equivalent of what is apportioned to two females. Allâh sets forth for you in detail the principles governing inheritance of property so that you do not go into error. And Allâh is All-Knowing of all your deeds and actions, and He will requite you with what is commensurate with your deeds.”

SÛRAH 5

AL-MÂ’IDAH

The Table Spread

Revealed at Madînah

This sûrah, like the three preceding long sûrahs, considers several subjects, but they all have in common the raising of a nation that stands upon the vantage ground of truth and recognizes wholeheartedly the oneness, uniqueness, omnipotence, omniscience, and ultimate authority of Allâh, the One and only God, the Creator. In this respect, the Qur’ân constitutes the chosen system of faith and worship. Acceptance of the system and submission to the precepts are part of the belief in the One God.

The title of the sûrah alludes to the table spread with food that was sent down from Heaven in answer to the wish of the disciples of `Îsâ (Jesus). Among the subjects discussed in the sûrah, we find:

One must honor one’s word, promise, and vow.

`Îsâ the son of Maryam (Jesus the son of Mary) and his mother are mortals.

Allâh is absolutely One, and not in Trinity.

Allâh is not the father of anyone, but He is the Creator of all.

The final word regarding intoxicants, gambling, divination, and the like is revealed. Intoxicants were prohibited gradually, in four stages: (1) 4:43; (2) 2:219; (3) 5:90; (4) 5:91.

The rules regarding forbidden and permitted foods are revealed.

Religious acts and rites are to be honored.

We are told some shortcomings and misgivings of the Children of Isrâ’îl.

The authentic Tawrâh and Injîl (the Books revealed to Mûsâ [Moses] and `Îsâ [Jesus], respectively) were standard Laws to be followed, but they were not followed.

Rules of retaliation and forgiveness are revealed.

Justice must be done, even if the accused is an enemy.

The Qur’ân is the Book of reference, the Judge of all preceding Books, and the standard Law. Judgment based on its precepts is final.

Rules for ablution before prayers are revealed.

We are told the narrative of Âdam’s sons.

Rules regarding false oaths and their expiation are revealed.

The religion chosen for mankind, namely, Islâm, is completed.

Rules regarding thieves are revealed.

In the Name of Allâh,

The All-Merciful, The Ever-Merciful

  1. O you who believe, fulfill all the contracts you have concluded with Allâh and with people. Allâh has made the brutes of cattle, camels, sheep, and goats lawful to you, except whatever is declared prohibited to you, without violating the prohibition against hunting game when you are in the state of consecration for pilgrimage. Surely Allâh judges according to whatever He wills, and Allâh’s contracts are binding to you.
  2. O you who believe, do not violate the waymarks of Allâh, such as the rites of Hajj and all other Shari`ah rulings. Nor violate the inviolable months by waging war in them, nor the offering, nor the garlands that are put around the necks of the sacrificial animals as a declaration of performing Hajj. Nor bar the ones repairing to the Inviolable House seeking grace and satisfaction from their Lord. And when you are not on pilgrimage and are out of the sanctified area, all blessed, then (you may) go game hunting. And do not let the antagonism of a people who barred you from the Inviolable Mosque provoke you to transgress. And help one another to benignity and piety, and do not help one another to vice and hostility. And be pious and fear Allâh; surely Allâh is strict in punishment.
  3. Prohibited to you believers are carrion—dead animals that are not slaughtered—and blood, and the flesh of swine, and what has been dedicated to other than Allâh, and the strangled, and the beaten (to death) and the toppled (to death) and the gored (to death) and that killed by wild beasts of prey—except what you have immolated—and whatever has been slain on the standards (for the idols). And you must adjure division by divining. Committing any of these prohibited things is immoral and a great sin. Today the ones who have disbelieved have despaired of your religion, so do not be apprehensive of them but be apprehensive of Me. Today I have completed the rulings of your religion for you, and I have perfected My favor on you by empowering and supporting you, and I have chosen Islâm as a religion for you. And whoever is constrained by scarcity (of food), without unfairly inclining to vice, then surely Allâh is Ever-Forgiving, Ever-Merciful.
  4. The believers ask you, Messenger, what is made lawful to them. Say to them, “The good things are made lawful to you. The hunting creatures you train as hounds, teaching them (part) of what Allâh has taught you.” So eat of whatever they hold back for you, and mention the name of Allâh over it. And be pious and fear Allâh by observing what He has decreed for you and never transgress. Surely Allâh is swift at the reckoning.
  5. Today the good things are made lawful for you, and the food and the slaughtered animals of the ones to whom the Book was brought [Christians and Jews] are lawful to you, and your food is made lawful to them. And so are believing women lawful in wedlock, and the women of the ones to whom the Book was brought before you are lawful to you in wedlock when you have brought them their rewards [dower]. But do not take them in fornication or take them to yourselves as mates without marriage. And whoever disbelieves the religion of Allâh, then his deed has been frustrated and in the Hereafter he is among the losers.
  6. O you who believe, when you rise up for prayer, perform the rites of ablution by washing your faces, and your hands up to the elbows, and wipe all or a part of your heads, and (wash) your legs to the ankles. And in case you are ritually unclean due to sexual discharge, then totally purify yourselves by washing your whole bodies. And in case you are suffering from an illness that prevents you from using water or you are on a journey, or in case any of you has come from the toilet or privy, or you have had contact with women, yet you cannot find water, then have recourse to good soil and so wipe your faces and hands with it. Allâh does not want to make any restriction for you, but, indeed, He wants to purify you and perfect His favor on you, that possibly you would thank Him by persisting in obeying Him.
  7. And remember the favor of Allâh upon you in guiding you to Islâm, and fulfill His covenant by which He has solemnly bound you as you said to His Messenger Muhammad, “We have heard and we obey.” And be pious and fear Allâh. Surely Allâh is Ever-Knowing of the inmost thoughts in the hearts and will requite you accordingly.
  8. O you who believe, constantly keep Allâh’s covenants. Witness with equity, and do not let the antagonism of a people provoke you to not do justice. Stick to justice; that is the nearest way to piety and to avoiding Allâh’s wrath. And be pious and fear Allâh in whatever you do. Surely Allâh is Ever-Cognizant of whatever you do.
  9. Allâh has shown His favors and promised the ones who believe and do deeds of righteousness that they will have forgiveness and a magnificent reward.
  10. And the ones who have disbelieved and denied the signs attesting to His oneness and the truthfulness of His message will be the companions of Hellfire.
  11. O you who believe, remember the favor of Allâh upon you (in hardships) when a group of disbelievers designed to inflict a severe harm on you and your Prophet, and Allâh restrained their hands from you. Be pious and fear Allâh, and trust in Allâh alone. It is a characteristic of a Muslim to put his trust only in Allâh.
  12. And indeed Allâh already took a covenant with the Children of Isrâ’îl (that they would listen and obey), and He sent forth among them twelve chieftains to observe the fulfillment of the covenant. And Allâh has promised them that He surely will be with them if they keep up the prayer, pay the zakâh (alms), believe in His messengers and rally to assist them, and lend to Allâh a fair loan. He will expiate for them their odious deeds, and He will cause them to enter Gardens beneath which rivers flow. So who of them disbelieves after that has readily erred away from the straight path.
  13. So, for their breaking their covenant, they were cursed out of Allâh’s mercy and their hearts were made too hard to accept the truth. They pervert the words of Allâh in the Tawrâh (the Book revealed to Mûsâ [Moses]) from their contexts and they have forgotten a portion of what they were reminded. And you will not cease viewing some treacherous act on their part, except for a few of them (who believed you and never cheated or betrayed you). Yet be clement towards them and pardon them; surely Allâh loves the good-doers.
  14. And Allâh took a covenant with the Christians, who said, “We believe in the Injîl (the Book revealed to `Îsa [Jesus]) and in the oneness of Allâh.” Yet they have forgotten a portion of what they were reminded of, so Allâh induced among them enmity and abhorrence till the Day of Resurrection. And Allâh will eventually fully inform them of what they used to do (and requite them accordingly).
  15. O you People of the Book, Our Messenger Muhammad has come to you to call you to the truth. He makes evident to you many things of the Book you have been concealing, and he is clement about many other unnecessary things. A complete system of law has come to you from Allâh as a light and an evident Book.
  16. With it Allâh guides any who seek His blessed satisfaction, and He brings them out of the darkness (of disbelief) into the light (of faith) by His permission, and He guides them to the path of truth.
  17. They who claimed that Allâh is the Masîh (Messiah) son of Maryam have indeed readily disbelieved. Say to them, Messenger, “Who then can avail anything against Allâh if He wills to cause the Masîh son of Maryam and his mother and whoever is on the earth together to perish?” And to Allâh belong the kingdom of the heavens and the earth and whatever is between them. He creates whatever He decides, and Allâh is Ever-Determiner over everything.
  18. And the Jews and Christians have said, “We are the favored, as we are the children of Allâh and His beloved ones.” Say to them, Messenger, “Why then does He torment you for your guilty deeds?” No, indeed, you are mortals, of all the mortals He has created. He forgives whomever He decides, and He torments whomever He decides, for to Allâh belong the heavens and the earth and whatever is between them, and to Him is the Destiny.
  19. O People of the Book, Our Messenger has come to you making things evident to you, after an interval between the messengers, so that you should not say, “There has not come to us any bearer of good tidings and a warner.” Yet now there has come to you a bearer of good tidings and a warner. And Allâh is Ever-Determiner over everything, including sending messengers and requiting you for your deeds.
  20. And remember, Messenger, as Mûsâ (Moses) said to his people, “O my people, remember the favor of Allâh upon you by obeying Him and thanking Him for His favors. He made among you many prophets, and made you as powerful as kings (after you were slaves to Pharaoh), and brought you what He had not brought to anyone of the worlds.
  21. “My people, obey Allâh and enter the Holy Land that Allâh has prescribed for you. And do not turn back, for then you would be losers.”
  22. His people said, “O Mûsâ, surely there are people in it who are giants, and we will never enter it until they go out of it. So, in case they go out of it, then we will enter.”
  23. Two men of the ones that feared Allâh and whom Allâh had favored said, “Enter upon them through the gate of the city. So, when you enter it, then surely you will overcome them. And so put all your trust in Allâh if you are true believers.”
  24. They insisted on disobeying and said, “O Mûsâ, surely we will never enter it at all so long as the giants are in it. So leave us and go forth, you and your Lord, and then you two fight them. So we will be sitting here now!”
  25. There and then Mûsâ said to Allâh, “Lord, surely I have no authority over anyone except myself and my brother, so distinguish between us and these immoral people.”
  26. Allâh responded (positively) to Mûsâ and decreed that it would be prohibited for them for forty years while they strayed on the earth. And He said to Mûsâ (to relieve him), “Do not feel sad about the immoral people.”
  27. A tendency to aggression is a part of some peoples’ dispositions. So recite with the truth to them (the Jews), O Prophet, the story of the two sons of Âdam. They offered a sacrifice, and it was graciously accepted of the sincere one of them (Hâbîl [Abel]) and not graciously accepted of the other (Qâbîl [Cain]) due to his lack of sincerity. So, the latter envied his brother and pledged that he would definitely kill him. The first explained to him that, surely, Allâh graciously accepts only from the pious.
  28. And he (Hâbîl) said to him, “Indeed, if you to stretch out your hand against me to kill me, in no way will I stretch out my hand against you to kill you. Surely I fear Allâh, the Lord of the worlds.
  29. “Surely, I would like that you incur upon yourself my vice and your vice, and so you become one of the companions of the Fire, and that is the recompense of the unjust.”
  30. Then his (Qâbîl’s) self persuaded him to kill his brother. So he killed him; then he became among the losers (as he lost his faith and his brother).
  31. Then, he became so distressed and sorry and wondered what he would do with his brother’s body. Then Allâh sent a raven searching in the earth to bury a dead raven and to show him how to cover the body of his brother. He said, “Woe is me! Am I unable to be like this raven and so cover the body of my brother?” And so he became among the remorseful.
  32. On that account We prescribed for the Children of Isrâ’il the killing of the killer, for if anyone takes a life not in retaliation of killing a human being nor for corruption on the earth—then it shall be as if he had killed all of mankind (as he violated the sacredness of life and encouraged others to violate it). And if anyone gives a life, then it shall be as if he had given life to all of mankind, and he deserves a great reward from Allâh. And indeed Our messengers have already come to them with supreme evidence. Surely many of the Children of Isrâ’îl after that were extravagant in extending corruption on the earth.
  33. Surely the only recompense of those who war against Allâh and His Messenger and diligently endeavor to do corruption in the earth is that they should be all killed in retaliation for killing; or crucified if they killed and stole money; or their alternate hands and legs should be amputated if they took money by force but killed nobody; or they should be exiled from the land if they terrified the people. That is a disgrace for them in the present life, and in the Hereafter they will have a tremendous torment.
  34. Except for the ones who repent even before you are capable of punishing them, and the criminals have to give the property back to the victims. So know that Allâh is Ever-Forgiving, Ever-Merciful.
  35. O you who believe, be pious and fear Allâh by obeying His commands and admonition, and seek close proximity to Him, and strive in His way to spread His religion, and fight His enemies so that possibly you would prosper.
  36. Surely the ones who have disbelieved—even if they have whatever is on the earth entirely and the like of it with which to ransom themselves from Allâh’s torment of the Day of Resurrection—in no way would it be favorably accepted of them, and they will have a painful torment.
  37. These disbelievers would like to get out of the Fire, but in no way will they be going out of it, and they will have a perpetual torment.
  38. And the male thief and the female thief—cut off the hands of both as a recompense for what they have earned (and to disgust whoever thinks of committing this crime), as a torture from Allâh. And Allâh is Ever-Mighty, Ever-Wise, Who decides a deterring punishment for each crime.
  39. Yet whoever repents and does righteousness even after his injustice and acts righteously, then surely Allâh relents on him. Surely Allâh is Ever-Forgiving, Ever-Merciful.
  40. Bear in mind, you who are competent, that to Allâh belong the heavens and the earth. He torments whomever He decides according to His wisdom and omnipotence, and He forgives whomever He decides according to His wisdom and mercy. Allâh is Ever-Determiner over everything.
  41. O Messenger, do not let those that vie to fall into disbelief grieve you—of such cheaters who say “we believe” with their mouths, but their hearts do not believe. And among those Judaized are constant listeners to lies, and constant listeners to other people who have not come up to you, perverting the wordings from their original meanings after Allâh has made them succinct. They say to their followers, “If you are given these wordings, then take them; in case you are not brought them, then beware.” So never feel sad, for whomever Allâh wills for temptation (by rejecting His religion), there is nothing you can do to guide him to the right path. Those are they who have gone so far in disbelief and whose hearts Allâh is not willing to purify. For them is disgrace in the present life, and in the Hereafter they will have a tremendous torment.
  42. Constant listeners to lies, constant eaters of illicit, unblessed gain. So in case they come for you to judge between them, then judge between them if you see it useful, or veer away from them. And if you veer away from them, then they will never harm you a thing, as Allâh will protect you from the people. And if you judge, then judge with equity between them. Surely Allâh loves the equitable ones.
  43. And how do they make you their judge and the Tawrâh (the Book revealed to Mûsâ [Moses]) is in their presence, wherein is the judgment of Allâh? Thereafter they turn away even after that. And in no way are those the real believers.
  44. Surely We sent down the Tawrâh to Mûsâ (Moses), wherein there is guidance and light applied by the prophets who have surrendered to Allâh to those who Judaized. And so do the rabbis and the doctors of Law, who were entrusted to keep their Book from any perversion and attest to its truthfulness. So do not be apprehensive of mankind, but be apprehensive of Me, your Creator and the Creator of the whole world. And do not trade My signs for a little price such as interest (ribâ) or pride. And any who do not judge according to what Allâh has sent down, are disbelievers.
  45. And therein We prescribed for them the law of retaliation to preserve the lives of the people: the life for the life, the eye for the eye, the nose for the nose, the ear for the ear, the tooth for the tooth, and retaliation for wounds. But if anyone remits the retaliation as a charity, then it is expiation for him, and Allâh will forgive some of his sins due to it. And any who do not judge according to what Allâh has sent down are the unjust.
  46. And We sent `Îsâ son of Maryam (Jesus son of Mary) on their tracks, sincerely verifying the Tawrâh (Book revealed to Mûsâ [Moses]) that was sent before him. And We brought him the Injîl (Book revealed to `Îsâ), in which there is a guidance and a light, and which sincerely verifies the Tawrâh that was sent before him, and a guidance and an admonition to the pious.
  47. And We commanded the followers of `Îsâ and the Injîl to judge according to what Allâh has sent down therein. And any who do not judge according to what Allâh has sent down, then those are the immoral.
  48. And We have sent down to you, Prophet, the Book, that is, the Qur’ân, with the truth, sincerely verifying the Book that was before it, and supremely hegemonic over it due to its being kept from perversion. So judge between them according to what Allâh has sent down, and do not ever follow their prejudices away from the truth that has come to you. To every one of you We have made a law and a program. And if Allâh had so decided, He would indeed have made you one nation with one orientation that does not change by time, but [He did not so] that He may try you in what He has brought you, so that He may distinguish the obedient from the disobedient. So race with each other in charitable deeds. The return of you all will be to Allâh. He will fully inform you of what you used to differ about, and He will requite you according to your deeds.
  49. And We commanded that you should judge between them according to what Allâh has sent down. Do not ever follow their prejudices; beware of them lest they should tempt you away from some part of what Allâh has sent down to you. So, in case they turn away from Allâh’s ruling to another ruling, then know that Allâh wills only to afflict them for some of their guilty deeds. Indeed, many of mankind are immoral.
  50. Do they who turn away from Allâh’s commands and admonitions want to resort to the judgment of (pagan) ignorance that lacks equity? And who is fairer in judgment than Allâh, for a people having certitude?
  51. O you who believe, do not take to yourselves the Jews and the Christians as patrons; some of them are patrons to some others. And any of you who patronizes them is surely one of them. Surely Allâh does not guide the unjust people who take to themselves the disbelievers as patrons.
  52. Because only the unjust patronize them, you see the ones in whose hearts is sickness vie with one another among them. They say, “We are apprehensive lest a turn of bad fortune should afflict us.” Yet it may be that Allâh will come with the conquest and victory over the enemies or disclose the hypocrisy of the hypocrites, so they will be remorseful for what they kept secret within themselves.
  53. There and then, the true believers will say, “Are these the ones who swore by Allâh their most earnest oaths that surely they were with you in religion and believers like you?” Their deeds are frustrated, so they lost their faith and the believers’ support.
  54. O you who believe, any of you who revert from faith to disbelief will not harm Allâh in the least—supremely exalted be He above that. Allâh will bring a people better than they, whom He loves and guides to guidance and obedience, and who love Him. They are humble toward the believers, mightily stern toward the disbelievers, and strive in the way of Allâh. They do not fear the blame of any blamer. That is the grace of Allâh that He brings to whomever He decides. And Allâh is Ever-Embracing, Ever-Knowing.
  55. Surely your patrons are only Allâh and His Messenger and the ones who believe—those who keep up the prayer, give zakâh (alms), and bow to Allâh.
  56. And any who take Allâh, His Messenger, and the ones who believe as their patrons—then surely the party of Allâh are the victorious.
  57. O you who believe, do not take as patrons the ones who take your religion in mockery and as a plaything, that is, who were brought the Book before you, and the disbelievers; and be pious and fear Allâh if you are true believers.
  58. And a sign of their derision is that when you call to prayer, they mockingly mimic the act of worship. This is because they are a people who lack the faculty of understanding so that they cannot distinguish error from guidance.
  59. Say, “O people of the Book, “Do you take vengeance on us for anything except that we believe in Allâh and what has been sent down to us, and what has been sent down before, and that most of you are immoral?”
  60. Say to them, “Shall I fully inform you of what is more evil than that with regard to the requital at the meeting with Allâh? It is your deeds for which Allâh has driven you away from His mercy and cast His wrath upon them, so they became monkeys and swine, and worshiped Satan. Those are in an eviler place [on the Day of Judgment] and they have erred farther away from the straight path.”
  61. And when the hypocrites come to you, they lie to you saying, “We believe,” when in fact they have come in with disbelief and they come out with the same. And Allâh knows the hypocrisy they hide, and He will requite them with what they keep secret.
  62. And you see many of them hurry to vie in vice and hostility and to eat illicit gains such as interest (ribâ) and bribes. Miserable indeed is whatever they used to do!
  63. If only their rabbis and canonists had forbidden them from speaking evil and eating illicit gains! Miserable indeed is whatever they used to do.
  64. And the Jews have said, “The hand of Allâh is shackled.” Shackled are their hands, and they are cursed for what they have said! No, indeed, but Allâh is the most generous; both His hands are outspread; He expends how He decides. And, indeed, what has been sent down to you from your Creator will increase many of them in inordinacy and disbelief, due to the hatred and vice that their hearts hide; and We have cast enmity and abhorrence among them till the Day of Resurrection. Whenever they kindle fire to fight against the Messenger and the believers, Allâh extinguishes it (and grants victory to His Messenger and his followers). And they endeavor diligently on the earth to corrupt; and Allâh does not love the corrupters.
  65. And if the People of the Book (Jews and Christians) had believed in Islâm and the Messenger and been pious, We would, indeed, have expiated their odious deeds and caused them to enter the Gardens of Bliss.
  66. And if they had kept the Tawrâh (Book revealed to Mûsâ [Moses]) and the Injîl (Book revealed to `Îsâ [Jesus]) (as they were sent down), acted according to the teachings therein, and believed in what was sent down to them from their Lord (that is, the Qur’ân) they would indeed have gotten provision from above them and from beneath their feet. Among them is a moderate nation; and many of them are odious whatever they do.
  67. O Messenger, proclaim whatever has been sent down to you from your Lord and call them to believe in it. And if you do not perform that, you have not proclaimed His Message. You were entrusted to convey it to them all, and Allâh safeguards you from mankind. Surely Allâh does not guide the disbelieving people to the Right Path.
  68. O Messenger, say to the People of the Book, “You have nothing (of guidance) until you keep up all the rulings that have been sent down in the Tawrâh and the Injîl and act according to them and believe in the revelation sent down to you from your Lord (that is, the Qur’ân).” Indeed, what has been sent down to you from your Lord will increase many of them in inordinacy and disbelief, so do not feel sad for the disbelieving people.
  69. Surely the ones who have believed in Allâh, and the Judaized, the Sâbi’ûn and the Nasârâ—if they sincerely believe in Allâh, resurrection and requital, and do righteous deeds (as instructed by Islâm), then no fear will be on them, nor will they grieve.
  70. Indeed We already took a covenant with the Children of Isrâ’îl in the Tawrâh to follow its rulings, and We sent many messengers to explain the rulings to them. But they broke their covenant. Whenever a messenger came to them with what their selves did not yearn for, they accused some of them of lying and they killed some of them.
  71. And they reckoned that there should be no hardships that distinguish the steadfast from the weak. So they were willfully blind and willfully deaf, yet afterward, when they repented, Allâh relented on them and granted them power. Then, after that, many of them were willfully blind and willfully deaf. And Allâh is Ever-Seeing of whatever they do.
  72. Indeed, the ones who have said “surely Allâh is the Masîh son of Maryam (the Messiah son of Mary)” have already disbelieved. And the Masîh commanded the Children of Isrâ’îl to sincerely worship Allâh, saying, “Allâh is my Lord and your Lord.” Surely, whoever associates anything with Allâh has already been prohibited entrance to the Garden by Allâh, and his abode will be the Fire. And the unjust will not have any vindicators.
  73. Indeed, the ones who have said that Allâh is the third of three have already disbelieved. In no way is there any god except Allâh alone. And if they do not refrain from what they say and obey Allâh, a painful torment will touch those of them who have disbelieved.
  74. Will they not then abandon their false beliefs and repent to Allâh and ask His forgiveness? And Allâh is Ever-Forgiving, Ever-Merciful.
  75. In no way is the Masîh son Maryam anything but a messenger on whom Allâh has conferred His message. The messengers before him already passed away, and his mother was constantly sincere. They both used to eat food. Look how clear We make the signs to them. Then look again how they swerve to falsehood.
  76. Say, Messenger, to these disbelievers, “How can you worship, apart from Allâh, that which neither harms nor benefits you? How can you do that, and Allâh is The Ever-Hearing, The Ever-Knowing?”
  77. Say, Messenger, to the People of the Book (Jews and Christians), “Allâh forbids you to go beyond the bounds in your religion or claim that some of His creation are gods or deny some of His messages. And do not (ever) follow the prejudices of a people who have already erred earlier and led many into error and erred away from the Right Path.”
  78. The Children of Isrâ’îl who disbelieved were cursed by the tongue of Dâwûd (David) and `Îsâ son of Maryam because they disobeyed and were transgressing.
  79. They used not to forbid one another any wickedness that they committed. Miserable, indeed, was whatever they used to do!
  80. You see many of them take the disbelievers as patrons (with the aim of supporting each other against Islâm). So miserable, indeed, is whatever their own selves have forwarded. For that reason Allâh’s wrath has fallen on them, and they are eternally abiding in the torment.
  81. And if they had believed in Allâh and the Prophet Muhammad and the Qur’ân that has been sent down to him, they would not have taken them (the disbelievers) as patrons; but many of them are immoral.
  82. We assure you, Prophet, that you will find that the Jews and the ones who have associated other deities with Allâh are the most serious in enmity to you and to those who believe in you. And you will find that the nearest in affection to you and to the ones who believe are the followers of `Îsâ who called themselves Christians. For among them are priests who know their religion and monks who fear their Lord, and they are not proud.
  83. And when they hear the Qur’ân that was sent down to the Messenger, they show that it touched their hearts, as they realize that it is the truth, and you see their eyes overflow with tears. They say, “Our Lord, we believe in You (and Your messengers and the truth You have sent down to them); so write us down among (the followers of Muhammad) whom You made witness on the Day of Resurrection.
  84. “And what is it with us that we do not believe in Allâh alone and in what has come to us of the truth? And we long for our Lord to cause us to enter (the Garden) with the righteous people.”
  85. So, because of what they say, Allâh has requited them with Gardens beneath whose trees and palaces rivers run. They will be eternally abiding therein, and that is the recompense of the good-doers.
  86. And the ones who disbelieved in Allâh and denied His messengers and signs, are the companions of Hellfire.
  87. O you who believe, do not prohibit whatever good things Allâh has made lawful for you, and do not transgress. Surely, Allâh does not love the transgressors.
  88. And eat of whatever lawful and good things Allâh has provided you, and be pious and fear Allâh, in Whom you believe.
  89. Allâh does not take you to task for anything unintentional in your oaths, but He takes you to task for contracts you have made by oath. The expiation thereof is to feed ten indigent persons with the average of what you feed to your own families, or to clothe them, or to free a slave. Yet, any who does not find the means must fast for three days. Any of these is the expiation of your oaths when you have sworn. And keep your oaths, and never neglect doing whatever expiates your oaths in case you break them. Thus Allâh makes clear to you His rulings, that possibly you would thank Him.
  90. O you who believe in Allâh, His Books, and His messengers, who submitted to the truth—surely wine and games of chance, altars (for idols), and divining are only an abomination of Satan’s doing, so avoid it, that possibly you would prosper (in life below and in the Hereafter).
  91. Surely Satan would only like to excite enmity and abhorrence among you by means of wine and games of chance, to render you weak and enemies, and to bar you from the remembrance of Allâh and prayer, (so that you might lead an awful life and face a bad end). So, knowing all these awful things, will they then refrain from what I forbade you?
  92. And obey Allâh and obey the Messenger, and keep away from what exposes you to punishment. If you turn away from His commands, then know that He will surely punish you. It is only for Our Messenger to inform you of Our rulings and make them clear to you.
  93. It is not a sin in those who have believed and done righteous deeds if they ate unlawful food before they knew that it was unlawful—when they are pious, and believe the rulings Allâh has ordained for them, and do righteous deeds; and again are pious and believe; and again are pious and do good deeds. And Allâh loves the fair-doers.
  94. O you who believe, indeed Allâh will definitely try you by prohibiting some of the game that your hands and lances reach, that Allâh may know who fears Him unseen. So whoever transgresses after that will have a painful torment.
  95. O you who believe, do not kill the game while you are in the consecrated state of ihrâm for pilgrimage (hajj or `umrah). Any of you who kills it intentionally must recompense with the like of what he has killed in (grazing) livestock—camels, cows, sheep, and goats—as judged by two just men among you. He must give it as an offering to reach the Ka`bah; or, for expiation, feed indigent persons or fast the equivalent, so that he may taste the pernicious result of disobeying Allâh’s command. Allâh has been clement towards what is bygone; and whosoever goes back (to offense), then Allâh will take vengeance on him; and Allâh is Ever-Mighty, Owner of vengeance.
  96. The game and food of the sea are made lawful for you, as a necessary enjoyment for you and the travelers. And prohibited to you is the untamed game of the land, so long as you are in the consecrated state of ihram for hajj or `umarh. And be pious and fear Allâh, to Whom you will be gathered.
  97. Allâh has made the Ka`bah—the Inviolable House of mankind which He glorified and in which He prohibited transgression against man and animal—a safe and glorified place for mankind, to which they turn their faces in their prayers, and which they visit with the aim of asking for Allâh’s favors and blessings. And He established the sacred month of hajj and the offerings with the garlands on their necks to show that they are offered to the House, so that they realize that Allâh fully knows all that is in the heaven, from which the ordinances come down, and fully knows all that is in the earth; and Allâh is indeed All-Knowing of everything.
  98. O people, know that Allâh is strict in punishment and that Allâh is Ever-Forgiving, Ever-Merciful.
  99. There is no duty for the Messenger except the proclamation of the message to you. And Allâh knows whatever you display and whatever you keep back.
  100. O Prophet, say to the people, “The good that Allâh made lawful to you and the bad that He prohibited to you are not equal, even if you admire the abundance of the evil. So be you all pious and fear Allâh to avoid His punishment, you who are endowed with intellects, that possibly you would prosper.”
  101. O you who believe, do not ask the Prophet about things that would vex you; and in case you ask about them while the Qur’ân is being sent down, they will be displayed to you. Allâh has been clement towards them, and Allâh is Ever-Forgiving, Ever-Forbearing.
  102. A people before you already asked about them. Thereafter when they were commanded to do them, they denied them and became disbelievers in them.
  103. Allâh has not allowed you to make lawful that which He prohibited to you. So you are not allowed to split the camel’s ear and refrain from benefiting from it and call it bahîrah; or to vow not to slaughter it and call it sâ’ibah; or to prohibit eating the male goat and offer it to the idols, and when a she-goat gives birth to a male and a female, you call it wasîlah and slaughter the female and exempt the male from slaughtering. Nor has He allowed you to prohibit benefiting from the male camel and call it hâm. But the ones who have disbelieved fabricate a lie against Allâh, and most of them do not consider.
  104. And when it is said to these disbelievers “come to what Allâh has sent down and to the Messenger,” they say, “What we found our fathers doing is enough for us.” Is it proper to say that, even if their fathers did not know anything and were not guided?
  105. O you who believe, look after your own selves by obeying Allâh. He who errs cannot harm you when you are rightly guided. To Allâh will be the return of you all together, so He will fully inform you of whatever you were doing and requite you accordingly.
  106. O you who believe, when any of you feels that death is impending and he wishes to make a bequest, then witnesses are mandatory. Two of your fellow Muslim men (related or unrelated to you) who are known to be just are summoned to witness the action in case you are on a journey and death approaches you. You shall detain them (both) after the prayer, then they shall swear by Allâh—in case you are suspicious (of their truthfulness)—“We will not trade it for a price, even if it were for a near kinsman, nor will we keep back the testimony of Allâh, for surely in that case we are sinful.”
  107. Yet, in case it be discovered that both of them have lied in their witness or hidden something, then two others of those who claim a lawful right to the deceased person’s estate swear by Allâh to the effect that their testimony is truer than that given by the other two men. They say, “We do not falsely accuse them (the first two witnesses) of perjury, nor do we give false evidence lest we would be wrongdoers.”
  108. So, this rule makes it likelier that they will bear proper testimony and keep their oaths; or they will fear that their oaths may prove false and that other oaths may be admitted. So, observe your oaths and your duties, and obey Allâh and give ear to His rulings. And Allâh does not guide the immoral people.
  109. And remember the Day of Resurrection when Allâh will gather the messengers and ask them, “What answer were you given from the people to whom you were sent? Did they believe or deny?” Then (all nations will be brought to hear the witness of their messengers as) they say, “We have no knowledge; surely You are The Sublime Knower of the Unseen.”
  110. Then Allâh will address `Îsâ son of Maryam: “Remember My favor upon you and upon your mother as I aided you with the spirit of holiness [Angel Jibrîl (Gabriel)] so that you spoke in the cradle to clear your mother of the accusations against her; and in your maturity to declare My revelation to you. Remember My favor upon you as I taught you the Book, and wisdom and the Tawrâh (of Mûsâ) and the Injîl, which I sent down to you. Remember My favor upon you as I gave you immense miracles: You created out of clay the semblance of a bird, by My permission, then you blew into it, then it was a bird, by My permission. And you healed the one born blind and the leper, by My permission. And you brought forth the dead, by My permission. Remember My favor upon you as I restrained the Children of Isrâ’îl from you as you came to them with the supreme evidence; then the ones among them who disbelieved said, ‘Decidedly this is nothing except evident sorcery.’”
  111. And remember what happened when I revealed to the Hawâriyyîn (the Disciples) to believe in Me and in My Messengers and they said, “We believe, and bear witness that, surely, we are sincere Muslims.”
  112. And remember, Messenger, what happened when the Hawâriyyîn said, “O `Îsâ son of Maryam, is your Lord able to send down upon us a table spread with food from the Heaven?” He said, “If you truly believe in Allâh, then be pious and fear Him, and obey His commands.”
  113. They said, “We would like to eat of it so that our hearts be composed and we may know that you have spoken to us sincerely and that we may be among the witnesses thereof.”
  114. `Îsâ son of Maryam responded to them and said, “O Allâh our Lord, send down upon us a table spread with food from the Heaven. That shall be a festival for the first of us and the last of us and a sign from You. And provide for us; You are The Most Charitable of providers.”
  115. Allâh said, “Surely I am sending it down upon you. So then, surely, I will torment any of you who disbelieves after this with a torment such as I have not inflicted on anyone of the worlds [of jinn and men].”
  116. And remember, Prophet, what will happen on the Day of Resurrection when Allâh says to `Îsâ, declaring the truth, “O `Îsâ son of Maryam, did you say to mankind, ‘Take me to yourselves and my mother as two gods, apart from Allâh’?” He will say, “Sublime are You! In no way is it for me to say what I have no right to say. If I ever said it, then You already know it. You know whatever is within myself, and I do not know what is within Yourself. Surely, You are the Sublime Knower of the Unseen.
  117. “In no way did I say to them anything except whatever You commanded me: Worship Allâh, my Lord and your Lord. And I was a witness over them as long as I was among them. Then since (the time that) You took me up, You have been The Watcher over them, and You are Ever-Witnessing over everything.
  118. “If You torment them for what they did, then surely they are Your servants; and if You forgive them, then surely You are The Ever-Mighty, The Ever-Wise.”
  119. Allâh said, “This is the Day the sincere ones will profit by their sincerity. For them are Gardens beneath which rivers flow; they will eternally abiding therein.” Allâh is satisfied with them, and they are satisfied with Him. That is the magnificent triumph.
  120. To Allâh belong the sovereignty and the supreme controlling power of the heavens and the earth and whatever is in them. And He is Ever-Determiner over everything.

SÛRAH 6

AL-AN`ÂM

The Cattle

Revealed at Makkah

The sûrah addresses the idolaters who disregarded all the available evidence in favor of a Supreme Being, Allâh, the Creator of the heavens and the earth, darkness and light. Charging the Messenger with falsehood is a reflection of the denial of Allâh’s revelations and signs. The sûrah tells mankind that Allâh has ascribed mercy unto Himself as an attribute. It tells people that He is the supreme controlling and influencing power inherent in all His creatures. The sûrah narrates the revelation imparted to Ibrâhîm (Abraham) to use against his people’s contention. People who open their eyes can clearly see Allâh’s omnipotence featured in every process, biological and otherwise. The sûrah alludes to those generations who defied Allâh, and their bitter fate. It tells people that Allâh does not authorize superstitions, and He clearly indicates the forbidden. The People of the Book (Jews and Christians) are reproached for corrupting their Books and denying the Messenger’s mission. The sûrah treats many subjects and ends with a warning: Allâh is swift in executing the law and in effecting just retribution. And He states the good news that He is also All-Forgiving and All-Merciful.

In the Name of Allâh,

The All-Merciful, The Ever-Merciful

  1. Praise be to Allâh, Who created the heavens and the earth and made darkness and light. Yet the disbelievers make Him equal with creatures of their fancy.
  2. You people had better realize that it was He Who brought you into being and effected your special creation from clay. Then He ordained your span and the span of the universe and kept to Himself the knowledge of the time when all will come to an end and the Hereafter will begin. Yet you see, Muhammad, how they contend with opposing arguments about the resurrection!
  3. And He is Allâh in the heavens and on earth, Who alone has the rightful claim to be revered and venerated in the act of worship and in the appropriate acts and rites. He is All-Knowing of all that you converse or whisper. Furthermore, He is All-Knowing of all the qualities, actions, and deeds that you earn.
  4. But they refuse to pay heed to revelations, signs, or events testifying to Allâh’s omnipotence, and they veer away from them.
  5. They rejected the truth and turned a deaf ear to the Qur’ân when it was presented to them to guide them to all truth. But soon they will realize the truth of all that has been treated in this Qur’ân, which they ridicule.
  6. Have they not seen how many generations We have caused to perish—generations who came to this world before them, endowed with power and ability and with many qualities that total up to much more than those in you people. We poured down upon them rain and blessings, and We made the rivers run beneath their habitations. But in consequence of their ingratitude and arrogance, We destroyed them in requital of their transgression of the divine law. We replaced them with another generation.
  7. And if We sent down to you, Muhammad, a Book on sheets of paper fastened together, forming a material whole, and they felt it (by touch) with their hands, still the disbelievers would have labeled it evident magic.
  8. They insolently say, “If only an angel had been sent down to companion him (Muhammad)!” But if We had sent down an angel, then their punishment would have been instant and they would not have been respited.
  9. And if We had sent an angel as a messenger or to companion Our human messenger, We would have made him as a man, and their confusion would only be aggravated.
  10. Nonetheless, messengers who were sent before you, Muhammad, were also ridiculed. The disbelievers mocked them. In consequence, the mockers were beset on all sides by ridicule.
  11. Say to them, “Journey through the land and open your eyes to see for yourselves the fatal consequences of their intentional assertion of falsehood.”
  12. Ask them, “To whom do you think whatever is in the heavens and the earth belong?” And say to them, “All belong to Allâh, Who ascribed mercy unto Himself to give people a chance to repent before the undoubted Day of Resurrection when He will gather you all to His august presence. There and then the disbelievers who denied Him will realize that they are the great losers.”
  13. And to Him belong all created beings that rest during the darkness of the night as well as all created beings that rest during daylight. And He is All-Hearing and All-Knowing.
  14. Say to them, “Would I choose a patron other than Allâh, Who has generated the heavens and the earth? He provides all with the requisites of life while He is provisioned by no one.” Say to them, “I have been commanded to be the first who submits to Islâm and to never be one of those who associate other gods with Him.”
  15. Say to them, “I am fearful of Allâh, my Lord. If I were to disobey Him, my requital will be an immense punishment on a momentous Day.
  16. “He who is averted punishment on that momentous Day will have won Allâh’s mercy, and this is indeed supreme triumph.
  17. “If Allâh afflicts you with a touch of an adversity, then no one can relieve you of it but Him. And if He should grace you with a touch of welfare, He is Ever-Determiner to effect everything.
  18. “He is The Supreme controlling and influencing Vanquisher over all His servants, and He is The All-Wise and The Ever-Cognizant of all things.”
  19. Ask, Muhammad, “What documentary evidence has more weight to support the truth of my mission than the attestation by Allâh Himself? He is the Witness of my actions and of your actions. This Qur’ân has been revealed to me to guide you to all truth and to warn you and all those whom it will reach against saying that there are other gods with Allâh. I just will bear witness to that.” Say to them, “Indeed He is only One, and I am absolutely innocent of what you associate with Him.”
  20. Those who were recipients of Our Book (Jews and Christians)—the Tawrâh and the Injîl (Books revealed to Mûsa [Moses] and `Îsâ [Jesus], respectively)—do recognize this Book, the Qur’ân, as well as the Messenger to whom it is sent. They recognize this reality as much as they are able to recognize their sons, but those who lost themselves refuse to believe the truth.
  21. And who is more unjust than he who viciously attributes falsehood to Allâh or denies His revelations and signs that testify to His omnipotence and authority? Surely, the unjust will not find prosperity in the Hereafter.
  22. The Day will come when We muster them all together and say to them:, “Where are your (presumed deities) that you associated with Allâh?”
  23. Not knowing what to do with their contention, they will say, “By Allâh our Lord, never did we associate other deities with Allâh.”
  24. See how they lie about themselves and what they fabricated erred away from them.
  25. And among them are some who listen to the Qur’ân when you recite it, not to profit by it. We have closed their hearts and deafened their ears. They just would not apprehend with their senses any revelation or any sign. And when they come to you, Muhammad, they do not humble themselves but are arrogantly more ready to argue than to obey. “This is nothing but myths of old!” they say.
  26. And they incite people to reject the Qur’ân and decline to accept it, and they themselves turn aside from it. They only bring irretrievable disaster upon themselves and they are unaware of this.
  27. If only you could see them when they are to face the Fire. Then they say, “Would that we were sent back to life and we would never deny Allâh’s revelations and signs, and we would be among the believers.”
  28. Now they realize their earlier sinful settled behavior, representing their hidden common feeling of the denial of the truth. And if they were sent back to life, they would resume the same evil practice they were commanded to avoid. They are indeed liars.
  29. They said, “There is only this present life, and we will never be resurrected.”
  30. And if you could see them when they are in the august presence of Allâh their Lord, and He asks them, “Is this not the truth that was related to you by Our Messenger?” “By Allâh our Lord, it is,” they say. There and then they will be told, “Taste the torment laid upon the damned for your intentional disbelief.”
  31. Losers indeed are those who deny resurrection and their meeting of Allâh their Lord. And when all of a sudden the predetermined eventful Hour surprises them, they will say regretfully and with vain repentance, “It is a great pity to have neglected our duty to Allâh in life.” They will be burdened with wrongs on their backs. Evil, indeed, is the fate of those who are burdened with their wrongs.
  32. Indeed, life here is but an illusion and a diversion; whereas, the abode in Heaven’s realm in the Hereafter is far better and blissful for those who revere Allâh as He deserves. Can you people not keep away from disbelief?
  33. We do know, Muhammad, that what they say grieves you at heart. In fact, it is not you that they charge with falsehood, but it is Allâh’s revelations, signs, and authority that the unjust deny.
  34. Messengers before you, Muhammad, were charged with falsehood, and they put up with the charge until Allâh brought them victory. Decisions pronounced by Allâh are decisive, irrevocable, and conclusive. You have already been given the tidings of the messengers who preceded you.
  35. If their natural aversions and antipathies perturb you, and you are able to seek a roadway underground or set up a ladder to ascend heavenward to bring about a sign to convince them of the truth of your mission (then do it). If Allâh had willed, He would have united them to obey Him and seek His guidance. Therefore, do not be one of those ignorant of Allâh’s knowledge.
  36. It is only those who hear that favorably respond to Heaven’s call; whereas those who are dead will (only hear when they) return back to Him.
  37. And the disbelievers say, “If only a convincing divine sign form his Lord were sent down on him!” Say to them, Muhammad, “Allâh is All-Powerful enough to send down any sign, but most of them do not know the truth.”
  38. There is not a beast in the animal kingdom on earth nor a bird moving through the air with its wings that does not form distinct nations like you people. We have not left out anything but have included it in this Book, and all will be mustered before Allâh their Lord.
  39. Those who denied Our revelations and signs betokening omnipotence and authority, Muhammad, are indeed deaf and dumb; they are shriveled into darkness. But Allâh misguides those whom He wills and guides to His straight path whom He wills.
  40. Say to them, “What if Allâh afflicts you with a penalty in requital of your evil deeds, or your Hereafter be planted in the present? Who is there besides Allâh to invoke for mercy, if, indeed, you are sincere?
  41. “Indeed, it is only Allâh Whom you will inevitably invoke to relieve your misery if He wills, and you will forget your false deities whom you associate with Him.”
  42. We have sent Messengers before you, Muhammad, to peoples who came to this world before your people, and We afflicted them with misfortunes and calamities so that they would supplicate Allâh.
  43. If only they had supplicated as Our violence came to them! But they became hard‑hearted and were fooled by Satan, who allured them to brighter worlds as a reward for their doings.
  44. And when they forgot all the knowledge that We had imparted to them, We opened for them all the great channels of prosperity. So, when there and then We suddenly took them, they simply gave up hope and were dumbfounded.
  45. There, the people who were unjust were uprooted from the earth. And praise be to Allâh, Lord of the worlds.
  46. Ask them, Muhammad, “What if Allâh takes away your hearing and your sight and seals up your hearts? Who is that deity, other than Allah, who is able to restore them to you?” See, Muhammad, how We expound Our revelations, yet they turn aside.
  47. Ask them, “What if Allâh’s punishment comes suddenly or openly? Who but the unjust will perish?”
  48. We only send the messengers as bearers of good tidings and as warners, and those who believe and act righteously will have won Allâh’s mercy; no fear will fall upon them nor will they grieve.
  49. But those who refuse to recognize Our revelations and signs betokening omnipotence and authority will suffer the torment for those who are immoral.
  50. Say to your people, Muhammad, “I do not claim to possess the treasuries of Allâh, nor do I claim to foretell the Unseen, nor do I say to you that I am an angel. I only follow what is revealed to me of truth.” And ask them, “Will they be esteemed alike, those who are blind and the ever-beholding? Can you people not meditate?”
  51. And use the Qur’ân, Muhammad, to warn those who are apprehensive of the inevitable occasion when they are mustered before Allâh their Lord, besides Whom they have no protector or intercessor, that they may be pious.
  52. And do not dismiss those who are humble in rank or station before they listen to your discourse on Islâm. They invoke Allâh morning and evening seeking only the illumination proceeding from Him. You, Muhammad, are not accountable to Allâh for their deeds or actions, nor are they accountable to Allâh for your deeds or actions to induce you to dismiss them and be among the unjust.
  53. We gathered them together to try them and expose the inclination of some of them against the others. And there, the arrogant said contemptuously, “Is it these whom Allâh has graced among us?” Does Allâh not know best the thankful?
  54. And when those who believe in Our revelations and signs come to you, Muhammad, address them with the expression of “peace be upon you” and proclaim to them, “Allâh ascribed mercy unto Himself as an attribute to the end that any among you who commits himself to evil conduct and repents thereafter, and henceforth imprints his deeds with piety will find Allâh Oft-Forgiving and Ever-Merciful.”
  55. Thus do We expound Our revelations so as to make evident the way of the criminals.
  56. Say to them, Muhammad, “I have been forbidden to worship those deities whom you invoke in prayer or appeal to for aid and protection apart from Allâh.” And say to them, “I never follow your prejudices, or then I will have missed the path of righteousness and failed to be one of those who are rightly guided.”
  57. Say to them, Muhammad, “I follow the law I received from Allâh my Lord, the Law—the Qur’ân—that you have totally denied. I do not have control (over Allâh’s punishment), which you impertinently urge to be hastened.” Decisions are only with Allâh; He declares the truth and He is infinitely the best of all verdict givers.
  58. Say to them, “If the punishment you have asked to be hastened on rested with me, the case as put by both of us would have been decided, and Allâh knows best the unjust ones.”
  59. And with Him are the keys of the Unseen; none knows them except He. He has all knowledge of all that is on the land and in the sea. There is not one single leaf, large or small, but it is within His knowledge. Nor is there a seed embedded in the darkness of the earth nor anything wet or dry, but it is (inscribed) in a Book.
  60. And it is He Who takes you up at night during sleep and knows fully well all that you have indulged in by day, a process continuing up to a predetermined time. Then you will all return back to Him; thereafter He informs you of all that you were doing.
  61. He is The Supreme Vanquisher over His servants, and He sends down guardian angels until it is time for any of you to encounter death as predetermined by Allâh. Then Our messengers [angels] take him up and they are never negligent.
  62. There and then they are sent back to Allâh, their True Patron. Is the right to judge not asserted as Allâh’s own? He is the swiftest in executing the law of reckoning.
  63. Ask them, Muhammad, “Who saves you from the darkness of land and of sea? You invoke Him with supplication and in secret, ‘If He extends His mercy to us and saves us, we would be among the thankful.’”
  64. And say to them, “Allâh is He Who saves you from these dangerous situations and from every agony. Yet still you associate other deities with Him.”
  65. Say to them, “He is The All-Powerful Who is able to drive against you a retributive torment from above you or from beneath your feet, or to confound you in sects and make some of you inflict violence on others.” See, Muhammad, how We expound and orient Our revelations that they may comprehend!
  66. Yet your people still deny the Qur’ân, and it is the truth. Say to them, “I am not entrusted over your.”
  67. To every announcement or proclamation embodied in the Qur’ân there is a fixed point of time and place. And then you people will know of it when it comes to pass.
  68. And when you see those critical of Our revelations, just avoid them and do not keep company with them until they have changed the subject. Should Satan make you forget, then sit no longer with the unjust people after Our reminder.
  69. Those who revere Allâh as He deserves are in no way accountable to Allâh for the deeds or actions of the wrongful. However, it is a reminder that they may be pious.
  70. And leave out, Muhammad, those who treat their religion as a plaything and an amusement. They are deluded by the present life. But remind them of the truth so that it may save them from destruction for what they have committed, as they do not have any patron or intercessor apart from Allâh. Nor will humble intercession be accepted from any on behalf of another, nor will the equivalent in ransom pay for the expiation of the guilt of one or the other. These persons will be requited with what is commensurate with their deeds. Their uneasy and painful sensation of thirst will only be quenched with boiling water, and they will suffer the painful torment laid on them for that they were disbelieving.
  71. Say to them, Muhammad, “Is it befitting to invoke besides Allâh what cannot help us or harm us, and to revert to disbelief after being guided by Allâh? If so, we would be like someone who has been fooled by the devils, who wanders over the earth perplexed! So, he hardly hears the call of his good and pious friends begging him to come back to guidance from Allâh.” Say to them, “Guidance is only from Allâh, and we Muslims have been commanded to surrender to the will of Allâh, the Lord of the worlds.”
  72. And we have been commanded to engage in the act of prayer and revere Allâh as He deserves, for to Him we will all be mustered.
  73. It is He Who created the heavens and the earth in truth. The instant He says to an object or to an event “be” it is there. His Word is the truth and to Him belongs absolute kingdom when the trumpet is blown to indicate the Resurrection and Judgment. He is The All-Knowing of the Unseen, The All-Knowing of the witnessed. He is All-Wise, the Ever-Cognizant.
  74. Once Ibrâhîm (Abraham) asked his father Âzar (Athar), “Do you take idols made of stone or wood as godheads? O my father, I do see you and your people lost in evident error.”
  75. Thus did We show Ibrâhîm the dominion behind the magnificent powers and laws of the physical universe to affirm his certitude.
  76. When the night darkened the world, he saw a planet. “This,” he said, “is my Lord.” But when it set, he said, “I do not love things that set.”
  77. Then when he saw the moon rising into view, he said, “This is my Lord.” But again when it set, he said, “Unless my Lord guides me, I will certainly be lost in error.”
  78. When he saw the sun emerging, he said, “This is my Lord. It is greater.” But when it set, he said, “O my people, I am indeed innocent of all that you associate with Allâh.
  79. “Now do I turn my face to Him, the Eternal Allâh, Creator of the heavens and the earth, and I am not one of those associating other deities with Him.”
  80. His people contended with him (with opposing arguments against the thought of one Allâh). But he said to them, “Do you contend with me with opposing arguments against Allâh Who has guided me to His path of righteousness? I do not fear those deities whom you associate with Him, nor will I be in harm unless it be Allâh’s will. Allâh my Lord is All-Powerful, and His knowledge embraces everything. Can you not remind yourselves?
  81. “And how should I fear those deities whom you associate with Him and you do not fear the consequences of associating with Him other deities whom He never authorized? Which of the two groups would then be safe and secure, if only you knew?”
  82. Indeed, those who believed in Allâh and did not confuse their belief with injustice are they who will be secure, and Providence will be their guide.
  83. That was the reasoning We imparted to Ibrâhîm to use against his people’s contention. We raise whom We will to higher degrees and power. Allâh your Lord is indeed All-Wise and All-Knowing.
  84. We bestowed upon him Ishâq (Isaac) and Ya`qûb (Jacob), each of whom We guided to truth just as We had guided Nûh (Noah) before that. And of Ibrâhîm’s offspring are Dâwûd (David), Sulaymân (Solomon), Ayyûb (Job), Yûsuf (Joseph), Mûsâ (Moses), and Hârûn (Aaron). Thus do We reward the fair-doers.
  85. And Zakariyyâ (Zachariah) and Yahyâ (John), `Îsâ (Jesus), and Ilyâs (Elias), each and all were enrolled among the righteous.
  86. And Ismâ`îl (Ishmael) and Ilyasa`a, Yûnus (Jonah) and Lût (Lot), each and all We favored over all mankind.
  87. And of their forefathers, their offsprings, and their brethren, We chose them and We guided them to a straight path.
  88. This is the true guidance of Allâh, a guidance of whom He wills of His servants to all truth. Had they associated other deities with Him, they would have been frustrated and their deeds to worthlessness.
  89. Those Prophets are they to whom We entrusted the Book, the judgment, and the prophethood. If these people [Makkans] disbelieve in these divinely given advantages, other non-disbelievers have been entrusted with them (they fulfilled the requirements and proved worthy of the trust).
  90. Those have been guided by Allâh. Therefore, take them, Muhammad, as a guide and follow their example. And say to your people, “I do not charge you a reward for imparting to you Allâh’s revelations. The Qur’ân is simply the Reminding fountainhead of all truth to the worlds.”
  91. And they [the Makkan pagans and the Jews] did not credit Allâh with the attributes asserted as His own, as they said, “Never did Allâh disclose divine knowledge to a human being.” Ask them, “Who, then, sent down the Book that you knew Mûsa (Moses) presented to his people as a light and guidance to mankind—the Book that you (the Jews) divided and again broke up into subdivisions and published the parts they planned to disclose and concealed many parts, the Book that imparted to them divine knowledge that neither they nor their fathers had ever known? Is it not Allâh?” Let them, Muhammad, drown themselves in their vain discourse.
  92. And this Qur’ân, like the Injîl, is a Heaven-sent blessed Book. It corroborates and authoritatively validates the authentic Books revealed beforehand so that you, Muhammad, might warn the people of the Mother of Cities and the people of all cities around. Those who acknowledge the truth of the Hereafter believe in this Book and regularly observe their prayer.
  93. And who is more unjust than he who attributes falsehood to Allâh or claims that he has been given revelation by Allâh when, in fact, nothing whatsoever has been revealed to him? And who is more wicked than he who says, “I shall send down a book like that sent down by Allâh”? If only you, Muhammad, could see the unjust at the distressful moment of death when they are in agony, as the angels of death put forward their hands to them and say to them, “Now get yourselves out (of torment). Today you will suffer the humiliating torment laid upon the damned for attributing to Him other than the truth and for objecting to His signs with inordinate pride.”
  94. “Now,” they are told, “you have come back to Us singly, as you were alone when We created you at first, and stripped of all possessions and of all that We had ascribed to you in life. Nor do We see you accompanied by your intercessors whom you had claimed as associates with Me. Now the ties of your common fanciful belief are being severed, and those whom you presumed to be gods have proved your assumptions wrong.”
  95. Surely, Allâh is the Splitter of the seeds and the date stones. He causes the living to emerge from the dead and the dead to emerge from the living. That is Allâh. Then how are you diverged (into falsehood)?
  96. He is the Splitter of the daybreak, and He has designated the night as the period of natural repose, and the sun and the moon for determining and computing time. Such is the plan determined by The All-Mighty, The All-Knowing.
  97. And it is He Who designated the stars as guideposts for you amid the darkness of night on land and sea. We have expounded Our signs to people who know.
  98. And He it is Who brought you into being from one single self—Âdam—and Âdam was originated from the earth, so the earth is your destined habitation where you live and your habitation after death. We have expounded Our signs to people who comprehend.
  99. And it is He Who sends down rainwater from the sky and with it He brings forth buds of every kind. And He brings forth the green blades from which come the thickly clustered grains. And from the date palm spring readily accessible pendant bunches of dates. And with the water We cause vineyards of grapes to grow, and fruit trees, olives and pomegranates. Some of them are similar in shape but different in taste, smell, and benefit. Look at their produce when they have produced and their mellowness. These are clear and convincing signs to people who believe.
  100. Yet the disbelievers associate with Him the jinn as partners of omnipotence and authority albeit He created them. And without knowledge they insolently ascribe to Him sons and daughters. Glory be to Him and extolled are His glorious attributes! He is infinitely far beyond all they that falsely attribute to Him.
  101. And it is He Who originated the heavens and the earth. How would He have a child, as they claim, when He is infinitely above taking a female companion! He created all, including those whom they took as deities. And He is The All-Knowing of everything and will requite them according to their deeds.
  102. Such is Allâh your Lord; there is no god but Him, the Creator Who originated all. Therefore, worship Him, and worship Him alone. He is the Trustee and Guardian of everything, and everything will be brought back to Him.
  103. He cannot be apprehended by sight, but He comprehends all that is displayed to the bodily eye. And He is The Gracious Who gives His servants understanding, and He is The Ever-Kind Who realizes everything, and The Ever-Cognizant Who is aware of everything.
  104. Say to them, Muhammad, “You people have now received from your Lord divine evidence and signs in the Qur’ân that enlighten the way to the truth for you. Therefore, he who sees will benefit himself, and he who blinds himself to the truth will hurt himself. And you must realize that I am not here a preserver over you (I am only a Messenger who conveys to you what has been sent down to me).”
  105. Through this unique variation of presenting the cosmic signs, We explicitly present Our signs in the Qur’ân. We aim to make them clear and compelling to the disbelievers so that they may not find any excuse for accusing you of being taught by some of them rather than by Allâh. We also mean to give insight to those who know.
  106. Follow all that has been revealed to you, Muhammad, from Allâh Your Lord. There is no god but Him (who is worth worshiping, obeying, and submitting to). And disregard those who associate other deities with Him.
  107. If Allâh had willed, He would have forced them with His power to worship Him alone. And rest assured that We did not send you a preserver over them, nor are you a trustee over them.
  108. O you who believe, do not assail the idols they worship besides Allâh with abusive language, lest they should revile Allâh in retaliation without knowledge. Thus every nation was allured to its deeds, exactly as these were allured to loving their idols. Then all nations will be brought back to Allâh their Lord, and He will inform them of all they were doing.
  109. The disbelievers swear by Allâh that if any of the signs they asked for were revealed to them, they would most certainly believe in Allâh and His Messenger. Say to them, Prophet, “Revelations and signs rest in the hands of Allâh alone. Nonetheless, you Muslims do not know what I know—that the disbelievers will not believe in the miraculous signs if they come.”
  110. Nor do you know that We divert their hearts when they receive the revelation and their sight so that they lose sight of the truth as they did at the beginning and will do henceforth. And We leave them in their inordinate blundering.
  111. Those who solemnly declared that they would believe in any of the miracles they asked for, if they came true, are liars. If We had sent down angels whom they could see, and resurrected the dead to speak with them, and gathered before their eyes beings, matters, and affairs, they would not have believed the truth nor would they have conformed to Islâm unless it be the will of Allâh. But most of them are ignorant.
  112. Just as these took you as an enemy and obstinately opposed you while you sought to guide them to the right path, so did We appoint to every prophet enemies with satanic attributes, from both mankind and jinn, revealing to one another fair speech in order to deceive. If Allâh had willed, they would never have done so. But Allâh meant to test them; therefore let them sink under the vexations they thoughtlessly fabricate.
  113. Such deceit attracts the victims of deception who deny the truth of the Hereafter and allow themselves to be deluded. They accept such deceitful talk and listen to such deceitful advice as these devils sway them to give, and commit what impels them to their misdeeds.
  114. Say to them, Prophet, “Thus is Allâh’s verdict made clear by the evident signs, so, how shall I choose a judge besides Allâh when it is He Who makes and gives the law? It is He Who has sent down the Qur’ân, distinctly expressing all that is meant leaving nothing merely implied.” The People of the Book know it is Allâh’s revealed Book in all truth from your Lord. Therefore, you Muslims, be not one of those who hide the truth and contend it.
  115. Allâh’s Word has been issued, and He has perfected His truth by sending down the Ever-Glorious Book that distinguishes right from wrong. Nothing can change His words, and He hears all that you say and knows all that you do.
  116. And as Allâh is the Just Judge Whose Books are the source of justice, then do not listen to most people on earth. If you do, most of them will take you away from Allâh’s way and lead you to the wrong. They only follow lies and what their thoughts impel them to. They simply rely on baseless guessing.
  117. Allâh your Lord knows best who intentionally or unintentionally strays from His path of righteousness and strays from His purpose, just as He knows who relentlessly adheres to the path of righteousness.
  118. And if Allâh alone knows the righteous and the perverts, then do not listen to those who deny Allâh and prohibit some animals. Eat of them. Allâh has provided them to you and made them lawful to you, so eat of them and mention Allâh’s name when you slaughter them if, indeed, you have believed in His revelations and signs of His authority.
  119. There is no reason why you should not eat the flesh of the permitted animals that are slaughtered in the name of Allâh when He has designated to you what is forbidden if you are not under compelling circumstances! Indeed, many willingly lead themselves to wrong based on their prejudices, such as those Arabs who forbade some animals. You are not transgressors if you eat of them; it is they who transgressed when they forbade them. But Allâh knows well those who disregard His commandments and transgress the limits He prescribed.
  120. Piety does not mean to forbid what Allâh has made lawful. Piety is to avoid the immoral and the sinful, whether it be committed openly or secretly. Indeed, those who are wrongdoers will be requited with what is commensurate with their evil deeds.
  121. Permitted animals are made lawful to you through slaughtering. Therefore, do not eat the flesh of the permitted animal that has not been slaughtered in the name of Allâh or that has been slaughtered in the name of a deity other than Allâh; this is impiety. The devils suggest baseless opposing arguments to your contenders to make lawful what Allâh has prohibited. And if you should yield to their temptation, you will have reverted to being associators.
  122. You believers are not like the disbelievers. He who was dead and was given life and light by Allâh to conduct himself well among the people with Allâh as his guide, does not compare with him who is led into the darkness, into deepest dismay where there is no escape! Thus were the disbelievers deluded with attractions so that they wasted their days in vain.
  123. Do not wonder, Prophet, if you see that the principal criminals in every town set no bounds to their vain sensual and evil desires, taking cunning for wisdom and lying in wait to deceive the people. This happens in every big town when, in fact, they beset themselves with evils and malice, but they fail to perceive.
  124. They envy the people when a revelation or a sign comes to them from Allâh, and they say, “We will not believe until we are given the like of what the messengers of Allâh were given.” Indeed, Allâh knows best whom to entrust with His divine message. But those who grow daily more and more wicked will be humiliated in Heaven’s realm and imprisoned in Hell in requital of their plotting.
  125. It is only by Allâh’s will that they went astray and you were guided. When Allâh wills to guide someone to His path of righteousness, He comforts him and makes his breast amenable and responsive to the joyful thought of conforming to Islâm. But when Allâh decides to leave someone to his evil thoughts, He tightens his breast so that it is impervious to knowledge—a feeling similar to what he would experience if he climbed in heaven. Thus does Allâh afflict those who deny Him with the abomination laid on those who do not believe.
  126. This is Allâh’s path, a path of piety, righteousness, and virtue! We have expounded it to the people. No one will benefit from it but those who seek guidance from Allâh and remember Him.
  127. For those believers there will be an abode in Heaven’s realm in a world of peace in the august presence of Allâh their Lord, Who will overshadow them by His gracious wing in return for their good deeds.
  128. If those who followed Allâh’s path will have an abode in Heaven’s realm, then those who followed Satan’s path will face a horrible end when Allâh musters them all on the Day of Resurrection. He will say to them, “O people of the jinn, you seduced many among mankind and led them astray.” Their allies among mankind will say, “O Allâh our Lord, we enjoyed one another and profited one another until our predetermined time was fulfilled.” Then Allâh will say, “Hell is where you will abide in eternal suffering, except whom Allâh wills to save due to their acceptance of Allâh’s message. Allâh your Lord is indeed All-Wise, All-Knowing.”
  129. As We made them enjoy and profit one another, so We induce those who confirm themselves in malice to take each other as friends and guardians by reason of their common attributes and their striving to drive people away from Allâh’s path.
  130. On the Day of Judgment, Allâh will address them: “O people of the jinn and mankind, did you not receive messengers of your own people to present you with My signs and narrate to you My revelations evincing both My omnipotence and authority and to warn you of this momentous Day? So how can you lie to Me?” “We bear witness against ourselves,” they say. They were deceived by the sensual enjoyment that they regarded as the chief object of life, and they were witnesses of their own actions and of their disobedience to Allâh.
  131. Therefore, never would Allâh your Lord do away unjustly with the towns when their inhabitants were unconscious of the wrong they were accustomed to doing.
  132. There are grades (ranks) for all according to their deeds, good or bad. And Allâh your Lord is not unaware of what people do (There is no minor or major deed but it is recorded).
  133. Allâh your Lord is The Independent, The Absolute, and The Source of mercy; therefore, He enjoins good and forbids evil. If He wills, He can do away with you people and replace you with others of His choice, just as He brought you into being from the posterity of other people (after whom you inherited the land).
  134. The punishment you have been warned against, and the rewards you have been promised to get after resurrection, assembling, and requital will come to pass at the predetermined time, and you will not be able to avert what will befall you or what is threatened.
  135. Say to them, Prophet, “O people, you may pursue your way, but I am steering my course of action towards implementing the truth. And you certainly will come to know who will win Allâh’s mercy hereafter and who will succeed in attaining the blissful and happy end. You are the unjust wrongdoers, and the wrongdoers will never prosper.”
  136. The idolaters are in constant delusion. They apportion to Allâh a share of the crops and cattle that He Himself has created and spend it on the strangers and the needy, and another share they apportion to their idols that they take as deities besides Allâh. And what they apportion to their partners [to Allâh] reaches them in full; whereas what is apportioned to Allâh is hardly spent in what it was assigned to. Evil indeed is what they do.
  137. As they were deluded by their unjust portioning of Allâh’s creation, so were they deluded by their idols that they claimed to be Allâh’s partners, to kill their children and to vow killing their children as sacrifices to their idols. Such illusions confused them and perplexed the essence of religion in their views so that they could not understand the essence of religion. Had Allâh willed, they would not have indulged in such an evil practice. Therefore, Muhammad, let them sink under their vexations, and Allâh will requite them in proportion to their deeds.
  138. They classified cattle and crops into (a) those presumed sacred and therefore forbidden as food to all except those whom they qualify; (b) cattle forbidden to bear burdens; and (c) cattle slaughtered for food without invoking the name of Allâh. All along, they forged lies against Allâh, but He will requite them for their falsehood.
  139. They also say, “What these cattle carry in their wombs are reserved exclusively for our males and forbidden to our spouses, unless the offspring be stillborn; then both sexes go shares.” Allâh will requite them for this discrimination that they falsely claim is a divine ordinance. He is All-Wise, All-Knowing.
  140. Losers indeed are those who foolishly and irreligiously committed infanticide, a thoughtless evil. Who forbade them their provision, forging lies against Allâh? They have, indeed, erred and strayed from the path of righteousness.
  141. He it is Who brought into being orchards, some trellised and others not trellised. He brought into being the palm trees and all of the agricultural yield of every district and season, varying in kind and in flavor, and the olives and the pomegranates, besides many others of similar kind and dissimilar taste. Eat, therefore, of their fruits and when you harvest, pay what ought to be given in charity or zakâh, but avoid prodigality, for Allâh does not like the extravagant.
  142. And He gave you cattle, some to carry your burdens and provide you with commodities, and others for meat. Therefore, eat of what Allâh has provided you and do not follow the footsteps of Satan. He is indeed your avowed enemy.
  143. Of each kind of cattle Allâh created a male and a female, so they are eight, two pairs of sheep, and two pairs of goats. Ask them, Muhammad, “Has He prohibited the two males or the two females, or what the wombs of the two females contain? Tell me with knowledge if you speak the truth.”
  144. Allâh has also created two pairs of camels and two pairs of cows. Ask them, “Has He prohibited the two males or the two females, or what the wombs of the two females contain? Were you witnesses when Allâh gave such an order (as you claim) and you attest to it? Who, then, is more unjust than one who viciously leads people without knowledge into error and lies against Allâh? Indeed, Allâh does not guide the vicious and wrongdoers to His path of righteousness.”
  145. Say to them, Muhammad, “I do not find among the divine commands revealed to me anything prohibiting a food consumed by mankind except a permitted animal found dead or slaughtered without invoking Allâh’s name on it; blood streaming from an animal; the flesh of swine. This is impure, harmful, and unclean food. Also forbidden is the permitted animal slaughtered in the name of other than Allâh. But if one is in compelling circumstances and does not wish to transgress, Allâh will allow one to eat the necessary bit to keep one’s life. Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Ever-Merciful.
  146. This is what We forbade to you. And to the Jews We forbade every animal with undivided hoof and We forbade them the fat of the oxen and sheep except the fat covering their backs and their entrails and the fat attached to the bones. This prohibition was imposed on them in requital of their vice and corruption. This is the truth We justly declare.
  147. If they disbelieve what We revealed to you, Muhammad, then say to them, “Surely, Allâh, Your Lord—Whom alone you must believe in and adhere to His orders—has a vast mercy (for him who obeyed Him and to him who disobeyed Him, as well). It is extended to all, especially to those who repent. But they must not be deceived by this mercy because His violence will not be turned back from the criminal people.”
  148. And to excuse their unjustifiable disbelief and forbidding what Allâh has made lawful, the associators will insolently say, “Had Allâh not willed, neither our fathers nor we would have associated other deities with Him, nor would we have prohibited anything.” Thus much did their predecessors charge their messengers with falsehood until they tasted the fatal consequences of their evil conduct in life. Say to them, Muhammad, “Do you have evidence to prove that Allâh approved of your disbelief? You only follow the lies and the prompting of surmise and conjecture.”
  149. Say to them, Prophet, “Allâh has the crucial evidence that you lied when you claimed that your disbelief and prohibiting the lawful were by His will. If He had willed, He would have guided you all to His path of righteousness.”
  150. Say to them, Prophet, “Bring your witnesses who can testify that Allâh has forbidden all that you presume He has.” And if they should bear witness to this effect, then do not believe their testimony; they are lying. Nor act upon their prejudices or the prejudices of those denying Our revelations and signs and the truth of the Hereafter, who make Allâh equal to other creatures, associating them with Him.
  151. Say to them, Prophet, “Come, I will tell you all that Allâh has forbidden so that you do your best to keep away from them: You must not in any way associate other deities with Him nor be undutiful to your parents, but commit them to your kind care. You must not kill your children because of lack of means; We provide for you and them. You must not commit adultery, openly or secretly and other obscenities. You must not deprive anyone of life, which Allâh has made prohibited, unless it is justified for a proven crime. These are injunctions enjoined by Allâh, and you are expected to submit to Allâh’s authority and reflect.
  152. “You must not encroach upon the property of the orphan, unless it be with the motive of improving it, until he or she reaches maturity and is able to take charge of it. You must not fraudulently scant the measure and the weight but dispense them equitably to the full. No self is charged with more than it can bear. When you give witness or pronounce a judgment or tell news, stick to justice and equity, even if the person in question is related. Do not break your promise or vow relating to lawful matters between you and Allâh or between you and others, but let your actions accord with your words, and fulfil the solemn promise and keep the vow. These are injunctions Allâh has enjoined, and you are expected to remember and to submit to Allâh’s commands.
  153. “Never turn away from the path I chose for you, as it is the straight path that leads to happiness in this life and in the Hereafter. So follow it and never follow the other paths that Allâh forbade to you, so that you may not break up into groups and parties and stray from Allâh’s straight path. This is what He has commanded you so that you may be pious to Him as He deserves.”
  154. We gave Mûsa (Moses) the Book (the Tawrâh) to complete Our favor on those who had obeyed Allâh and conformed their will to His. It was well expounded to interpret all matters and guide people to all truth, and a mercy from Allâh to His creatures so that they might realize that they will be gathered before Him at the predetermined time.
  155. And this Qur’ân is a Book We sent down as a blessing comprising divine favor and all the benefits of this world and the world to come. Therefore, follow its precepts and obey Allâh as He deserves so that you may be recipients of His mercy.
  156. We have sent it down so that you people do not say, “The Books sent down to the people of the Tawrâh and to those of the Injîl and we have been heedless of their study.”
  157. We sent it down lest you should say, “Had we received the revelation that was sent to them, we would have reverenced and venerated it more.” Now you have no excuse for your disobedience; the Qur’ân has come to you as convincing evidence attesting to the truthfulness of Our Messenger’s mission (clarifying all that you need in your life, and guiding you to the straight path). Therefore, who is more wicked than one who belies Allâh’s revelations and signs and turns aside from Allâh’s disclosure of divine knowledge? Indeed, those who turn aside from Our revelations and signs betokening omnipotence and authority will be put to the torment laid upon the damned in requital of closing their hearts and ears.
  158. The indispensability of faith has been proved by evidence, yet these people did not believe. What are they waiting for? Do they intend to wait until the angels come to them as messengers instead of men, or as witnesses to the truthfulness of your message? Or until Allâh your Lord comes to them Himself to give witness that your message is true? Or to see some of His signs evincing both His omnipotence and the truth of your mission? But when such overwhelming signs present themselves, no self that neither surrendered itself earlier to Allâh’s authority nor accomplished a useful purpose in virtue of its faith will profit of its submission now. Say to them, “Await any of these things you are aspiring to, and keep on denying Allâh’s signs, and we will wait with you.”
  159. Indeed, those who divided their religion and separated it into sects by false beliefs and forged laws and set themselves at variance—you are not responsible for the way they conduct themselves in life. You are only responsible for conveying the message to them. And their account rests with Allâh, Who will inform them on the Day of Judgment of all they used to do.
  160. He who performs a good deed will be rewarded with ten times the like of it, and he who performs an evil deed will be requited with the like of it, and no one will ever be done any injustice.
  161. Say to them, Muhammad, “Allâh my Lord has guided me to the path of glory, the path of righteousness, the path on which was founded the religion of Ibrâhîm (Abraham), who never associated other deities with Allâh.”
  162. Say to them, “Indeed, my prayers and all my acts of worship and all the duties I fulfil in my life are done in the debt to Allâh, my Lord and Creator of the universe.
  163. “No partners does He have, nor does He have anyone associated with Him. To this fundamental truth I have been enjoined to adhere, and I am the first who have conformed to Islâm.”
  164. Say, Muhammad, rejecting the disbelievers’ call to you to conform to their disbelief: “Shall I choose a god other than Allâh the Lord, Who is the Creator and Lord of everything?” And say to them that they will not bear your sins for you if you agree with them. No self, whether it bears wrongs or not, will bear the wrongs of another. You will be brought back to Allâh your Lord; you are all destined to go. Then He will tell you in what you differed and requite you according to your deeds, so, how can I disobey Allâh and believe your false promises?
  165. He it is Who has established you on earth and made one generation replace the other, and He promoted and exalted—in rank, honor, estimation, development, power, and wealth—some above others and arranged you in grades to test your qualities with what He has ordained for you. You had better realize that Allâh your Lord is swift indeed in executing the law and in effecting just retribution. And He is also Oft-Forgiving, Ever-Merciful.

SÛRAH 7

AL-A`RÂF

The Heights

Revealed at Makkah

The beginning of this sûrah is a continuation of the end of Sûrat Al-An`âm. Then this sûrah includes the start of humanity, so it mentions the story of the creation of Âdam and Hawwâ’ (Eve) and their exit from Paradise by Satan’s whispers. The sûrah also shows some of Satan’s continual whispering to man concerning attire and food. Then the verses, like other verses of the Qur’ân, deal with contemplating the heavens and the earth and the wonderful system they contain.

The sûrah mentions the stories of the Prophets Nûh (Noah); Hûd with his nation, the `Âd; Sâlih with his nation, the Thamûd, who were endowed with strength and riches; Lût (Lot) with his nation and the evil acts they dared to commit; and Shu`ayb and the people of Madyan. The sûrah then includes the truthful narratives with the lesson they contain. Allâh then narrates the story of Mûsâ (Moses) and what Pharaoh did.

The sûrah concludes by describing one who is given guidance but then leaves it by Satan’s misguidance and how such a person acts. The sûrah finally expounds the call to the truth, which Muhammad came with.

In the Name of Allâh,

The All-Merciful, the Ever-Merciful

  1. A (alif). L (lâm). M (mîm). S (sâd). These letters occur at the beginning of some Makkan sûrahs to draw the attention of the polytheists to the fact that the Qur’ân, though written in the people’s tongue, cannot be emulated.
  2. The Qur’ân is revealed to you, Muhammad, so that you may warn the disbelievers to become believers, and remind the believers to become stronger in belief. Therefore, let it not oppress your thoughts and feelings, but use it and act upon it to warn those who deny the truth and to put those who have conformed to Islam in mind of their duties.
  3. And you people, act in accordance with all that has been revealed to you from Allâh your Lord and take not besides Allâh guardians to whom you respond and whose help you seek. They will influence you to revert from Allâh’s religion. How little you people remember Allâh.
  4. How many towns did We caused to perish in requital of their worshiping other than Allâh. Great was Our indignation against them so that it spoke thunder on some (Lût’s people) at night while they slept and on others (Shu`aib’s people) during their siesta.
  5. When Our anger was displayed in action, they said nothing with regrets and vain repentance but “We were unjust.”
  6. Indeed, We will call to account all those to whom messengers were sent; they will have much to answer for, and We will question the messengers whom We had sent.
  7. There and then We will narrate to them with full knowledge of those who excelled and of those who failed so that they realize that We were never absent but All-Knowing.
  8. The balance of justice on this Momentous Day is truth manifest. He whose deeds of piety surpass (his iniquities) in weight will be protected from the Fire and will prosper in Paradise.
  9. And he whose iniquities surpass (his good deeds) in weight will be a loser because of their iniquities and unjust treatment of Our revelations and signs.
  10. We have firmly established you people on earth and endowed you with the means of living, and with conditions capable of being turned to use, yet how little you are thankful (for which ingratitude you will be punished).
  11. And We brought you into being by a special creation, and We fashioned you and gave you form and countenance (and made you a determinate exalted being). Then We said to the angels, “Prostrate yourselves to Âdam—your archetype—.” And the angels prostrated in comely order, praise, and adoration, except Iblîs, who refused.
  12. Then Allâh asked, “What prompted you, Satan, not to prostrate to Âdam when I commanded you to do so?” “But I am of a better sort than he is,” said Satan. “You created me from fire; whereas You created him from clay.”
  13. “Then down you go,” Allâh said, “from this blissful state. You are doomed to a lower state. You are here in Heaven’s realm in the august presence where you cannot display arrogance or exhibit an overweening opinion of your quality. You are dismissed from My Heaven’s realm, doomed to the vicissitudes of deposition and degradation.”
  14. “Give me respite,” said Satan, “till the day they are resurrected.”
  15. Allâh said, “You are granted, like those with characteristics befitting you, a delay of punishment till the predetermined Eventful Hour.”
  16. Then said Satan, “Since You have dismissed me and sent me astray, I will lie in ambush in Your path of righteousness and seduce as many of mankind as I can decoy from there by any possible means.
  17. “And I will assail them from every side; I will leap at them from front and from behind, from their right and from their left, and You will find most of them not feeling or displaying gratitude.”
  18. “Go away from here,” Allâh said, “reproved and rejected. I will fill the realms of Hell with you and with all those of mankind who take you as a guide.”
  19. “As for you, Âdam,” Allâh said, “you and your wife make abode in Paradise and enjoy all that affords pleasure. Eat any food you will, but avoid this particular tree; do not draw near it lest you both be unjust wrongdoers.”
  20. And there Satan furtively whispered them, instigating evil to them. He suggested secretly to them what made them unintentionally lose their decency and expose of their bodies what put them to shame. He said to them, “Allâh only forbade you this tree lest you should come to be angels or be qualified to eternal existence.”
  21. He swore to them that he was a sincere adviser.
  22. So he misled them both by delusion. No sooner did they taste the fruit of the forbidden tree than their private parts were exposed. They kept collecting leaves from the trees in Paradise to cover their naked bodies. There and then, Allâh their Lord summoned them and said to them, “Did I not command you both to keep off this tree, and did I not inform you that Satan was and always will be your avowed enemy?”
  23. “Indeed, our Lord,” they said, “We were wrongful of actions, and unless You forgive our sins and extend Your mercy to us, we will most certainly be great losers.”
  24. Allâh said, “Upon Our command We send all of you to a lower state, with mutual enmity to each other, and you will settle on earth where you will make abode and livelihood for a predetermined period of time.”
  25. “Therein you will live, and there you will die and be buried, and from there you will be resurrected.”
  26. O Children of Âdam, We have sent down to you a raiment to cover your nakedness and with substances to adorn your personal appearance, and best of all is the vesture of piety. This is one of Allâh’s striking signs to man so that you may remember the greatness of Allâh and that He alone deserves to be worshiped (This story exhibits the punishment for disobeying Allâh’s command so that people may recollect it and be keen to obey Him and thank Him for His blessings).
  27. O Children of Âdam, do not let Satan lead you astray as he allured your original parents by the use of cunning and deceitful attractions, inducing them to lose their decency and expose their private parts, and there he attained the desired end. He sees you, and so do his associates; whereas you do not perceive them by sight. We made Satan and his associates patrons for those who do not sincerely believe in Allâh.
  28. And when the disbelievers commit extremely evil deeds, such as associating others with Allâh, they claim this was the system on which their fathers were bent, and they insolently allege that Allâh has enjoined this system and is satisfied with it. Say to them, Prophet, “Allâh does not enjoin immorality. Do you people attribute to Allâh that for which you have no evidence?”
  29. Say to them, “Allâh has enjoined the quality of being morally just and righteous, and that you set your faces toward Him at all times and places and dutifully observe your act of worship, devoting it to Him alone. As He brought you into being so will He resurrect you to go back to Him.”
  30. Some He has justly guided to His path of righteousness, and some deserved to be lost in the maze of error. They chose to take Satan and the satanic as their guides and to be under their patronage apart from that of Allâh, and they think they are assuming the right course.
  31. O children of Âdam, pay attention to your personal appearance and your apparel at every mosque where you dutifully observe your act of worship (not to mention the solemnity of applying yourselves to the presence of Allâh. Eat and drink of the permitted but avoid extravagance. Allâh does not like the extravagant who carry anything to excess.
  32. Say to them, Muhammad, “Who has forbidden the material objects and articles of apparel that Allâh has brought out to His servants? And who has forbidden the worthy and wholesome victuals Allâh has provided?” Say to them, “Such articles and objects, material and immaterial, were given to both believers and disbelievers in this world, but they are reserved exclusively on the Day of Judgment for the believers.” Thus, do We expound Our revelations and render Our words readily understood by those who know.
  33. Say to them, “Allâh has indeed forbidden the evil line of conduct implying immorality (such as adultery), be it apparent or real, committed overtly or secretly. And He forbids unwarranted severe course of action and that you people associate with Him other deities of material or immaterial nature whom He never authorized, or to say about Allah whatever you do not know.
  34. And to every people, all and each, We have ordained a definite span of time, and when their time is fulfilled, they will never be able to delay it or anticipate it for one hour or for infinitesimally less.
  35. O children of Âdam, when messengers from among you come to you to narrate to you My signs and recite to you My revelations, you fall into two groups: those who listen graciously and those who reject. And remember that he who reveres Allâh with wisdom and piety will have escaped censure. He and such persons will have no ground for alarm, nor will fear or dread fall upon them, nor will they come to grief.
  36. Whereas those who reject faith, deny Allâh and His ordinances, and waxed proud to Our revelations and signs will be the inmates of the Fire wherein they will have eternal suffering.
  37. Who is more unjust than he who viscously and wrongfully fabricates a lie against Allâh or denies His revelations and signs? Such persons have what has been apportioned to them in life according to their good or bad books. And when Our angels of death take them up at the predetermined time, they ask them, “Where now are those you associated with Allâh and invoked besides Him?” “They have erred away from us,” they say, “and failed our expectation.” So they were witnesses of their own actions and of their deeds reflecting disbelief and disobedience to Allâh.
  38. And on the Day of Judgment, Allâh will say to them, “Join those nations of the jinn and mankind who preceded you in the realm of Hell. As often as a fresh nation who disbelieved and followed suit is ushered in, it curses its unwise sister, until they are all gathered in. Then the latter will turn their eyes upon the former and say to Allâh, “These, Allâh, whom we thought were the example to follow, had indeed misled us and alienated us from Your purpose. Requite them, Allâh, with double the torment in the fire.” There Allâh says, “But all and each suffers twice as much, but you do not know.”
  39. Then says the former to the latter, “You were not of grace over us but we were both entangled in one party defiled with sin.” There, Allâh says, “You have well deserved the torment in requital of your disbelief and disobedience.”
  40. Indeed, those who denied Our revelations and signs and their pride got the better of their prudence, and they did not repent, are they who are great losers. They will never enter Paradise until the camel passes through the needle’s eye; thus do We requite the criminals.
  41. Hell will be the bed they have made for themselves as a result of their iniquities; they will be tossed in blankets of fire. Thus do We requite those who were unjust to themselves and went astray.
  42. But those who believed and did righteous deeds, realize that We do not charge any body with more than it can bear. It is they who have the rightful claim to Paradise, wherein they will enjoy themselves for eternity.
  43. We will delete all that was embedded of rancor from their hearts. They will jointly rejoice in Paradise, where they will enjoy the fresh rivers flowing beneath them and express their gratitude thus: “Praise be to Allâh Who guided us to His path of righteousness and without Whose guidance we would have missed it. Indeed, His messengers have brought us the truth, which dawned upon us.” There and then Allâh will call them, “This Paradise is a gift from Allâh; you have come into its possession by divine grant because of your righteous deeds in this world.”
  44. Then those rejoicing in Paradise will call the inmates of Hell and say to them, “We have found the reward Allâh had promised us (to be) the truth; have you found the torment Allâh had promised you to be true?” “Indeed, we have,” say the inmates of Hell. And there, one of the announcers will announce, “Allâh’s curse is cast upon the unjust wrongdoers.”
  45. The wrongful are those who stood in the way to prevent people from the way of Allâh, making it their aim to pervert the truth and crook the path of righteousness, and never did they acknowledge the truth of the Hereafter.
  46. Between those in Paradise and these in Hell, there will be a partition veiling these from those; on the battlements, stand men. They are able to distinguish those in Paradise from these in Hell by their countenances. They call those in Paradise, hoping to enter it, and the latter give them the glad tidings of admission.

47.And when their eyes are turned toward the inmates in Hell, they pray, “O Allâh our Lord, we pray and beseech You not to associate us with the unjust wrongdoers.”

  1. Then those on the battlements will address those whom they recognize by their marks: “Do you now realize that all the multitudes you associated with did not avail you, nor did your proud arrogance?”
  2. They add, “Are those not they whom you swore Allâh would never extend His mercy to? As you can clearly see, Allâh has said to them, ‘Enter it safe, where you will have no ground for fear nor will you come to grief.’”
  3. Then those in Hell will call those in Paradise, “Leave us some water or some of the food, attire, and joys that Allâh has provisioned you with.” In response they say, “We cannot because Allâh has forbidden them to those who disbelieved in Him and in His blessings in the world,
  4. “And who treated their religion as a diversion and a plaything, and life had deluded them.” There, Allâh says to them, “Now is the Day We forget you, and you will be left to twist and turn in the scorching flames of Hell in vindication of the right you had willfully forgotten. And you repudiated His revelations and signs betokening omnipotence and authority.”
  5. We sent down a Book expounding and distinctly expressing the sum of what is vaguely known and what is unknown, and with the divine knowledge including evidence of Our oneness and serving as a guide and a mercy to those who believe.
  6. Do the disbelievers purpose to wait until fitting events fulfill the prophecies and all that has been promised in the Book? But when such overwhelming events present themselves, those who had forgotten and disregarded the promise will say, “Indeed, now we do realize that the messengers of Allâh brought us the truth. Are there intercessors to intercede for us or can we be permitted to go back to life below to do other than what we were doing?” Indeed, they have lost themselves and what they fabricated erred away from them.
  7. Indeed, Allâh your Lord is He Who created the heavens and the earth in six days (determined by His own unit of time). Then He levelled Himself on the throne of supremacy. He causes the day to lose its identity by absorption into the night which seeks it promptly. And the sun, the moon, and the stars He has governed by His cosmic laws and reduced to a state of subservience by His command. Indeed, to Him belong the creation of everything and the Command. Blessed be Allâh, Lord of the universe and everything in it.
  8. Invoke Allâh, the Creator of the universe, with humility, openly and secretly. He does not like the transgressors who associate others with Him or who are unjust to others.
  9. And do not corrupt on earth after it has been set in order. And invoke Him with mingled feeling of fear of His just punishment and with anticipation of His reward. His mercy is indeed in immediate proximity of the fair-doers.
  10. It is He Who sends forth the wind as a forerunner of His mercy. The wind carries watery clouds. We drive them by high winds to a dead or droughty land where they pour their rain, and with it We cause the various products to spring up from the soil. Similarly do We resurrect the dead— an action consequent on Allâh’s will, and it is hoped that people will ponder.
  11. The rich soil responds favorably to the fertilizing showers of rain and yields, Allâh willing, a rich harvest; whereas rain evokes meagerly from bad soil. Thus We propound the signs for a people who thank Us.
  12. We sent Nûh (Noah) to his people. He said to them, “O my people, worship Allâh alone; you have no god but Him! I fear for you an immense punishment on a Momentous Day.”
  13. But the dignitaries of his people said to him, “Indeed, we see that you are lost in the maze of error.”
  14. “My people,” he said, “I do not stand in error, but I am a messenger from Allâh, the Lord of the worlds.
  15. “A messenger who has come to convey to you the messages entrusted to me by Allâh, my Lord, and to advise you sincerely and offer you counsel. I have knowledge of the truth imparted to me by Allâh, and you just do not know what is true.
  16. “Do you people consider it astonishing that Allâh sends to you illumination and enlightenment at the hands of a man from your midst in the capacity of a bearer of good news and a warning, to guide you to all truth, and to recognize Allâh and revere Him as He deserves so that you may, it is hoped, deserve His mercy and blessings?”
  17. Yet they disbelieved him and thought he was conveying a false message. In consequence, We rescued him, together with those who willingly accepted his Message. We put them on board the ark and We drowned in the flood those who cried lies to Our signs. Their minds’ eyes were indeed blind.
  18. And to the people of `Âd, We sent their brother, the Messenger Hûd, who said to them, “O my people, worship Allâh alone; you have no god but Him. Can you not reverence Him?”
  19. But those disbelieving dignitaries of his people said to him, “We can see that you are foolish, and we think you are a great liar.”
  20. Hûd said, “My people, I am not foolish (nor am I a liar). I am a messenger who is sent to you by Allâh, Creator of the worlds.
  21. “I have been sent to impart to you Allâh’s commands and prohibitions, and I am a sincere and honest adviser who is no liar.”
  22. Then Hûd said to them, “Do you people consider it astonishing that Allâh sends to you illumination and enlightenment at the hands of a man from your midst in the capacity of a bearer of glad tidings and a warning to guide you to all truth? You had better recall to mind His favors, and impel yourselves to be grateful for the efficacious grace He conferred on you. He made you the inheritors of the people of Nûh (Noah) and imparted to you a wealth of knowledge and privileged you with a distinguished stature more than He graced other nations. Therefore, remember with gratitude and humility the privileges Allâh bestowed on you so that you may prosper.”
  23. Yet they said to him in astonishment, “Did you come to us, Hûd, to tell us to worship Allâh alone and renounce the gods whom our fathers revered and venerated? Then bring to pass the punishment that you have promised, if in fact you declare the truth.”
  24. “Now,” said Hûd, “you have confirmed yourselves in premeditated malice, and the prophecy of Allâh’s punishment and anger against you is thus ratified. Do you contend against Allâh in favor of your named idols that you and your fathers designated as gods—objects Allâh never authorized? You just await the punishment prepared above in heaven; I will await it also.”
  25. And so We rescued him together with those who conformed their will to Allâh’s will by the grace of Our mercy, and We uprooted from the earth those who denied Our signs; they were not among the believers.
  26. And to the people of Thamûd We sent their brother Sâlih, who said to them, “O my people, worship Allâh alone; you have no god but Him. There has come to you a sign from Allâh your Lord evincing the truth of my mission. It is this she-camel, which is from your Lord. Let it graze freely on pasture on Allâh’s earth, and keep her out of harm’s way lest you be heavily punished by a painful torment.
  27. “Recall His favors and the grace He conferred on you. He made you the successors of the people of `Âd and made the earth your world of destined habitation. On its plains you erect buildings, palaces, and castles, and its mountains you hew and carve into homes. Therefore, remember with gratitude and humility the privileges Allâh bestowed on you and stop making corruption on earth and refrain from creating discord.”
  28. But the arrogant and the dignitaries of his people said to those whom they viewed as weak on account of conforming to the call, “Do you really believe that Sâlih has been sent by Allâh his Lord in the capacity of a messenger?” “Indeed, we do,” they said, “and we acknowledge his mission and give credence to the spirit of truth imparted to him from Heaven guiding to all truth.”
  29. But those who proudly denied just requests said, “We refuse to acknowledge or give credence to what you believe (that is, the oneness of Allâh that Sâlih calls for).”
  30. They manifested repugnance and hamstrung the she-camel in opposition and disobedience to Allâh’s command and authority. And they defiantly said to Sâlih, “Now let us see how you will bring to pass the catastrophe you threatened that Heaven would inflict on us, if indeed you are a messenger sent by Allâh!”
  31. There, the destructive commotion seized them and destroyed them and laid them prostrate and dead under the ruins of their demolished homes.
  32. And when Heaven avenged its own right, he turned away expressing his grief. “My people,” he said, “I conveyed to you Allâh’s commands and prohibitions, and I advised you against disobeying Allâh, and I announced the event, but you do not seem to like those who give you advice.”
  33. And We also sent Lût (Lot), who called to the oneness of Allâh and said to his people, “Do you commit such obscenity as is contrary to the inherent character and moral constitution and never has it been practiced by humans before?
  34. “You certainly have lust for men in lieu of women. You are, indeed, a people given to excess and perversion.”
  35. But the response of his people was to say, “Oust his followers from your town and drive them away; they are averse to our disposition and wish to cleanse themselves (of what they imagine to be moral defilement).”
  36. So, We rescued him together with his family, but not his wife, who was just left with those to whom she adhered.
  37. We poured down upon them a rain of hard brimstones. And you can see the fatal consequence of those who were steeped in crime.
  38. And to the people of Madyan (Midian) We sent their brother Shu`ayb, who said to them, “O my people, worship Allâh alone; you have no god but Him. There has come to you a sign from Allâh your Lord evincing both the truth of my mission and Allâh’s supremacy. Therefore, dispense the measure and the weight equitably to the full, and do not scant peoples’ goods and chattels, nor devalue what is valuable, nor create discord or make corruption on earth after it has been set in order. This is best for you if, indeed, you are believers.”
  39. He added, “Nor lie in ambush in every path threatening those of you who have conformed to the call, obstructing the path leading them to goodness, making it your aim to crook the path of righteousness to your own ends. Remember when once you were a small minority and how Allâh made you multiply and reach the status of a majority, and look how fatal was the consequence of those before you who were corruptors.
  40. “However, since some of you have acknowledged my mission whereas others have not, then await the justice to be executed by Allâh. He excels all those who sit in judgment.”
  41. But the arrogant among the dignitaries of his people said to him, “We will oust you; Shu`ayb, from our town, together with those who have believed with you, and drive all of you away unless you desert your worship in favor of our creed.” There, Shu`ayb said, “Even though, with execrations, we detest your system and shrink from it with horror!
  42. “If we should return to your creed,” said Shu`ayb, “then we will have viciously and wrongfully invented a lie against Allâh and denied His revelations and signs. And how could we turn apostate after we have been graced by Allâh, Who has delivered us from such an evil faith that brings nothing but harm here and in the Hereafter! This will never happen unless it be Allâh’s will that we be destined to lose our faith. Allâh’s knowledge encompasses everything. In Allâh our Lord we trust, and to Him we and our people plead our causes, and He will justly decide them.” He prayed, “O Allâh our Lord, You are the best and the most competent of all judges Who decide a case put by opposing parties.”
  43. There and then the wicked leaders among his people said to those who did not gather to their leaders’ standard, “If you should take Shu`ayb as a guide and espouse his cause, then you will be great losers.”
  44. But soon thereafter the commotion seized them and destroyed them and laid them prostrate and dead under the ruins of their demolished homes.
  45. Consequently, those who belied Shu`ayb, were inflicted with an irretrievable disaster so that they looked as if they had never dwelt nor flourished where they perished. Those who belied Shu`ayb were great losers.
  46. But Shu`ayb turned away and said, “O my people, I conveyed to you Allâh’s message and His warning, and I advised you against disobeying Allâh, and I announced the event. Therefore, how can I grieve over people who obstinately disbelieved in Allâh?”
  47. Nor did We ever send a prophet to a town and its people turned deaf ears but We afflicted them with misfortunes and calamities in the hope that they would, for their own sake, supplicate Allâh.
  48. Then We replaced the unfavorable conditions and hardships by favorable circumstances until they advanced in power, importance, and prosperity and proclaimed that misfortunes and prosperity had happened to their fathers before. In consequence, We suddenly seized them and dressed them with ruin, and We caught them unawares.
  49. Had the towns’ folk had belief and piety as ordained by Allâh, We would have opened for them all channels of mercy, blessings, and prosperity from heaven above them and from the earth beneath their feet. But they obstinately and insolently denied Our signs, and We seized them for what they earned.
  50. Are the town’s folk certain that they are secure against Our wrath, which may be displayed in action at night while they are asleep?
  51. Or are the towns’ folk certain that they are secure against Our wrath, which may be displayed in action in broad daylight while they are playfully conducting themselves in an unprofitable or an evil way?
  52. Do they feel secure, their comfort flows to the extent that they can escape an event destined to happen according to Allâh’s plan? Indeed, no one feels secure against Allâh’s predetermined actions but those who are losers.
  53. Can those people who have inherited the earth not perceive the signal instances of punishment that befell their predecessors? Do they not realize that if We willed, We could requite them as and when We please for their iniquities and imprint their hearts with dullness of comprehension that they turn a deaf ear, unwilling to hear admonition?
  54. These were the towns’ folk whose course of events leading to final catastrophes are narrated to you. Their messengers came to them carrying sufficient evidence to establish their delegated authority to implement Our laws. But they refused to acknowledge what they and their fathers belied before. Thus does Allâh imprint the hearts of the disbelievers who grow more and more wicked with dullness of comprehension.
  55. We found most of them irresolute and untrue to their covenant and promise, and in the hearts of most of them reigned vice, follies, and immorality.
  56. In succession, We sent Mûsâ (Moses) to Pharaoh and his people, in whose hearts reigned vice and falsehood, and We equipped him with signs demonstrating delegated divine power and authority. But they were corruptors; and there, you can see what the end was of those who were characterized with premeditated malice.
  57. Mûsâ said to Pharaoh, “O Pharaoh, I am a messenger carrying a divine message from Allâh, Lord of the universe.
  58. “With great care and solemnity do I attribute to Allâh nothing but the truth. I do hereby present you people with a sign from Allâh your Lord evincing the truth of my mission. And by virtue of this sign, I demand the release of the Children of Israel from bondage (and that they be permitted to go with me to where they are free to worship Allâh).”
  59. Pharaoh said, “If, indeed, you have a divine sign in your possession, then present it to view if you are telling the truth.”
  60. Mûsâ immediately cast his staff onto the ground, and it was instantaneously transformed into an evident serpent.
  61. And he drew his hand from the folds of his garment and there it was instantaneously transfigured in a radiance of white light.
  62. But then those among courtmen and dignitaries said, “This man is indeed skilled in magic, and this is definitely not a sign from Allâh.”
  63. They added, “He means to oust you people from your land and drive you away. Therefore what course of action do you command us to do?”
  64. They said to Pharaoh, “The time to degrade and defeat him and his brother has not come yet. Meanwhile, O Pharaoh, send some of your recruits to the cities to gather the multitude of men who practice magic.
  65. “And they bring back those who are skilled in the art of sorcery, who will expose what Mûsâ came with so that no one would follow him.”
  66. The experts in sorcery came to Pharaoh and asked him, “Will we be rewarded if we overcome and gain superiority over Mûsâ?”
  67. “Indeed,” said Pharaoh, “and you will also become among my nearest.”
  68. They said to Mûsâ, “Would you like to cast (your artifice upon the ground) first or shall we cast ours first?”
  69. “You cast yours first,” said Mûsâ. And when they did, they bewitched the viewers’ eyes so that they were terrified with the glorious sorcery.
  70. There and then We commanded Mûsâ to cast his staff upon the ground, and there it gulped all the fraudulent devices that they had cast upon the ground.
  71. And there, they witnessed the truth that was justified by facts and results, just as they witnessed the falsehood that was condemned by the annulment of all their various objects of fiction.
  72. There, before the multitudes and right before Pharaoh’s eyes, a defeat was made. Those who had the expertise were reduced to helplessness and were humiliated by defeat.
  73. Overwhelmed with wonder, the sorcerers prostrated to the ground in comely order.
  74. They declared, “We surrender ourselves to Allâh, the Lord of the worlds,
  75. the god of Mûsâ and Hârûn (Aaron).”
  76. There, Pharaoh said to them, “Have you surrendered yourselves to his Allâh without my permission? Indeed, this is a skillful deceit designed by you, Mûsâ and Hârûn, to outwit the inhabitants of the city (or Egypt) to drive them out from here, and in consequence, you will come to know how heavily you will pay for this.
  77. “I will cut off your hands and feet on opposite sides, and I will have you all crucified.”
  78. “Gladly,” they said to Pharaoh. “We welcome your decision, which will haste us to Allâh (Who confers on us the glorious privilege of martyrs).”
  79. And they added, “Do you take vengeance on us just because we have acknowledged the signs of Allâh when they were presented to us, indicating clearly Allâh’s omnipotence and supremacy, and because we yielded to the truth guiding us?” And they prayed, “O Allâh our Lord, pour on us great patience and occasion our death as men who have conformed to Islâm.”
  80. There and then said those of Pharaoh’s dignitaries, “O Pharaoh, would you set Mûsâ and his people free so as to corrupt in the land and play mischief with your subjects and renounce you and your gods, disclaiming obedience to your laws?” But Pharaoh said, “We will kill their sons, and to serve our purpose, spare their women, and we will gain mastery over them and be their supreme vanquishers.”
  81. “Implore Allâh’s aid,” said Mûsâ to his people, “and resort to patience. The earth belongs to Allâh. He apportions it as a heritage to whom He wills of His servants, and the happy outcome falls to those who piously revere Him as He deserves.”
  82. But his people said to him, “We have been burdened with cruel impositions before you came to us and since you have been with us.” Mûsâ said, “May Allâh your Lord cause your enemy to perish and designate you the successors in the land, and then He will see how you conduct yourselves in life!”
  83. We made Pharaoh and his people suffer heavy damage. They were distressed with dearth, and drought of products for years so that they might humble themselves to Allâh and lift to Him their inward sight.
  84. Whenever they had good fortune on their side, they attributed it to their merit, and whenever they were befallen with a misfortune, they attributed it to Mûsâ and his people, who were esteemed birds of evil omen. Indeed, events portending good or evil and all that is destined to happen rest in the hands of Allâh (and the event is sanctioned by Allâh). But most of them fail to know that.
  85. Being arrogant, obstinate men, they said to Mûsâ, “No matter how bewitching the signs may be, we will never be convinced nor will you be able to bring us to believe the truth of your mission.”
  86. And there, We plagued them at intervals with an overwhelming inundation of water, then with locusts ravaging their crops. Later We infested them and their mammals, birds, and plants with lice. We inflicted them with leaping swarms of frogs. Then We turned their lakes, rivers, and springs into blood, signs distinctly expressing all that was meant. Still they turned indignant and were arrogant, and they confirmed themselves in the horrid purpose and were a people steeped in crime.
  87. As often as they were grievously troubled, they appealed to Mûsâ to invoke Allâh his Lord. They said, “In virtue of the sufficient grace He conferred on you, pray Him to deliver us from this exhausting, burdensome affliction. And if you do, we promise to acknowledge the truth of your mission and release the Children of Isrâ’il from bondage so that they would be free to go with you.”
  88. Whenever We removed the cause of distress for a determined period of time, they promised Mûsâ they would pay heed. But no sooner had they recovered than they broke their moral obligation.
  89. In consequence, We took just vengeance on them and drowned them in the main, in requital of their denial of Our signs, and were heedless of them.
  90. And by divine grant We brought those oppressed into possession of the eastern and western parts of the land We had blessed; thus has the good word of Allâh your Lord answered the purpose, and complied with the conditions of the Children of Isrâ’il for their patience and endurance. And We destroyed all that Pharaoh and his people had erected of splendid structures.
  91. And We brought the Children of Israel safely across the sea, and there, they came across people who paid divine honors to idols. They demanded that Mûsâ make for them an idol as an object of worship similar to the idols worshiped by those people. In response, Mûsâ said, “You people are indeed ignorant.”
  92. He said, “These people’s dumb idols will be annihilated. And vain is what they were doing.
  93. “Would I seek for you to venerate a deity other than Allâh and adore him with appropriate acts and rites, when it was He Who graced you over the worlds?”
  94. And recall that Allâh delivered you from the state of bondage and from the cruel impositions laid upon you by Pharaoh’s people, who brutally massacring your sons and spared your women. And this was indeed a severe test of your actions and reactions from your Lord.
  95. Then We ordained the divine assignation for Mûsâ devotion imposed on him for thirty nights complemented by ten more nights to total forty nights appointed by his Lord. Mûsâ said to his brother Hârûn, “Take my place and act for me among my people; improve the state of things, and put an end to abuse, disorder, and wrongdoing; and do not yield to those corruptors.”
  96. When Mûsâ came to the place set for Our assignation, Allâh spoke to Mûsâ, he expressed his wish thus: “O Allâh my Lord, may I Look upon You by sight?” “You will never be able to look upon Me,” said Allâh. “But look at the mountain. If it remains standing in its place, you will then see Me.” And when Allâh manifested Himself to the mountain, the mountain was leveled with the ground. Terribly shocked, Mûsâ collapsed stunned, and when he recovered, he prayed, “Praise be to You, Allâh, and extolled are Your glorious attributes. I stand humbly repentant and I am the first and foremost of believers.”
  97. “I have elected you, Mûsâ,” said Allâh, “by preference out of all people to convey My divine message revealed directly to you. Therefore, take all that I have imparted to you and act strongly upon it and be thankful.”
  98. We set down for him in writing, on the Tablets the admonition that bore reference to every subject, distinctly expressing all that was meant. And We commanded him to act strongly upon all that was imparted in the Tablets to him and to enjoin his people to adopt those best divine precepts, which would be in their best interests. And We added, “I will show you and your people the destined desolate abode and the destined insecure condition of those who are immoral.”
  99. Allâh said, “I will turn away from My signs those whose pride gets the better of their prudence, who exhibit unjustifiable arrogance in the world.” Whenever they see a sign clearly indicating Allâh’s authority, they take pride in setting it to naught; and when they see the path of righteousness, they simply avoid it; but when they see the path of misguidance, they follow it. This accords well with their persistent denial of Our signs that they have been oblivious of.
  100. And those who refuse to recognize Our revelations and signs and who reject the truth of resurrection and the audience of Allâh on the Day of Judgment are losers. Their hopes will be doomed to disappointment and their deeds to worthlessness. Will they be requited but with what is commensurate with their deeds?
  101. The people of Mûsâ, in his absence, melted all their gold ornaments and built a body in the image of a Calf that lowed like cattle when the wind passed through it. Did they not perceive that it was mute? It never spoke to them, nor would it guide them or determine the course of events! Yet they reverenced it and adored it with appropriate acts and rites, and they were unjust wrongdoers.
  102. When they realized that they had committed themselves to evil and had wandered from the path of righteousness, they said, “Now, unless Allâh our Lord extends His mercy to us and forgives us, we will most certainly be great losers.”
  103. And when Mûsâ returned and found that his people had wronged themselves, he strongly resented their evil act, and great was his indignation against them. Grieved at heart, he said, “Evil, indeed, is what you did in my absence. Did you wish Allâh’s Command of punishment to be hastened on?” He dropped the Tablets and dragged his brother by the head, laying the blame on him. But Hârûn said to him, “O son of my mother, the people judged me lacking in power and authority over them and almost killed me. Therefore, do not let my enemies gloat over me and rejoice at my misfortune, nor should you associate me with the unjust wrongdoers.”
  104. Mûsâ turned to Allâh, invoking His forgiveness on behalf of himself and his brother, and he added, “O Allâh our Lord, we pray and beseech You to admit us into the realm of Your mercy, You are the Most Merciful of the merciful.”
  105. Indeed those who reverenced the Calf and adored it will draw Allâh’s wrath on themselves and will be incensed with humiliation in life below, for thus do We requite the fabricators.
  106. But those who commit themselves to evil and soon thereafter repent humbly and return to the obedience of Allâh with hearts impressed with belief, will find Allâh Ever-Forgiving and Ever-Merciful.
  107. When Mûsâ’s anger calmed down, he picked up the Tablets containing in their text the guidance and Allâh’s mercy toward those who have awe towards Allâh.
  108. There, Mûsâ chose from his people seventy persons, in compliance with Allâh’s command to present themselves at the divine assignation. When they gathered at the arranged time and place, fearful echoes thundered in their ears and the earth’s surface convulsed under their feet as an expression of strong divine reproach against those among them who committed themselves to the most evil conduct. There and then Mûsâ prayed, “O Allâh my Lord, if You had willed, You would have caused them and me to perish before now. Would You destroy us in requital of the evil committed by the foolish among us? It is Your means of trial; You use it to subject people to the test and consequently deafen the hearts’ ears of whom You will and guide whom You will. You are our Protector. We beseech You to forgive us and to have mercy on us. You are The Most Merciful of all who forgive.”
  109. He added, “Therefore, we pray and beseech You to bestow on us Your efficacious grace in this world and in the Hereafter. We have Judaized and surrendered ourselves to You, and our purpose and cause to Your divine service.” Allâh said, “My torment is a penalty that I inflict on whom I will, and My mercy is extended to the wide circle of all things. I will accord it to those who entertain the profound reverence due to Me, give poor-dues, and believe in Our revelations and signs.”
  110. I will accord it to those who follow the mission of Our Messenger, the unlettered Prophet whom they find well described in their Tawrâh (the Book revealed to Mûsâ [Moses]) and in the Injîl (the Book revealed to `Îsa [Jesus]). The Prophet who enjoins on them equity and the general principles of justice and who forbids them all that is wrongful and obscene. He informs them of all that Allâh has rendered lawful for them to eat and of all that is unlawful. He will release them from the rules fettering them and from the restrictions imposed upon them and the anxious thoughts that burdened them. Therefore, those who believe in him, give credence to his message, honor him, afford him the help he needs, and act in accordance with the enlightenment imparted to him, will be the recipients of Allâh’s mercy and blessings, and it is these whom Heaven will cause to prosper.
  111. Say to them, Muhammad, “O people, you had better believe that I am the Messenger who has been sent to you all with a divine message from Allâh, Who has the rightful claim to the heavens and the earth and Who has the supreme controlling power and the absolute authority over them. There is no god but Him Who gives life and death. Therefore, you had better believe in Allâh and accept His Messenger, the unlettered Prophet who solemnly believes in Allâh and in His divine words—those inspired to him and to other messengers before him. You had better give credence to his speech and follow him so that you may be guided to the path of righteousness.”
  112. Among the people of Mûsâ are some who guide with the spirit of truth and with the truth implement the general principles of justice.
  113. And We cut them up into twelve tribes characterized by common descent (from one of the twelve sons of Ya`qûb [Jacob]). And We revealed to Mûsâ to strike the rock with his staff when his people suffered thirst in the wilderness, and there gushed forth twelve springs and each tribe knew the spring belonging to them. And We overshadowed them with clouds to protect them from the heat of the sun, and We ordained that the heavens provide them manna and quails, and We said to them, “Eat of the good victuals We provided you.” Actually, they did not wrong Us, but they, in fact, unjustly wronged themselves.
  114. We said to them, “Make abode in this town (Jerusalem) and eat as you will, wherever you will. It is replete with choice of all delights. Enjoy all that is wholesome and affords pleasure, and express your thoughts in words, invoking Me to relieve your hearts and unload your burden of sins. Humble yourselves and prostrate constantly to Me as you go through the gate. Then and only then I will forgive your iniquities and reward those whose deeds are imprinted with piety with something greater than what corresponds with their piety.”
  115. But the wrongdoers exchanged the virtuous words authorized by Heaven for the false words of their own making, and in consequence Heaven came upon them with a torturing punishment in requital of their injustice.
  116. Ask them about the town (of Ailah), which stood on the sea-front, where they used to transgress Allâh’s commandment and break the Sabbath ordained by Allâh to be set apart for rest and worship. The fish were made to come to the surface on the Sabbath day and to dive deep on other days—a trial to test their prevalent immorality.
  117. A group of righteous people among the people of Mûsâ said to those concerned, “Why waste your breath admonishing people destined to suffer annihilation or condemnation?” “This,” said the concerned, “is only to discharge the duty imposed by Allâh your Lord toward these people so that they might, it is hoped, be pious.”
  118. But when they were deaf to exhortation, We rescued those who urged them to laudable conduct, and We put to the torment of misery and distress those wrongdoers in requital of their premeditated malice.
  119. When they insolently persisted in disobedience, We laid their transgression to their charge and decreed that they be monkeyfied and that their monkey-like character and behavior be viewed with contempt and that they be despised and rejected of men.
  120. There and then Allâh your Lord proclaimed that He would send against them those who would persecute them till the Day of Resurrection. Allâh is swift indeed in executing the law, and He is also Oft-Forgiving and Ever-Merciful.
  121. And We split them into separate groups forming communities among the populations of the various countries of the world. Among them are those who are virtuous, who instruct men in the way of righteous living, and others who are contrary in nature, who flourish on wickedness. We have tried them with interchange of favors and efficacious grace, and with disfavors, misfortunes, and disgrace that they may, it is hoped, return to Allâh.
  122. Then, there came their successors who inherited the Tawrâh (the Book revealed to Mûsâ [Moses]) had devolved. Yet they chose to go by the world and its vanities, and thought of unmerited forgiveness. They said, “We will be forgiven our iniquities,” and in vanity they wasted their days. Every opportunity favorable to a wicked end or purpose gave them occasion to a burst of merriment. Do they not recall that they subscribed to the covenant that Allâh had revealed in the Tawrâh, which they have carefully studied—the covenant forbidding them to attribute anything to Allâh but the truth and emphasizing that the Hereafter is infinitely better and more advantageous to those who revere Allâh as He deserves. Can you people not reflect?
  123. Nonetheless, those who adhere to the Tawrâh and abide by it and observe their act of prayer will be recipients of Allâh’s mercy and blessings. We do not withhold or withdraw the grateful return due to those whose deeds are imprinted with piety.
  124. And you People of the Book had better recall once when your fathers camped at the foot of the mount and heaven thundered and the awe-inspiring echoes sounded in their ears as We entered with them into a covenant, and We stabilized the mount above them when it shook with such fits of awe for the profound reverence due to Allâh and they thought it was collapsing over their heads. There and then We said to them, “Adhere to all that We have imparted to you (the Tawrâh), observe firmly the code of discipline and the body of regulations, and hold them in esteem; hold to your promise and pay attention to it and regard it; and be mindful of Our commandments so that you may be pious.”
  125. Allâh your Lord brings forth the progeny of the Children of Âdam from their backs, so as to be witnesses of their own reaction to Allâh, they were asked, “Am I not your Lord?” “Indeed, You are,” they answered. Allâh said, “Then you cannot deny this on the Day of Judgment with the excuse that you were heedless of this fact.”
  126. Or you might say, “Our fathers associated other deities with Allâh, and as we are their descendents, they have had much influence on our thoughts. Will You, Allâh, subject us to perish to pay a debt owed to You by the wrong-doers?”
  127. Thus do We expound Our revelations to the Children of Âdam so that they may return and be dutiful to Allâh.
  128. And narrate to them, Muhammad, the story (of the Israelite) to whom We imparted intellectual acquaintance with all the facts and We vested him with the power of comprehending Our signs. Yet he stripped himself out of them and refrained from proceeding with Our purpose. Consequently, he was followed by the devil, who led him to the maze of error.
  129. Had We willed, We would have opened his heart’s ears and influenced him with the divine course of action and thereby exalted his faculties to the highest honors. But he chose to follow his prejudices earthward, indulge in vanities, and remain low. And there, he stood exactly like the dog that lolls its tongue whether you drive it away or you let it alone. This is exactly the similitude of those who cry lies to Our revelations and signs. Therefore, Muhammad, recourse to the narratives of such persons so that they may pause to meditate.
  130. Evil, indeed, is the similitude of those who cried lies to Our signs and refused to recognize Our revelations and were unjust to themselves.
  131. Indeed, he whom Allâh guides to His path of righteousness is he who is guided by the truth, and those whom Allâh does not guide to His path of righteousness are they who are losers.
  132. We have disposed to the abode in Hell many of the jinn and mankind. They carry hearts stigmatized with dullness of comprehension and eyes lacking perception, and they have no ears for admonition. These are exactly similar to cattle, in fact even worse, and these are the heedless of truth.
  133. To Allâh belong all the commendable attributes you people may use when invoking Him under any circumstance, and disregard those who use them profanely. They will be requited with what is commensurate with their profanity.
  134. Among those whom We have brought into being are a nation who seek Allâh; they guide others to the truth, which they interpret in implementing justice.
  135. And those who cried lies to Our revelations and signs (will cast themselves headlong into Hell). We will give them plenty of rope to allow them free scope so that, unawares to themselves, they will commit themselves to evil.

l83. I give them respite, but My scheme of action is decisive and strikes at the root.

  1. Do the disbelievers not pause to think of the Messenger and his mission, and honestly admit that he is not possessed by madness nor is there a demoniac element in him? He is but a warner who stands manifest of moral sublimity.
  2. Do they not see into the immensity of the universe and look at the realms of the heavens and the earth and the precision with which structures are related and at the unique government of all that He has created? Do they not ponder that the end of their term of life may well be approaching? Therefore, if they refuse to acknowledge the truth as is featured in these signs, what then will convince them if these signs and this divine message do not?
  3. He whom Allâh does not guide to His path of righteousness will find no one to guide him thereto. He gives them free scope and action in order to blunder in the maze of error.
  4. The disbelievers insolently call upon you, Muhammad, to ask you when the predetermined Eventful Hour of Judgment will take place. Say to them, “It is only Allâh alone Who knows when. He alone has the rightful knowledge of the how and when of here and hereafter; no one reveals it when due but Him as His word prompts. It weighs quite heavily on the heavens and on all those within and on the earth and on the hopes of all those therein. And the encounter with it will take you suddenly by surprise.” They ask you about it as if you were acquainted how and when and as a result you have been informed. Say to them, “Rest assured that it is only Allâh alone Who does know when, but most people do not know.”
  5. Say to them, Muhammad, “I have no control over what will become of me or of what will befall me, be it good or bad, but it is all as Allâh wills (He is the Principal Power by Whom events are unalterably predetermined). If I indulged in prophecy and were able to foretell future events and realize the unseen, I would have made all charitable things abound in me, and I never would have failed to be out of harm’s way. I am only a warner and a bearer of good tidings to believing people.”
  6. It is He Who brought you into being from one single self (Âdam) and from him He made of it its spouse whom he sought consolation and found comfort. And when the early man approached her with amorous intention, she conceived and the pregnancy passed unnoticed in its early stages. But as the mother grew heavier, the parents invoked Allâh’s mercy and blessings: “If You give us a righteous child free from abnormalities and malformations, we will most certainly be grateful.”
  7. And when Allâh gave them a righteous child, they associated other deities with Him. Glory be to Him and extolled are His glorious attributes! He is infinitely far beyond all those they associate with Him.
  8. Is it befitting that they associate with Him any created being who is incapable of creating a living being? Allâh has brought everything into being and caused it to exist.
  9. Nor can these objects of worship vindicate them or vindicate themselves.
  10. And if you idolaters invoke them to offer you counsel, they will not respond, whether your invocation is expressed in words or in thought.
  11. You had better realize, O people, that those whom you invoke besides Allâh are created beings like yourselves; therefore, invoke them and see if they respond if you truly believe that you are declaring the truth!
  12. Do they have legs to walk or hands to assault with, or do they have eyes to see or ears to hear? They have neither the special faculties to perceive external objects nor the faculties of understanding or intelligence. Say to them, Muhammad, “Call on your predominant partners who have authority over you besides Allâh, and let them devise their plan of unfavorable action against me and conduct it to conclusion, and give me no respite.
  13. “My Patron is Allâh, Who has revealed the Book (the Qur’ân). He is the Patron of those whose deeds are righteous.
  14. “Whereas the idols that you invoke besides Him will fail forever to vindicate you or themselves.
  15. “And if you should call them to offer you guidance, they cannot hear you let alone guide you, and you can see their eyes staring vacantly at you, unable to see.”
  16. Be clement, Muhammad, and favor forbearance, and enjoin conformity of life and conduct to the requirements of morality, disregarding the impudent who are ignorant.
  17. And if Satan entices you by suggesting divergence or discord, do not consent, but seek refuge to Allâh, counter to the evil Satan instigated. Allâh is indeed All-Hearing and All-Knowing.
  18. Those who revere Allâh as He deserves if a satanic touch of evil is suggested secretly to them, they immediately bring religion into touch with conduct and lift their inward sight to Allâh.
  19. Yet the satanic keep driving divergence, by dint of repetition, into the disbelievers’ heads and do not stop short.
  20. And if you do not present them with a supernatural sign to satisfy their desire, they wish you would go in quest of it. Say to them, “I only follow what is revealed to me by my Lord; this is the Qur’ân, the true illumination and enlightenment. It is revealed by Allâh your Lord to guide the believers into the truth and to confer on them Allâh’s mercy.
  21. O you people who have conformed to Islâm, when the Qur’ân is read, listen attentively to it so that you may be recipients of Allâh’s mercy.
  22. And bear Allâh your Lord in your innermost thoughts and secret feelings with devotional contemplation, humbleness and profound reverence at the beginning and the end of the day. Let not your innermost being be unmindful of Allâh.
  23. Indeed, those who are in the Providence of (Allâh) your Lord are not too proud to adore Him with appropriate acts and rites. They praise Him and extol His glorious attributes and prostrate themselves to Him in veneration.*

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* A prostration should be performed here.

SÛRAH 8

AL-‘ANFÂL

The Spoils of War

Revealed at Madînah

The sûrah outlines the body of rules to be followed in wartime, the reasons for declaring war, and the factors that would lead to victory. The sûrah also treats the subject of the spoils of war and the fate of the captives. Here we find the detailed narrative of the Battle of Badr, the circumstances preceding it and those succeeding it, and the reason for each, such as the ousting of the Prophet Muhammad from Makkah. And just as the reasons for war are stated, so, too, are those for peace, especially when the enemy inclines to peace. The sûrah tells those who believe to stick together and not to submit to oppression or persecution because of their faith, but to leave to another land where they can struggle with their fellow believers for the dignity of Islam and of themselves.

In the Name of Allâh,

The All-Merciful, The Ever-Merciful

  1. They ask you, Muhammad, about the spoils of war: what to do with them, to whom they belong, and how they are to be divided among the victors. Say to them, “They belong to Allâh and to the Messenger who follows Allâh’s divine instructions. The main thing is that you people be pious to Allâh as He deserves, stand firm to Allâh’s principles and purpose, adjust all matters of difference, and obey Allâh and His Messenger if indeed you are believers.”
  2. Those whose innermost thoughts and secret feelings are indeed purposed to serve Allâh are they with latent fear at the thought of Allâh. When His revelations are recited to them, their force of belief becomes stronger and more powerful in faith, and they rely on Allâh, their Creator and Protector.
  3. It is they who faithfully observe their act of prayer and spend in divine service of what Allâh has apportioned to them of His bounty.
  4. These are the true believers whose hearts reflect religious virtues. They have grades of rank and quality commensurate with their deeds, in addition to forgiveness and generous blessed provisions.
  5. The spoils of war precipitated diversity of opinion, exactly as did your contemplated expedition when Allâh your Lord induced you, Muhammad, to leave your home on a mission of truth authorizing war of belief against disbelief. Some of those who conformed to Islam did not have fighting in their minds and were hesitant to join battle, declaring their aversion.
  6. Disputing with you with opposing arguments after it had been made clear to them that they would have the victory, they behaved as if they would be driven to death as if they saw it in their eyes as a monstrous apparition.
  7. Allâh has promised you victory over one of the two parties. You chose to seize the unarmed caravan for easy gains; whereas Allâh willed that you go at the well-armed troops that came to their aid, so that truth should triumph over falsehood and His words be verified to uproot the disbelievers.
  8. And thus Allâh will vindicate the truth and blot out falsehood, offensive as such action may be to those sinful criminals.
  9. You implored Allâh’s aid with entreaties, and Allâh responded favorably, thus: “I will uphold you with one thousand angels in sets succeeding one another.”
  10. We made this support to give you people mental comfort and glad tidings and to make your hearts return to their settled calmness. Indeed, victory comes only by the help of Allâh, Who is All-Mighty and All-Wise.
  11. And there Allâh replaced the sorrow and grief, which were caused by fear of the unpredictable outcome, with peace and sense of security, thus inducing you to slumber. He sent down rain from heaven to purify you people from the incitement of evil instigated by Satan and by those with characteristics befitting him, and to brace your hearts and set your feet firm.
  12. There and then Allâh your Lord inspired the angels thus: “I am with you, and so support the cause of the believers, and help them take a firm position and set their feet firm. I will cast terror in the hearts of those who are given to disbelief. Strike them above the necks and strike their fingertips, their weak limbs, and their failing joints.”
  13. This train of events was because they were opposed to Allâh and to His Messenger; and he who is opposed to Allâh and His Messenger will realize that Allâh punishes severely indeed.
  14. This is it, you disbelievers, but that is not all; there awaits you the torment to be laid on the disbelievers.
  15. O you who believe, if you happen to meet with the disbelievers and you see they are marshaled for fighting you, do not turn your backs upon them or retreat.
  16. And he who turns his back or retreats—unless it be a stratagem for gaining advantage over the enemy or for falling back to other troops (of his own) projected as the larger military operation of the campaign—will have drawn Allâh’s anger on himself and will be destined to the abode in Hell. And how evil is the destination!
  17. You people must realize that it was not you who brought death upon the disbelievers, but it was Allâh Who killed them. It was not you, Muhammad, who aimed when you threw (sand), but it was Allâh Who directed the sand (you threw) at your enemy; it was Allâh Who blinded their sight. Nonetheless, Allâh has determined to test the quality of those who believe with gracious intentions; on the one hand with His prevenient grace producing the repentance and faith without which the grace of justification cannot be received, and on the other hand with the efficacious grace really effecting the end for which it is given. Allâh is indeed All-Hearing and All-Knowing.
  18. And so, this is the great vindication. Meantime, Allâh defies the disbelievers; enfeebling their volition and renders their stratagem inefficient.
  19. And you disbelievers, if you were looking for victory and judgment, your hopes have been doomed to disappointment (The Ka`bah belongs to those who believe). And if you exercise your faculty of volition toward peaceful existence and desist from the hostile course of action and your prudence gets the better of your pride, it would be to your advantage. But if your pride gets the better of your prudence and you resume hostilities, then the two sides will inevitably meet again. And your troops, numerous as they will be, will be of no advantage to you, for Allâh vindicates the believers.
  20. O you who believe, obey Allâh and His Messenger and never withdraw from his presence when you are hearing his discourse.
  21. Nor permit yourselves to be like the hypocrites who pretended to have listened faithfully to the truth and pretended to abide by it when, in fact, they do not hear.
  22. Indeed, the disbelievers and the hypocrites are like the worst creatures in Allâh’s sight; they are deaf and dumb and unwilling to hear or heed.
  23. If Allâh had found any good in them, He would have opened their hearts’ ears. And if He had done so, they would have turned away and been veering away from the truth.
  24. O you who believe, respond favorably to Allâh’s commands and to the admonition by His Messenger when he invites you to lead a life that deserves the name, a life by which one knows and reasons and exercises the power of thought and understanding. And you people had better know that Allâh intervenes between man and his heart to open its ears or close them, and that to Him you will all be gathered.
  25. And avoid dissension, temptation, and discord, which may be brewed by some and practiced by others. The fatal consequence does not fall only on the unjust, but it unites all of you, and you must know that Allâh punishes severely in this world and in the Hereafter.
  26. Remember that you were some few viewed with contempt, living in fear of persecution, abduction, and exile, and Allâh put you under His guardianship and reinforced you by His additional support and gave you victory. He provided you with victuals of the various good kinds, hoping you would be thankful and strive to make the word of truth the upper one.
  27. O you who believe, do not betray the trust or Allâh and His Messenger, Who trusted you, or knowingly misappropriate anything that has been entrusted to you.
  28. And you must know that your wealth and your progeny are but a temptation and a means of trial to test your course of actions. And do not forget that in Allâh’s realm you obtain the ultimate reward.
  29. O you who believe, if you are pious to Allâh as He deserves, He will confer on the Criterion of knowing and reasoning so that you can judge the difference between good and evil to the end that He forgives your iniquities. He is the source of sufficient grace abounding in whom He wills, and of efficacious grace that effects the end for which it is given.
  30. And remember, Muhammad, how the disbelievers cleverly plotted to take you as a prisoner and keep you in bondage or kill you, and in His plan Allâh also charitably plotted. And who can gain advantage over Allâh?
  31. When Our revelations are recited to them, they insolently say, “We have heard, and the like of this we heard before, and if we willed, we could say the like thereof. This is nothing but myths of old.”
  32. And remember, Muhammad, when their pride and insolence got the better of their prudence and they said, “O Allâh, if this is divine truth revealed from Your Providence, then pour down upon us from the heaven a rain of stones or bring us a painful torment.”
  33. But Allâh was not going to torment while you were in their midst, nor was He going to put them to the torment before giving them plenty of rope to allow them free scope so that they either commit themselves and deserve annihilation, or are sober-minded and repent and ask Allâh’s forgiveness.
  34. What excuse can they offer now to justify their wrongdoing and to bar prosecution? Therefore, there is every reason why Allâh should torment them for their offense. They have abused the act of grace. They malevolently obstructed the way to the Inviolable Mosque when they are not its patrons. Its patrons are those who are pious to Allâh as He deserves, but most of these do not realize this fact.
  35. Their prayer at the Inviolable House was simply whistling and clapping. Therefore, you disbelievers have well deserved to be put to the torment in requital for your disbelief.
  36. These disbelievers spend their money in the warring campaigns of disbelief against belief with the motive of obstructing the way to the path of Allâh, the path of righteousness. They will spend until they exhaust themselves and suffer losses, and then lament the events and circumstances with regret. Then reason will conquer passion, and they will lose the field and be subdued, and all the disbelievers will be mustered into Hell.
  37. Defeat in this world and torture with the Fire in the Hereafter are intended by Allâh to distinguish those who prevail upon themselves to serve Him, and to expose those who perform halfheartedly and those who are always doing evil. He sums up the evidence of all evil and adds it together and casts all who are evil in their composition into Hell. These are the losers.
  38. Tell these disbelievers, Muhammad, that if they are willing to renounce disbelief, desist from evil purpose, and turn to Allâh, they will be forgiven their past iniquities. But should they resume hostilities and persist in their intentional assertion of falsehood, then suffice it to say that Allâh’s enactment in the past for the earliest people has gone by.
  39. Then fight against them the good fight of faith until temptation comes to an end and concord replaces discord and Allâh’s system of faith and worship prevails, and people take upon themselves the recognition that the religion is all for Allâh and that He has rightful claim to obedience, reverence, and worship. If they desist and turn to Allâh, He certainly is All-Seeing of all that they do.
  40. But if they refuse and turn a deaf ear, then you Muslims must realize that Allâh is your Supreme Patron and your Supreme Vindicator.
  41. And you Muslims must know that whatever you capture from your enemy in the way of spoils of war comes under Allâh’s authority. One-fifth is assigned to Allâh and to the Messenger, to the kindred, and to the orphans and the indigent and the way farer. That is if you have believed in Allâh and in what was sent down to Our Messenger on the day of the Criterion when the two forces met. And Allâh is Able to do all things. He vindicated the believers despite their small number and defeated the disbelievers despite their large number.
  42. You were on the near side of the valley and the disbelievers were on the far side, and the caravan was proceeding below you—a web of circumstance timely arranged by The All-Powerful. Had you tried to plan such a precise arrangement you would have failed. Allâh planned it in such a manner as to help you obtain an advantage over your enemy, who outnumbered you greatly. The survivors among the disbelievers would then realize that their defeat was after a clear evidence made by Allâh’s omnipotence and authority, and the survivors among the Muslim victors would realize after a clear evidence Allâh’s omnipotence and sovereignty. And Allâh is indeed All-Hearing and All-Knowing.
  43. O Muhammad, Allâh in His infinite mercy has presented to you in your sleep the troops of the disbelievers as being few. Had He presented them to you as being numerous, you would have been anguished and dismayed, and you would have fallen into contention. But Allâh saved you; He is All-Knowing of all that is brewed secretly in the hearts.
  44. When the two forces met, We showed to you as being few, and you were viewed as being few, so that you would assail each other and Allâh’s Command would be served. And to Allâh, the Ultimate Authority, are submitted all matters for consideration, decision, and execution here and in the Hereafter.
  45. O you who believe, when you meet a troop of your enemies, do not waver, but be resolute and firm, and think of Allâh as often as you can so that He may prosper and gain the upper hand.
  46. Obey Allâh and His Messenger, and do not contend with each other with opposing arguments lest your hopes should be doomed to disappointment and you lose heart. Have patience and remember that Allâh is with the patient.
  47. And be not like those who left their homes for battle, deliberately and ostentatiously displaying their might in order to attract notice, win admiration, and warn others. They aimed to obstruct the way to the path of Allâh, the path of righteousness, but Allâh is All-Encompassing of all that they do.
  48. They were fooled by Satan, who allured them to brighter worlds (as a logical result of their doings). “Rest assured,” Satan said, “that no man can overpower you today in battle, and I will be your neighbor.” But when the two forces saw each other, he turned on his heels and reversed his position, declaring his innocence of their ills, and said, “I see what you cannot see; I fear Allâh, Whose punishment is laid upon the damned.”
  49. There and then the hypocrites and those with sick hearts said, “How foolish the Muslims are to challenge such a large force! They are deluded by their religion (which induced them to attack a great and superior force!)” But he who puts his trust in Allâh will find Allâh All-Mighty and All-Wise.
  50. If you could only see the disbelievers when the angels of death besiege them to take their selves, how the angels descend violently upon them, striking their faces and their hind-backs and saying to them, “Now you will taste the torment of the Fire laid upon the damned.
  51. “This is what your hands have forwarded, and Allâh is not unjust to His servants.”
  52. These peoples’ attitude is not different from that of the house of Pharaoh and their predecessors. They disbelieved in the signs of Allâh. So Allâh took them for their sins. Allâh is indeed All-Powerful (His torment is laid upon the damned).
  53. Allâh never withdraws or changes His favor that He graced a given nation with until they change their own attitude and the disposition of their innermost being. Allâh is indeed All-Hearing and All-Knowing.
  54. (A reasoning marked by circumspection: it is attentive to all circumstances that may affect action, circumstances that are similar to those of Pharaoh and his people and their predecessors) who denied Allâh’s signs and revelations and persisted in their intentional assertion of falsehood. As a result, We destroyed them in requital of their willful violation of the divine law and their transgression against Allâh and His commands. We drowned Pharaoh and his people; they were all unjust wrongdoers.
  55. Indeed, the worst creatures before Allâh are those who have disbelieved, and who are deaf to divine discourse and disbelieve in Allâh.
  56. Those who concluded with you, Muhammad, a truce and resolved to cause a discord to pass into a concord; yet they break every agreement contracted for peace, and they never piously revere Allâh as He deserves.
  57. Therefore, whenever and wherever you Muslims meet them in hostile contention, destroy them to set an example of their humiliation and to disperse those who attempt thereafter to wage war against you.
  58. If you should suspect treachery on the part of people with whom you have concluded a peace treaty, let them know that you have cancelled the treaty just the same. Indeed, Allâh detests the treacherous.
  59. And those disbelievers who must realize that they have not escaped His advance knowledge and omniscience, nor will they keep Him from afflicting them with a punishment.
  60. And prepare for them, you Muslims, all the strength that you can recruit—armed forces and mounted troops—to strike terror into the hearts of Allâh’s enemy, who is your enemy, and into the hearts of others whom you do not know but whom Allâh knows. And remember that whatever you spend in the way of Allâh, you will be reimbursed for it and you will never be unjustly wronged.
  61. If they incline to reconcile themselves with their own hearts and with Allâh and make peace, then be willing to incline thereto, and put your trust in Allâh. He is All-Hearing and All-Knowing.
  62. And if this happens to be an instance of deception and they mean to disappoint your expectation of peace, then good enough for you is Allâh to count upon for support. It is He Who upheld your cause and crowned you with His victory and with the believers.
  63. It is He Who made them reconcile themselves with their own hearts and with Allâh. If you had spent all the available wealth on earth for this purpose, you would have failed to unite their hearts. But Allâh brought this unison. Allâh is indeed All-Mighty and All-Wise.
  64. O Prophet, sufficient for you and for those Muslims who follow you is Allâh, Who upholds your cause and helps you accomplish your divine purpose.
  65. O Prophet, urge the Muslims to action. Twenty of you exercising patience and standing firm will vanquish two hundred, and if there are a hundred of such a caliber, they will defeat a thousand of the disbelievers who are fighting against the truth because they are characterized by dullness of comprehension.
  66. Now that the powers of good have defeated the powers of evil, Allâh, being aware of your poor physical strength, has commuted your obligation due to Him. If there are a hundred of you who exercise patience and stand firm, they will vanquish two hundred; and if there are one thousand, they will vanquish two thousand, Allâh willing. Allâh upholds the patient.
  67. No prophet is entitled to take prisoners of war under the circumstances when the disbelievers are doing their best to defy Allâh’s religion, until he has humbled the avowed enemies of faith and subdued the land. To take prisoners and ransom them at this stage means that you Muslims are concerned with the interests and pleasures of this life, when Allâh wills the Hereafter. And Allâh is All-Mighty and All-Wise.
  68. Had it not been for Allâh’s authoritative decree proclaimed beforehand to forgive, you people would have been severely tormented for what you have undertaken.
  69. Therefore, you may enjoy what you have gained in the way of spoils of war; it is a lawful and a good gain. But fear Allâh and piously revere Him as He deserves.
  70. O Prophet, say to the captives that if Allâh finds in your hearts a zeal to promote the common good, He will compensate to you more than what you have lost and forgive your offense. Allâh is All-Forgiving and Ever-Merciful.
  71. And if they intend to betray you, they have betrayed Allâh’s cause before, but Allâh gave you power to subdue them, and Allâh is All-Knowing and All-Wise.
  72. Those who have believed and migrated to where they could best serve Allâh and strove in His cause with their wealth and their lives, and those who gave them refuge and vindicated them, are joined one to another in mutual intimacy. Those who conformed to Islam but due to social or business interests did not immigrate to where they could best serve Allâh, will be denied your protection until they have emigrated (from their homes). But if they seek your aid against persecution directed against them by their people for holding Allâh’s religion, then it is incumbent on you to help them, unless you happen to have concluded a treaty of mutual alliance with their people. Allâh is All-Seeing of all that you do.
  73. These disbelievers who deny Allâh are patrons of one another and afford each other mutual help; and unless you Muslims do the same, then discord will replace concord and the world will be given to great mischief and corruption.
  74. And those who have believed Islâm and immigrated to where they could best serve Allâh, and strove in His cause with their wealth and their lives, as well as those who gave them refuge and helped them, are the recipients of Allâh’s blessings. These are indeed the faithful who are conscientious in the fulfillment of their duty to Allâh. They will be graced with forgiveness and blessed provisions.
  75. And those who have since believed and emigrated (from their homes) at a later date and fought in the cause of Allâh by your side, constitute an integral part of you and enjoy the same rights. Now that the stability of the faith has been ensured, then those who are related by blood have prior rights toward each other, as is decreed in the Book of Allâh. Allâh is indeed All-Knowing of everything.

SÛRAH 9

AT-TAWBAH

Repentance

Revealed at Madînah

The sûrah begins with Allâh disowning the polytheists. The sûrah is, therefore, also known as “Barâ’ah” (Disowning). The sûrah then mentions the sanctity of the sacred months, the treaty with the polytheists, and the necessity of observing said treaty as long as the polytheists do not go back on it. If they do, it is incumbent on Muslims to wage war against them.

The sûrah then makes it clear that the essence of getting near to Allâh is belief in Him. Such belief is never complete unless the Muslim holds Allâh and His Messenger dearer than anything else. Allâh also mentions that greed for power drives away victory; He refers to the state of the Muslims in the Battle of Hunayn.

In this sûrah Allâh prohibits the polytheists from entering the Inviolable Mosque because they are impure. The sûrah also states the necessity of fighting the People of the Book until they pay the jizyah (head tax) in submission. It shows the number of the sacred months and the necessity of going to battle at every call with no delay. The sûrah then refers to those who hinder others from going to battle, the conditions of the hypocrites who seek discord every time going to battle is called for, and the hypocrites’ dealing with the believers in peace and war.

The sûrah includes the decisive penalty for hypocrisy, namely that the Prophet does not pray the funeral prayer over any of the hypocrites. Allâh then mentions the excuses that justify not going to battle and makes clear the status of those desert Arabs (living around and near Madînah) who showed a false desire to embrace Islam, or who were subjected to its ruling after it had become powerful.

After this, Allâh mentions the conditions of people regarding belief and the story of the Mosque of Harm that was built by the hypocrites to harm the status of the mosque built by Allâh’s Messenger. Allâh then mentions the characteristics of true believers and the repentance of those who lingered behind and did not join the Messenger and Allâh’s acceptance of their repentance. The sûrah describes people regarding their reception of the Qur’ânic verses when they are revealed. Allâh concludes the sûrah by stating that He chose Muhammad for the Message, that He does not allow any hardship to befall those to whom Muhammad was sent, that He is All-Kind and Ever-Merciful to them, and that He will be sufficient for Muhammad if the people turn their backs on him.

  1. Allâh and His Messenger declare explicitly that the covenant made between you Muslims and the idolaters who break their vows is, as of today, rendered void.
  2. Nonetheless, you disbelievers may move freely in the land as you please. You will be well secured against all assaults for a period of four months. But you must realize that you will not be defiant to Allâh, and you cannot escape His sure watch and power. He will disgrace the disbelievers and put them to shame.
  3. On the day of the great occasion of hajj, Allâh and His Messenger declare to mankind that they are under no obligation to the polytheists who break their vows and do not honor their treaties. And if you polytheisits repent regarding your hostile course of action, you will advantage yourselves of Allâh’s grace. But if you are deaf, then you must realize that you will not be defiant to Allâh nor escape His sure watch. And announce, Muhammad, to these disbelievers that they must expect Allâh’s torment laid upon the damned.
  4. But exempt from this immediate liability are those of the polytheists with whom you Muslims have concluded a peace treaty that they have honored and, for the meantime, have refrained from helping others against you. It is incumbent on you to fulfill your obligation to them until they have reached the end of the term of security. Allâh likes those who obey Him and piously revere Him as He deserves.
  5. When the four sacred months of grace have expired, then kill the vicious polytheists wherever you find them: seize them, besiege them, and lie in ambush for them everywhere. But should they repent, engage in prayer and give zakâh (poor-dues), then leave them go their way. Allâh is All-Forgiving and Ever-Merciful.
  6. If anyone of the polytheists seeks your protection, Muhammad, then protect him and grant him asylum till he hears Allâh’s words. Escort him to where he will be out of harm’s way. They are people deficient in knowledge of Islâm.
  7. How could the polytheists honor their covenant with Allâh and with His Messenger? Yet you must honor your obligation to those of them with whom you concluded a covenant at the Inviolable Mosque. As long as they honor their part, you will have to honor yours. Allâh likes those pious who obey Him and honor their pledges.
  8. How can these polytheists impel themselves to a good disposition toward you people when they entertain evil thoughts of you? If they get an advantage and prevail over you, they will be, totally disregarding the ties of kinship as well as their obligations. They talk sweetly to you, but all the while their hearts bode ill, and most of them are, indeed, immoral.
  9. These people have exchanged the truth of Allâh’s revelations for the vanity of the fleeting and ephemeral world and obstructed the way to the path of Allâh. Evil, indeed, is what they do.
  10. They totally disregard their ties of kinship and their obligations. Their disposition reflects their transgressive infirmities.
  11. If they repent and perform regular prayer and give zakâh, then they are your co-religionists and an integral part of your brotherhood. We expound Our revelations and render Our words readily understood by people who know.
  12. But should they breach their oaths after their covenant to you, and continue to assail your religion with abusive language, then you must fight against the ringleaders of bigotry, for then they will have proved themselves false to the oaths. They may with such calculated punishment desist, for their own advantage, from their hostile course of action.
  13. These polytheists were they who frequently disregarded their treaties; they purposed to oust the Messenger from Makkah, and they were the aggressors following the covenant into which both of you entered. Do you fear them, when it is Allâh whom you should fear if, indeed, you are sincere believers?
  14. Fight them the good fight of faith; Allâh will make them suffer at your hands and put them to shame, and make you victorious. This victory is intended to heal the ill, implicit and explicit, in the hearts of the believers.
  15. It is also intended to free the hearts of the faithful from rage and to free them from irritation and to return them to their settled calm. Allâh accepts the repentance of whom He wills. He is All-Knowing and All-Wise.
  16. Do not reckon, Muslims, that you will be left untested before Allâh has yet to see that you have distinguished yourselves on every front or line of battle and that you have ground for sustaining your guardianship under no one besides Allâh, His Messenger, and the believers? Allâh is All-Knowing of all that you do.
  17. It is never becoming for the idolaters to frequent the mosques of Allâh bearing witness within themselves and explicitly of their disbelief in Allâh. These are they whose deeds will be frustrated, and in Hell they will have eternal suffering.
  18. Indeed, the only people qualified to frequent the mosques of Allâh are those who faithfully believe in Allâh and in the Day of Judgment, who engage in the act of prayer and give zakâh (poor-dues), and who fear no one but Allâh. Such persons are expected to be among those who are truly-guided.
  19. Do you polytheists wish to make quenching the thirst of the pilgrims and attending to the Inviolable Mosque equal to belief in Allâh and the Day of Judgment, and striving in the way of Allâh? Such duties, as viewed by Him, are not comparable. Allâh does not guide to His path of righteousness the wrongdoers, who wrong unjustly themselves by disbelief and wrong others by continually inflicting harm on them.
  20. Indeed, those who believed in Allâh’s oneness and migrated to where they could best serve Him and strove for His cause with their wealth and their lives, are privileged by Allâh with distinction in the scale and rank, and these are the triumphant who are bound to His care.
  21. Their endeavor in Allâh’s cause has won His gratitude. He announces to them His mercy and blessings, His satisfaction, and His heavenly gardens of supreme bliss wherein they will pass to eternity.
  22. Their stay, in terms of state, is that of bliss, and in terms of time, is forever. And in Heaven’s realm Allâh has magnificent rewards.
  23. O you who believe, do not favor the patronage of your fathers or of your brothers if they prefer disbelief to Allâh’s faith and worship. And he who takes them as patrons, protectors, or guardians will be an unjust wrongdoer.
  24. O Muhammad, say to those who believe, “If your fathers and your sons, your brothers and your wives, your kindred and the wealth you have gained, your trade that you fear may decline, and the comfortable abodes are regarded with more esteem and affection than Allâh and His Messenger and than fighting in His way, then just you wait until Allâh’s fitting judgment presents itself. Allâh does not guide the immoral wrongdoers to His path of righteousness.”
  25. Allâh has given you victory in many battles of belief against disbelief. And on the day of the Battle of Hunayn, when you presumed upon the great superiority of your numbers but it availed you nothing, and the earth, vast as it is, seemed straitened and constricted, then you shrank from danger and sought safety in flight.
  26. There and then Allâh inspired serenity upon His Messenger and the faithful troops, and He sent down an invisible array of angels to assail your enemies, and there, He inflicted them with punishment in requital of their disbelief.
  27. Yet, thereafter Allâh relents towards whom He wills, for Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Ever-Merciful.
  28. O you who believe, the idolaters are impure. Accordingly, they must not be allowed near the Inviolable Mosque after this year (a.h. 9). Should you fear scarcity as a result of cutting commercial relations, Allâh will make His grace abound in you, if He wills. He is indeed All-Knowing and All-Wise.
  29. O you who believe, fight those who deny Allâh and the Day of Judgment among the People of the Book. They do not observe what Allâh and His Messenger have forbidden, nor do they conform to the true religion, Islâm. Fight them until they pay the jizyah (head-tax) in acknowledgment of submission (to the state).
  30. The Jews distinguished `Uzair (Ezra) by calling him the son of Allâh, and the Christians called the Masîh son of Maryam (the Messiah son of Mary) the son of Allâh—a fable resembling the falsehood spoken about Allâh by those disbelievers who preceded them. Allâh fights them and afflicts them with a malignant fate. How strongly diverged they are so as to cause what is false to be accepted as true!
  31. They took their rabbis and their monks as well as the Masîh son of Maryam, as lords besides Allâh; yet they have been commanded to worship Allâh, the only god there is. Praise be to Him and extolled are His glorious attributes! He is far beyond all those they associate with Him.
  32. The disbelievers wish they could extinguish the light of Allâh with their mouths. But Allâh refuses to make His way restrained to send His illumination (the Qur’ân) until enlightenment has prevailed, albeit this is hateful to those who refuse to acknowledge the truth.
  33. It is He Who has sent His Messenger with guidance and with the true faith and worship featured in the Qur’ân, and the unclouded and authoritative Islâm, which Allâh will cause to prevail over all religion, albeit this is hateful to those who associate other deities with Allâh.
  34. O you who believe, many of the rabbis and the monks eat the people out of their wealth, take advantage of people’s trust, and obstruct the way to Islâm. Those who pile up gold and silver and do not pay their zakâh (poor-dues)—announce to them, Messenger, the anticipation of a grievous torment.
  35. One day these precious metals will be melted by the heat of the Fire of Hell and their foreheads, their sides, and their backs will be branded with them. They will be told, “This is what you hoarded and denied the poor of their right. Now, you taste the torment that is laid on the damned in requital of what you have hoarded.”
  36. The calendar put by Allâh when He created the universe divides the year into twelve months, four of which—Rajab, Thul-Qi`dah, Thul-Hijjah, and Muharram—are prohibiting fighting. Therefore, do not wrong yourselves during these months by waging wars, nor discredit yourselves by abstaining from fighting them if they wage war on you. And fight the disbelievers in the whole as they fight you in the whole, and realize that Allâh upholds those who are pious to Him.
  37. To transpose a sacred month in favor of another month is to add to disbelief. Such a practice as adopted by the disbelievers made them sink deeper into misguidance. They permit it one year and forbid it another year so as to make lawful what Allâh has prohibited and arrange them suitably to the number ordained by Allâh. Thus were the disbelievers enticed by their deeds of evil and iniquity. Allâh never guides to His path of righteousness the disbelievers who persist in their disbelief.
  38. O you who believe, what ails you that you are indisposed to action? When the Messenger told you to strive in the way of Allâh, you clung heavily to the ground. Have you become worldly-minded and do you prefer life here to that in the Hereafter? But how little are the material things of enjoyment here as compared with those in the Hereafter!
  39. Unless you respond favorably to the Messenger’s call to serve Allâh and march forth, Allâh will afflict you with a severe torment and replace you with others who are responsive. Your indisposition to His purpose will not harm Him in the least. Allâh has power over all things.
  40. If you do not vindicate the Messenger in the accomplishment of Allâh’s purpose, you must realize that Allâh will vindicate him exactly as He made him triumph over his enemies (the Quraysh) who plotted against his life. The Messenger left home with no one but his companion Abu Bakr. In the cave of Thawr (three miles from Makkah) where they hid, the Messenger said to his companion, who feared for the Prophet’s life, “Rest assured and do not grieve; Allâh is with us.” There and then Allâh sent down His serenity and tranquility to His Messenger, and the thoughts were conveyed to the other, and He upheld him and supported him with an invisible array of angels. There, Allâh made what the disbelievers had forged in their hearts fail to accord with what their tongues vented. Thus, what they declared in words was debased, and the Word of Allâh is as always at the top. Allâh is All-Mighty and All-Wise.
  41. O you who believe, march out, each in his capacity, lightly armed and heavily armed. Every hand must be open to contribute something to the common purpose, and strive in the cause of Allâh with your wealth and your lives. Such a campaign is charitable for you if only you knew (it helps you prevail and confirm Allâh’s faith and worship).
  42. If the expedition had been a short distance and if they had been confident that their march would achieve its worldly end, they would have followed you. But the distance disenchanted them and appeared toilsome. They will swear to you, Messenger, that they would have gone out with you to fight if they had been able to do so. Their lying and hypocrisy cause their own perdition. And Allâh knows that they are liars and He will punish them for it.
  43. Allâh be clement towards you, Muhammad! Why did you grant them permission to be among the stay-at-home before sifting them to find out the truthful and expose those who were lying?
  44. Never will those who truly believe ask you to exempt them from this obligation. They feel they must march out as ordained by Allâh. They purpose to strive in His cause, which is their cause, with their wealth and their lives. Allâh is fully aware of the pious believers.
  45. Those who ask you to exempt them are those who do not truly believe in Allâh and the Last Day. And in their uncertainty they waver.
  46. If they had been willing to march out, they would have made all preparations necessary for overpowering the assailant. But being fully aware of their innermost thoughts, Allâh hated their participation in the campaign and discouraged them, and it was said, “You should join the stay-at-home.
  47. If they had joined you (in battle), they would have caused discord and hastened to sow dissension and sedition among you. And among you are attentive hearers who listen to them. Allâh is All-Knowing of all the unjust hypocrites.
  48. They had made it their aim to sow sedition and discord. They upset your ordinary pursuits of life, Messenger, as well as your divine course of action. But great is truth and it did prevail, and there did Allâh’s word assume the top, in spite of their opposition and their hatred.
  49. Among them is he who says to you, Muhammad, “Exempt me from this obligation and do not let me fall into temptation.” (This is in reference to the expedition to Tabûk, which was close to Syria. The men would thus be exposed to the Syrian women, who were supposedly a source of temptation.) Indeed, they have fallen into temptation and have caused themselves to fall into persecution by Heaven, and Hell is encompassing the disbelievers on the Last Day.
  50. When good fortune comes your way, be it through victory or spoils of war, they become vexed and grieved. But if misfortune befalls you, they say, “With prudent foresight, we exercised caution to provide against misfortunes and turmoil.” And they turn their backs and go away exulting.
  51. Say to them, Messenger, “Nothing of good fortune or misfortune befalls us but has been divinely assessed and justly determined by Allâh. He is our Patronizer, and in Allâh should those who believe put their trust.
  52. Say to them, “You have no right to anticipate anything to befall us but only one of two advantageous (rewards): martyrdom or victory. As for you, we do anticipate an inevitable torment from Allâh or at our hands. Therefore, await the event that will come in due time, and we are also waiting.”
  53. O Messenger, say to these hypocrites, “You may spend as much as you like, willingly or unwillingly, but your contributions will never be accepted. You are people who are immoral.”
  54. The reason for refusing to accept their contributions is their unforgivable grave offense against Allâh. They disbelieve in Allâh and His Messenger; they perform their act of prayer with a lazy attitude, and they spend in Allâh’s service with hate and reluctance.
  55. Do not let the splendor of their riches and their progeny astonish you. Allâh intends to make these attributes the cause of their torment here through unrewarded unrest and anxiety, and their selves will be caught by death in a state of disbelief.
  56. And they swear by Allâh that they are with you when, in fact, they are not. They are people who display ignoble terror in the face of danger, and they try to assure their belief through false oaths.
  57. If they can find a shelter or a cavern or a hole for concealment in the ground, they will withdraw hastily to it.
  58. Among those hypocrites are some who question your justice in the way you distribute the alms and spoils, and they try to defame you. If you give them the share they like, they are satisfied with you; and if they do not have a good share in what is distributed, they express their wrath of you.
  59. If they had been satisfied with what Allâh and His Messenger gave them of alms and spoils, and said “So be it; we are contented with Allâh. His bounty will abound in us directly and through His Messenger, and to Him we implore for homage,” it would have been to their advantage.
  60. Donations are due only to the following: the poor who are destitute of means of livelihood; the indigent who are in temporary distress due to sickness or disability, those who are employed as collectors and administrators thereof; those who have just reconciled themselves with their own hearts and with Allâh; those in bondage who are eager to buy their freedom; those in debt who are genuinely unable to pay what is owed to others; the support of the cause of Allâh; and the wayfarer who does not have the means for transportation. This is an obligation incumbent on Muslims and due to Allâh; and Allâh is Ever-Knowing, Ever-Wise.
  61. Among those hypocrites are also those who deliberately harm the Prophet and accuse him of attentively listening to all that is being said, be it true or false. Say to them, “He listens graciously only to all that is truthful; he believes in Allâh, he believes those who believe, to whom he is Allâh’s given mercy.” Indeed, those who hurt the Messenger of Allâh will suffer a painful torment.
  62. They linger behind, do not join you in battle, and offer you some excuse to satisfy you and affirm it by swearing by Allâh so that you may accept it, when it is Allâh and His Messenger that they should satisfy if they are true believers.
  63. Do they not know that he who disbelieves or contravenes against Allâh and His Messenger will suffer the fire of Hell, and this is, indeed, disgrace to the extreme.
  64. Those hypocrites ridicule the Messenger among themselves and are afraid of being found out, fearing that a verse should be revealed that would betray their real character and their ill-natured hearts, which they wish to be kept secret. Say to them, “Hold whom you will in ridicule. Allâh will expose your attributes that you always beware of and hope would be kept secret.”
  65. And if you should ask them, O Messenger, after their real nature has been betrayed, why they plunged into defaming religion and ridiculing Allâh and His signs, they would say, “We always plunge into worldly talk and play.” Say to them, “Do you make Allâh, His revelations, and His Messenger the object of play and laugh them to mockery?
  66. “Do not vindicate your grievous wrong now by an excuse. You have turned renegades.” If We forgive some of you because of their true repentance, We will torment others who are criminals and persist in disbelief and hypocrisy and in harming the Messenger and the believers.
  67. The hypocrites, men and women, are alike in that they enjoin what is evil and leave and forbid what is just and right. They keep their hands tightly shut, unwilling to spend in divine service, and fail to remember Allâh. And by consequence, Allâh has neglected them and did not guide them. Indeed, the hypocrites are immoral and disobedient to Allâh.
  68. Allâh has promised the hypocrites and the disbelievers the fire of Hell, wherein they will eternally suffer. It is their Reckoning. Allâh has cursed them, and they will suffer perpetual torment on the Day of Judgment.
  69. You hypocrites are similar to those who preceded you. They were mightier than you are, and they lived in greater affluence of wealth and progeny. They enjoyed all that afforded pleasure and they neglected all that was due to Allâh. Similarly, you enjoy all that affords pleasure in the same way as those who preceded you; you plunged into evil and injustice the same as they did. You and such persons are those whose hopes will be doomed to disappointment and whose deeds will be frustrated here and in the Hereafter, and all of you are losers.
  70. Have the hypocrites and the disbelievers not been informed of what became of their predecessors, the people of Nûh (Noah) and those of `Âd, the people of Thamûd and those of Ibrâhîm (Abraham), the people of Shu`ayb, and those of Lût (Lot)? All of them received messengers who brought them divine illumination and evidences, but they disbelieved, were punished, and destroyed. Never did Allâh do them injustice, but it was they who wronged themselves by their disbelief (and thus they deserved Allâh’s torment).
  71. And those of the men and the women who believe are patrons of each other. They enjoin what is just and right and forbid what is evil; they faithfully and regularly perform prayers on time and pay the Zakâh; and they obey Allâh and His Messenger. These will Allâh have mercy on them. Indeed Allâh is All-Mighty and All-Wise.
  72. Allâh has promised the believers, men and women, eternal bliss in Gardens in Heaven beneath which rivers run. Allâh has also promised them beautiful mansions in the Gardens of Eden, and, above all, they enjoy Allâh’s grace, which is, indeed, the supreme triumph.
  73. O Prophet, strive hard against the disbelievers and the hypocrites and be harsh with them. Their abode is Hell, and evil indeed is their destiny.
  74. The hypocrites swear to you, Messenger, that they never spoke slander against you, when in fact they uttered the word emblematic of disbelief after belief. And instead of being grateful for your presence in Madînah—which made Heaven endow them with prosperity, justice, and suppression of selfishness—they attempted to requite Allâh’s grace by plotting against you. Nonetheless, if they repent, it will be to their advantage. But should they turn away and turn a deaf ear, Allâh will put them to the painful torment here and in the Hereafter, and they will find no patron or protector on earth.
  75. Among the hypocrites were some who vowed to Allâh and pledged to Him that if His grace abounded in them, they would give in benevolence and spend in divine service and be of those whose deeds are righteous.
  76. And when He bestowed on them of His bounty, they were niggardly and did not fulfill their promise. They turned away from benevolence and turned a deaf ear to the Word of Allâh.
  77. Consequently, Allâh made hypocrisy overtake their hearts until the day they will die and be in His presence. This is because of the violation of their pledge and their intentional assertion of what is false.
  78. Do they not know that Allâh knows the thoughts and feelings that their hearts store and what they keep secret and what they say in their private conferences, and that He is All-Knowing of everything?
  79. They spoke maliciously of the rich believers who give charity, and of those who are not rich who contribute a part of what they earn by labor. They laughed them to scorn. Allâh has mocked them and uncovered their wicked attributes and destined them to a painful torment in the Hereafter.
  80. You may invoke Allâh’s forgiveness on their behalf, Muhammad, or you may not; it is one and the same. Even if you invoke Allâh’s forgiveness on their behalf seventy times, He will never forgive them. They denied Allâh and His Messenger and insolently and defiantly disregarded Allâh and His Messenger. Allâh does not guide the immoral to His path of righteousness.
  81. These hypocrites, the stay-at-home, rejoiced for remaining behind, leaving the Messenger and his available troops to set forth for the battle, and they hated to participate in the expedition. They disliked greatly to strive with their wealth and sacrifice their lives in the way of Allâh, and they incited others not to join the expedition in the scorching heat of the summer. Say to them, Messenger, “The heat of Hell is far hotter and severer than what you fear, if they could comprehend.”
  82. They may laugh the believers to scorn. They will laugh only for a short time, but they will weep much. They will weep their fill and expend their life in Hell in weeping in requital of the evil they committed.
  83. And if Allâh destines you, Muhammad, to return safe from battle and the occasion arises for another expedition and any group of these hypocrites asks your permission to join you, simply refuse and say to them, “Never will you join me in any expedition nor will you ever join me in fighting any enemy. You rejoiced when you stayed at home on the first occasion, with no excuse beforehand or repentance afterward, and therefore, you will again join those who remain behind.”
  84. Nor should you, Muhammad, pray for any of them who dies, nor attend his burial rites. These are people who disbelieved in Allâh and His Messenger and who died as immorals.
  85. Nor should you let the splendor of their riches and their progeny make you admire that. Allâh intends to make these attributes the cause of their suffering here below through torment and anxiety, and their selves will be taken while they are captivated by disbelief, and thus they will have lost here and hereafter.
  86. And when a sûrah is revealed to you enjoining true belief in Allâh and commanding strife together with His Messenger in His cause, you see the affluent and the physically able among them requesting exemption, saying to you, “Leave us with those remaining behind, the excused stay-at-home in Madînah.”
  87. Satisfied to remain behind with the stay-at-home (women, invalids, and children), their hearts have been impressed with fear and hypocrisy, and, therefore, they do not apprehend the dignity involved in following the Messenger in strife (and the bliss they will enjoy in the Hereafter).
  88. But the Messenger and those who followed him strove with their wealth and their lives to fulfill their obligation to Allâh and to make His word the uppermost. These are the recipients of Allâh’s grace and of all that is good to attain, and it is these whom Heaven will make prosperous.
  89. Allâh has prepared for them in His Heaven, Gardens of unsurpassed beauty beneath which rivers flow, and this is, indeed, a magnificent triumph.
  90. Then there came a group of the desert Arabs, full of excuses, to claim exemption, while those of them who apparently conformed to Islam but deep in their heart lied to Allâh and His Messenger, simply sat at home. Those of them who deny Allâh will be put to a painful torment.
  91. Absolved from warfare are the weak and the sick and those who are indigent, lacking the necessities of life, provided that they give sincere advice for Allâh and His Messenger, for the sincere will always find acceptance with Allâh. Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Ever-Merciful.
  92. Absolved also are those who come to you, Messenger, sincerely intending to join your expedition, and you tell them, “I do not have the means to carry you to the battlefield,” and they weep their fill due to their disappointment. They are grieved at heart over their inability to win the honor of striving in the way of Allâh.
  93. But the blame and punishment are indeed incurred by those who are rich and equipped yet make excuses to claim exemption and do not contribute to Allâh’s cause. They are satisfied to remain behind together with the stay-at-home. Allâh has impressed their hearts with dullness of comprehension, and therefore, they do not know the grave consequence, here and hereafter, of remaining behind.
  94. And when you return from battle, they apologize to you for their offense. Say to them, Messenger, “Do not offer defensive arguments because we will not believe you. Allâh has informed us of your disposition and has uncovered your lies. And Allâh and His Messenger will watch over your innocence and follies, then you will be sent back to Him Who is All-Knowing of the invisible and of the visible. There and then He will inform you of what you have done (and will punish you accordingly).”
  95. They will swear to you by Allâh when you return to them from battle that what they offered you as a reason for claiming exemption was justified; they mean to be exculpated so that you do not censure them. Avoid them and have nothing to do with them. They are an abomination and defiled by sin. Their abode will be Hell in requital of the evil acts they committed.
  96. They swear to you to approve of them. But even if you do, you must realize that Allâh never approves of people who grow daily more and more wicked, and that your approval is of no avail to them.
  97. The desert Arabs (Bedouins) are more addicted to disbelief and hypocrisy; they are the most fitted to be ignorant and unaware of the divine laws sent down to His Messenger. And Allâh is All-Knowing and All-Wise.
  98. Among these desert Arabs are some who consider spending in the cause of Allâh a useless expenditure and a great loss. They pore over evil and wish that you Muslims would be befallen with a misfortune. May Allâh afflict them with a disaster. Allâh is All-Hearing and All-Knowing.
  99. Nonetheless, among the desert Arabs are some who believe in Allâh and acknowledge the truth of the Day of Judgment. They look upon what they spend in His cause as offerings bringing them closer to Him and to His Messenger to invoke Allâh’s mercy and blessings on their behalf, for the invocation of the Messenger is indeed a great offering bringing them closer to their aim. Allâh will extend His mercy to them. Allâh is indeed Oft-Forgiving and Ever-Merciful.
  100. And the foremost to embrace Islâm who emigrated with the Messenger, the ‘Ansâr who welcomed them and gave them aid, and those who followed their example are the recipients of Allâh’s satisfaction. Allâh is well satisfied with them and they with Him. He has prepared for them Gardens of unsurpassed beauty with rivers flowing beneath its trees, wherein they will have passed to eternity, and this is a magnificent triumph.
  101. Some of the desert Arabs round about you and some of the people of Madînah are hypocrites; to all of them hypocrisy is a way of life. They are so clever in concealing their disposition that you do not know them, but We do know them. We will make them suffer double, once by defeat and another by being exposed to the tremendous torment laid upon the damned.
  102. There are others who have harmed you then confessed their faults; there is much good in them albeit they succumbed to evil. Some of their mixed deeds were good and others were evil. Allâh may relent towards their offense and accept true repentance. He is indeed Oft-Forgiving and Ever-Merciful.
  103. O Messenger, take alms from their wealth, an offering to set them upon the course of purity and to cleanse them. Pray Allâh to forgive them; your prayer is sereneness for them. Allâh is All-Hearing and All-Knowing.
  104. Do they not know that Allâh is He Who alone accepts sincere repentance and that He accepts offerings and acts of charity? It is only He Who is All-Gracious in accepting repentance, and He is Ever-Merciful.
  105. Say to the people, Muhammad, “Do (right) deeds. Allâh sees your doings and so will His Messenger and the believers. Then at the end all of you will be brought back to Him, The All-Knowing of all the thoughts that the hearts store and of what you declare. There and then He will reward or punish you for all you did.”
  106. There are others, the stay-at-home who are not hypocrites. They are held in suspense for an expected decision—Allâh may torment them or relent towards their offense. And Allâh is All-Knowing and All-Wise.
  107. Those who built a mosque professedly from religious motives when, in fact, it was built from evil motives—to vex the Muslims, to establish disbelief, to be a mere nest of the conspirators against Islâm, to cause dissent among the Muslims and set them at variance, and to be an outpost for the warriors who fought against Allâh and His Messenger before—they swear to you, Muhammad, that they only mean good, but Allâh knows well and bears witness that they are liars.
  108. O Messenger, never pray in it. A mosque built on piety and obedience to Allâh and with the intention of serving Allâh’s purpose from the first day—such as the mosque of Qubâ’—merits visiting for the purpose of worship. Therein are people who aspire to physical purity and the purity of their hearts. And Allâh likes those who are physically and morally pure.
  109. Is he who has built his structure on a foundation of piety and the gratification of Allâh better, or the one who has built his structure on a foundation of hypocrisy and disbelief—like a building founded on an undermined sand cliff that collapses and crumbles away in the fire of Hell? And Allâh does not guide to His path of righteousness those who persisted in being unjust to themselves through disbelief.
  110. Their building will not cease to be the cause of distress to their hearts and of alarm and suspicion to their hearts until the day their hearts are crushed with sorrow or repentance, and the day they die. And Allâh is All-Knowing and All-Wise.
  111. Allâh has bought from those who believe their lives and their wealth in exchange for Paradise. They strive in His cause whether they win victory or are martyred in His cause. It is a solemn promise that Allâh has pledged in the Tawrâh (the Book revealed to Mûsâ [Moses]), the Injîl (the Book revealed to `Îsa [Jesus]), and the Qur’ân, and who can honor and fulfill his promise better than Allâh? Therefore, you may rejoice, O believers, at the bargain you have made to your advantage; this is indeed the magnificent triumph.
  112. Those who have sold themselves in exchange for Paradise have the distinguished attributes of:
  • Repentance: They humbly repent.
  • Thankfulness: They worship and praise Him under all circumstances.
  • Fasting: They fast as a religious observance and go out in the way of Allâh; and by way of penitence they abstain from sin.
  • Kneeling: They bow down and prostrate to Allâh in supplication and for doing homage and honor to Him.
  • Righteousness: They enjoin what is just and right and forbid what is evil.
  • Observance of the divine law: They solemnly observe Allâh’s laws and their deeds accord with Allâh’s blessed word and ordinances.

For this, Muhammad, announce blissful tidings to those who believe.

  1. It does not conform with reason that the Prophet and those who believe invoke Allâh’s mercy on those polytheists who died in disbelief in Allâh, even though they be of the nearest kin, especially after they have been assured by Allâh that such persons are destined to the abode in Hell.
  2. The invocation made by Ibrâhîm (Abraham) on behalf of his father was in fulfillment of a promise he had made to him. But when he realized that his father was an avowed enemy to Allâh until his death, he declared his innocence of him and of his fatherhood. Indeed, Ibrâhîm constantly implored Allâh with touching entreaties, and he was forbearing.
  3. Nor would Allâh ascribe error to people after He has guided them to His path of righteousness until He has explicitly made known to them what they must avoid but they did not. Allâh is, indeed, All-Knowing of everything.
  4. To Allâh belongs the absolute sovereignty of the heavens and the earth; He gives life and causes death. And besides Allâh, you people have no patron, nor is there anyone who can vindicate you.
  5. Allâh has relented towards the Prophet and to his troops who followed him at the hour of distress throughout the difficult days of the expedition (Tabûk) when some of them lost heart through incipient weakness and were about to quit the field. Allâh relented towards them; He sustained them after He had confirmed their true inclination and the truth of their firm disposition. He was Compassionate to them and, indeed, He is Ever-Merciful.
  6. As for the three affluent and able men who were boycotted and excluded from the life of the community to the end that, vast as it is, the earth seemed constricted, they realized through self-reproach that they would not and could not flee from Allâh but could find solace in coming back to Him. He pardoned their offense so that they would stand repentant. Allâh is Ever-Relenting, Who accepts repentance and atonement, and He is Ever-Merciful.
  7. O you who believe, entertain the profound piety due to Allâh and be an integral part of those who are strongly and habitually disposed to tell the truth and whose words accord with their deeds.
  8. It was not excusable that the Muslim residents of Madînah and those of the desert Arabs round about them deserted the Messenger in his expedition and remained behind, nor was there any cause inducing them to prefer their own lives to his. The conclusion of all this is that any thirst, fatigue, or hunger they suffer in Allâh’s cause, or any scheme they design to anger the disbelievers and obtain an advantage over them (whether they win or lose) is credited to them as a righteous deed. Allâh does not annul what fair-doers are entitled to reap from deeds of wisdom and piety.
  9. Nor do they spend in divine service little or much, nor journey across a valley to strive in the cause of Allâh but it is credited to their account so that He requites them for every deed at the best of what they accomplished.
  10. Nor should those who believe go forth all at once to the Messenger, but only a group from each community should go to learn from him jurisprudence and convey such divine knowledge to their people and warn them when they return to them against disobedience to Allâh.
  11. O you who believe, wage war against the disbelievers who dwell in the adjacent towns round about you; they are a source of danger to you. Let them feel that you are rigorous, but you must realize that Allâh upholds those who are pious to Him.
  12. When a sûrah is sent down, some of the hypocrites insolently and mockingly say to each other, “Whose heart among you has this sûrah increased in belief?” Indeed, those who believe are receptive to divine knowledge. It gives them moral support and confidence and increases their belief. Their hearts become impressed with religious virtues. Stirred by emotion, they rejoice beyond a common joy.
  13. Whereas a sûrah adds doubt to those whose ill-natured hearts reflect the morbidity inherent in their innermost being, and it gives them occasion to uncertainty and increases the degree of their abomination. They will die in disbelief.
  14. Do the hypocrites not perceive what is below the surface? They are subjected to a severe test and a strain, and they are put to straits once or twice every year that they may, it is hoped, stand repentant. But they neither repent nor reflect.
  15. And when a sûrah is sent down, they look at one another and say, “Does anyone see you?” and then they take their leave. Allâh has turned their hearts and thoughts away from the truth and closed their hearts’ ears to admonition! They lack diligence and they are people who have no comprehension (of Allâh nor of the speech of reason narrated by His Messenger).
  16. O people, there has come to you a Messenger raised in your midst and related to you by kinship. He is grieved at heart to see you be destroyed by your iniquities. You are his object of care and deep concern with view to guiding you to the path of righteousness; and he is Compassionate, tender, and merciful to those who believe.
  17. Nonetheless, Muhammad, if they should close their hearts’ ears and direct their thoughts away from you, then simply invoke Allâh thus: “Enough is Allâh for me; in Him do I find the answer to my purpose, my hopes, and my needs. There is no god but Him. In Him I trust and He is the Absolute Sovereign of the magnificent throne of dominion, authority, grace and mercy.”

SÛRAH 10

YÛNUS

Jonah

Revealed at Makkah

This sûrah starts by pointing out the rank of the Glorious Qur’ân and what the polytheists say about the Prophet. The sûrah then mentions the universe and Allâh’s signs in it, reward on the Day of Judgment, and the decree of Allâh as regards the disbelievers. It denounces their belief. The sûrah also deals with the position of people in affliction and affluence, the absolute power of Allâh over everything, and the idols’ lack of power to effect anything. It challenges the disbelievers to produce a sûrah like it. The sûrah includes a strong threat of torment from Allâh. It also tells of the conditions of people’s selves and Allâh’s vigilant watch over their deeds. Then the sûrah moves on to comfort the Prophet for the pain he feels as a result of the people’s disbelief, in addition to providing decisive evidence that condemns them. This comforting comes in the mention of the stories of previous prophets with their people: Nûh (Noah), Mûsâ (Moses) and Hârûn (Aaron) with Pharaoh and the Children of Isrâ’îl, and Yûnus (Jonah), after whom the sûrah is named. Finally, the sûrah turns to the Prophet to make the lesson comprehensive.

In the Name of Allâh,

The All-Merciful, The Ever-Merciful

  1. A (alif). L (lâm). R (). The sûrah opens with these introductory letters from the Arabic alphabet to draw attention to the miracle of the Qur’ân, which, though written in the people’s tongue, cannot be emulated. These words—the preceding and those to follow—are divine verses that constitute the Qur’ân, verses containing wisdom and divine knowledge that are beneficial to people in matters of their religion and worldly life.
  2. Is it a wonder in peoples’ sight that We reveal to one of them with such divine knowledge to warn them and all people of the danger of denying Allâh, and to announce blissful tidings to those who believe in Him, that Heaven will set them on their feet secure (and esteemed high)? Yet the disbelievers dispute the facts, saying that this man (Muhammad) is simply an evident sorcerer.
  3. Allâh your Lord is He Who created the heavens and the earth in six days (determined by His own unit of time). Then levelled He Himself on the Throne (of supremacy and dominion). He conducts the Command, and no intercessor is permitted to intercede on behalf of anyone without His permission. This is Allâh your Lord; you had better worship Him, regard Him with extreme respect and devotion, and adore Him with appropriate acts and rites. Can you not remember?
  4. To Him will be your return at the end of your life here below. His promise is absolutely true. He started creation and He continues to create and re-create, and on the Day of Resurrection all will be created anew. Then He recompenses with equity those who recognized Him and obeyed Him, adored Him with appropriate acts and rites, and vested their deeds with wisdom and piety. He requites those disbelievers who denied Him with what is commensurate with their evil deeds. Their thirst will be quenched with scalding water, and their faculties of physical perception will have painful torment as a result of their disbelief.
  5. It is He Who made the sun emit illumination and the moon derive its light from it (and reflect it to the earth). He determined the divisions of the ecliptic for the moon to occupy them on successive days and present its phases according to the extent of its illumination. This helps you to know the number of the years and reckon the time occupied by the sun in its apparent passage through the zodiac and the period of the earth’s revolution round the sun forming a natural unit of time, so that you may be able to compute time and determine it by calculation. Never did Allâh create this and bring it about but (for a serious end) with the truth. Thus Allâh expounds His signs and renders His words readily understood by those who know.
  6. Indeed, in the variation in duration besides the constant alternation and succession of the night and the day, in addition to all that Allâh has created in the heavens and the earth, are evident signs of Allâh’s omnipotence and authority to people who are pious to Him as He deserves.
  7. Indeed, those who do not hope for meeting with Allâh, and who are content with life here and rest composed and satisfied with it and who are oblivious of Our signs betokening omnipotence and authority, are heedless.
  8. Such persons have their abode is the Fire in requital of what they used to earn.
  9. But those who believe and do deeds with wisdom and piety will be recipients of Allâh’s mercy and grace. Allâh guides them along the belief proceeding from their innermost being to His path of righteousness ending in Heaven’s realm, where rivers run beneath them in the Gardens of eternal bliss.
  10. Their plea there will be “All Extolment be to Allâh!” Their hearty greeting there will be “Peace,” and the conclusion of their prayer will express their thoughts thus: “Praise be to Allâh, the Lord of the worlds!”
  11. If Allâh were to hasten His response to people who deserve evil as they invoke Him to hasten His response to confer on them what is charity, their term would be now. But We leave those who do not entertain the thought of the Day of Judgment and allow them free action to commit themselves to the loss in the maze of blundering.
  12. When man is touched with adversity, he invokes Us for relief, reclining on his side or sitting or standing; and when We lift what was burdensome to him, he passes heedless of Allâh as if he never invoked Him to relieve him from an adversity. Thus are the extravagant allured by what they were doing.
  13. Destruction and perishing of preceding generations were events (you people must have heard of). They were unjust. They received messengers with evident warnings, but they refused to believe their messages and to the divine enlightenment. Thus do We requite the criminal people.
  14. Then We brought you people into existence and made you the successors to see how you would act and whether or not you would do (like people of sense).
  15. When Our Verses emitting thoughts of evidence and divine enlightenment are recited to the polytheists, they, who do not hope for meeting with Us, react with revulsion and they say, “Bring a Qur’ân different from this or substitute the words we do not like with others to our taste.” Say to them, Muhammad, “It is not within my power to make exchanges of my own accord; I only follow all that is revealed to me (and I do not dare to disobey Allâh my Lord) for the penalty will be torment on a Momentous Day.”
  16. Say to them, “If Allâh had decided, He would not have sent down a Book and I would not have recited it to you nor would He have made you realize with authoritative directions as to action. I have lingered in your midst for years before it was revealed to me. Can you not consider?”
  17. Who then is more unjust of actions than he who fabricates lies against Allâh or denies His revelations and signs demonstrating His omnipotence and authority? Indeed the criminals will never prosper.
  18. They worship apart from Allâh what will never hurt them or profit them, and they say that such objects of worship will serve as their intercessors pleading on their behalf with Allâh. Say to them, Muhammad, “Do you inform Allâh of what He does not know either in the heavens or in the earth?” Glory be to Him and extolled are His glorious attributes! He is infinitely exalted far beyond those they associate with Him.
  19. Mankind were but one single nation, then they differed among themselves in opinion, and they were all set at variance. Had it not been for Allâh’s word proclaimed beforehand to delay the decision on matters of doubt and dispute among them and to put punishment in respite, their differences would have been settled.
  20. The polytheists say, “If only a sign other than the Qur’ân were revealed to evince both his wisdom and the truth of his mission!” Say to them, Messenger, “The Unseen rests with Allâh, Who knows the hidden, the unknown, and all that is destined to come. Therefore, you just wait, people; I will also await future events.”
  21. If We make mankind taste Our mercy and benediction following a touch of tribulation that has befallen them, and they direct their scheming against Our signs and revelations. Say to them, “Allâh is swifter in scheming and indeed Our watchful guardian angels are committed to writing every scheming act that you do.”
  22. It is He who enables you to travel by land and sea, and when you are on board a ship and a favorable wind blows and the sails catch it and cause the vessel to move on the water, they exulted therein. But when the light wind changes to a gale and waves rise in billows tossing them in every direction and they think they are encompassed by danger on all sides, they invoke Allâh, with a faithful common feeling of an intuitive recognition and belief in Him, to the end that if He delivers them from this catastrophe they will be indeed thankful.
  23. After He has delivered them from a sure disaster, they go unjustly and untruthfully. O you mankind who do not keep a promise or honor a vow, you had better realize that your inequity works against your own interest. The enjoyment in life here is evanescent and fleeting, and suddenly and soon enough you will be on your return to Us, and there and then We will inform you of all that you have done.
  24. Life here below is similar to the soil that is stirred to activity and swells up by absorption of the rainwater falling from the heaven. The water is absorbed by soil, causing plants—the food of both man and animal—to flourish and grow healthy and vigorous. The earth is rendered beautiful and pleasing to the senses, and the world becomes adorned and furnished with all that is ornamental. And when the earth’s inhabitants begin to think that it will always minister to their necessities and pleasure, there comes Our command to pass by night or by day to convince mankind that mortals do not command success, and We mow it down as if it never flourished the day before. Thus do We expound Our Signs and make Our words readily understood by people who meditate.
  25. Allâh calls to a residence of peace, and He guides whom He decides to a straight path.
  26. He will requite those who vested their deeds with wisdom and piety with more than they expect, more than what is commensurate with their pious deeds. Their faces will never be overlaid with mournful and painful gloom, nor with humiliation and shame. These are the inmates of Paradise, wherein they will have passed to eternity.
  27. But for those who have earned odious deeds, the retribution for doing evil is evil of a like nature, in addition to the gloom that will overlay their faces. They will find no one to safeguard them against Allâh’s punishment. Their faces will be coated with gloom, a painful distressing darkness they will have to assume, as if they were wearing a mold of a pitch-dark night. These are the inmates of the Fire, wherein they will have eternal suffering.
  28. The Day We muster them all together, We will address the associators thus: “Stop where you are, together with your partners whom you associated with Allâh. You will hear His verdict and We keep them apart.” There and then those who were worshiped will say to their worshipers, “You did not really worship us.”
  29. And they add, “Allâh is a witness of our actions and of your actions, and He corroborates our statement that we were heedless of the reverence and worship you paid to us.”
  30. There and then every self will become fully aware of all the pious deeds that it had advanced in life and of all the evil deeds that it had committed. Now they have been brought back to Allâh their Lord, Who is the truth. Now they are renounced and forsaken by those whom they presumed shared divine nature with Allâh.
  31. Say to the disbelievers, Muhammad, “Who supplies you with the provisions from the heavens and the earth and with the means of sustaining your lives? Who has control over the faculties of hearing and sight? Who causes the living to come out from the dead—such as plants from the earth—and causes the dead to fall from the living—such as causing a human to die? And Who conducts the Command of all affairs?” They will say, “Allâh.” Then say to them, “Will you, then, not piously revere Him as He deserves?”
  32. This, then, is Allâh your Lord, Who is the truth. If you disregard the truth, there remains only false beliefs and departure from guidance. Therefore, how do you turn away from the truth?
  33. Thus was the word of your Lord (Allâh) verified and proved true against the immoral who do not believe.
  34. Say to them, Messenger, “Is there anyone among your partners who you presume share divine nature with Allâh who can begin creation from nothingness and reproduce it?” Then say to them, “Allâh does start creation from nothingness and reproduces it, and on the Day of Resurrection He will create all anew; therefore, how could you be strongly diverged so as to believe a lie?”
  35. Say to them, Messenger, “Is there anyone among your partners who you presume share divine nature with Allâh who can guide people to all truth?” Then say to them, “Allâh guides to all truth; therefore, does He Who guides to all truth not merit to be followed, or he who cannot act as a guide and needs to be guided? How can you not judge the difference nor arrive at a sound judgment?”
  36. Most of them only follow the false suppositions. An opinion offered on presumptive evidence cannot overrule the truth. Allâh is All-Knowing of all that they perform.
  37. Nor could this Qur’ân be fabricated by anyone even if he is of singular ingenuity. Its inimitability, guidance, and precision betoken its divine nature and exclude all else besides Allâh. It corroborates and authoritatively validates all the divine Books revealed before it and serves as an excellent interpretation expounding all the laws and ordinances revealed before it. It is undoubtedly revealed by Allâh, the Lord of the worlds.
  38. Or do they say, “Muhammad has fabricated it”? Say to them, “If you do believe I did, then produce one sûrah the like thereof, and call on all those besides Allâh if indeed you are sincerely declaring the truth!”
  39. The fact is that they have belied the Qur’ân without knowledge of its precepts, nor has its interpretation been given yet. Their predecessors belied similarly, and you can see the fatal consequence of the unjust wrongdoers.
  40. Nonetheless, among them are some who will believe in the Qur’ân and give credence to it, while others simply refuse to believe in it. But Allâh knows best the corruptors.
  41. However, if they should charge you, Messenger, with lying, just say to them, “I am responsible for my deeds and you are responsible for yours; you are innocent of my actions and I am innocent of yours. (And Allâh will reward or punish each side accordingly.)”
  42. Among them are some who listen to your speech but they turn a deaf ear. Do you think you will be able to make the deaf to hear and they fail to consider?
  43. Among them are those who look at you. Would you be able to guide those who are blind, unable to perceive or apprehend?
  44. Allâh does not do injustice to anyone, not even in the slightest degree, but it is the people who unjustly wrong themselves (through preferring disbelief over belief).
  45. On the Day He musters them before Him for judgment, their life below, appearing to them, then, as no more than one hour of daylight, and they will be acquainted with each other. There and then, the losers will be those who denied the meeting with Allâh, who did not do a righteous deed in their life below.
  46. We either show you in your lifetime, Messenger, some part of the promised punishment, or cause your death before you witness this punishment. Then to Us they are destined to return. Allâh is Ever-Witness and He witnesses all that they do (and will punish them accordingly).
  47. To every nation a messenger has been sent (to admonish them to seek Allâh and draw near to Him). And on the Day of Judgment every messenger will bear witness to his peoples’ response, and people will be justly judged, and no one will be done injustice.
  48. The disbelievers ask as usual, “When will the Day of Judgment be, if you (the Messenger and his followers) are declaring the truth?”
  49. Say to them, “I have no possess over what will befall me, be it bad or good, but everything happens as Allâh decides.” And to every nation We have appointed a definite point of time, and when their time comes, they will never be able to postpone it or make it come earlier for one hour or infinitesimally less.
  50. Say to them, “What if Allâh afflicts you with a torment by night or by day? What benefit would you (the criminals) derive from it that you wish it to be hastened on?”
  51. Is it only now that your torment is planted that you believe that it is reality, when you challenged it and wished it be hastened on?
  52. There and then the unjust will be told, “Now taste the eternal torment. Will you be recompensed but with what is commensurate with your evil deeds?”
  53. They ask you, Messenger, with a strong bias against resurrection and the Qur’ân and its threat of committing the disbelievers to Hellfire, and they wonder if this be true. Say to them, “By Allâh my Lord, it is indeed true, and you just cannot defy or escape the punishment Allâh will lay on you.”
  54. If every unjust self possessed all the riches on earth, it would gladly pay it as ransom of its guilt with remorse and vain repentance when they are confronted with the horrid torment. There and then they are judged with equity, and no one will ever be unjustly wronged.
  55. Indeed, to Allâh alone belongs all that exists in the heavens and on earth. The promise uttered by Allâh is the truth, but most of the disbelievers do not seem to know this.
  56. He gives life and causes the moment of death, and to Him you are destined to go back.
  57. O you mankind, there has come to you from (Allâh) your Lord an authoritative admonition exhorting you to recognize Him and urging you to do what is good and laudable. It serves as an incitement to worship no one but Him, and as a remedy for your breasts, and as a guide and mercy to those responsive believers.
  58. Say to them, Messenger, “You ought to exult at Allâh’s grace and mercy manifested in the revelation of the Qur’ân and the Law of Islâm, which outweigh all the mundane things of this life that you gather.”
  59. Say to them, Messenger, “Do you see the provision that Allâh has sent down for you of His bounty, and you took the liberty to classify them into the permissible and the prohibited? Was it Allâh Who permitted you to do so, or do you fabricate to Allâh falsehood?”
  60. What will you do then, on the Day of Resurrection, when you stand before Allâh for fabricating lies? Indeed, Allâh’s grace abounds in mankind, but most of them are not thankful for His bounty.
  61. We do know that you, the Messenger, have delivered the divine message, no matter whether you are engaged in the ordinary pursuits of life or in any other concern. And no matter how little or how much you recite of the Qur’ân, and no matter what you mankind do, We are witnesses of it. We observe it as you busy yourselves for good or ill. Nor is there anything of an atom’s weight on earth or in heaven that escapes your Creator’s knowledge; there is nothing lesser or larger but it is recorded in an evident Book.
  1. Indeed, those whose hearts believe and obey are they who are safe and secure; they have no ground for alarm, nor will fear or dread fall upon them, nor will they come to grief because of anything they missed in life below (because Allâh will reward them with more and greater things).
  2. They have faithfully believed in all that came from Allâh, submitted to the truth, avoided evil acts, and were pious to Allâh in all their deeds.
  3. The news of glad tidings is hereby announced to them in this world and in the world to come. The Speeches by Allâh are not alterable (meaning that divine assurance of present and future blessing is irrevocable), and this is indeed magnificent triumph.
  4. Therefore, let not the disbelievers’ (vain and unreasonable) talk grieve you, Messenger. Might, honor, and omnipotence all belong to Allâh; He is All-Hearing and All-Knowing.
  5. Indeed, all that exists in the heavens and on earth belongs to Allâh alone. Those disbelievers who associate other deities with Allâh only follow conjectures and false suppositions. They, indeed, lie and hold as powerful that which has no control over itself.
  6. It is He (Allâh) Who designated for you the night to take your natural rest and recuperate, and the day to have clear beholding of things and acquire experience of the activities of human existence. These are signs of Allâh’s omnipotence and authority—phenomena that are appreciated and faithfully recognized by people who hear and listen to the truth.
  7. The disbelievers said, “Allâh has taken a son.” Glory be to Him and extolled are His glorious attributes! He is infinitely Independent and Affluent. To Him alone belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on earth. Do you people have authority of your ugly and false allegation? Do you say against Allâh what you do not know?
  8. Say to the disbelievers, “Those who fabricate against Allâh lies will fare ill; they will go farther and fare worse and never prosper.”
  9. All that affords enjoyment here will not be for long (life here is a scene of evanescent glory). Then back to Us they will return and We will afflict them with the torment laid upon those who disbelieved in Allâh and disobeyed His commands.
  10. Recite to them, Messenger, the news of Nûh (Noah). He said to his people, “My people, if you feel that my station among you and my constant reminding you of Allâh’s message and of your duty to Him are annoying you (and exhausting your patience), I trust in Allâh (and no one can stop me from doing my duty to Him). Therefore, get together with your associates who you claim have authority over you besides Allâh, and decide on a course of action that is not dimmed, and carry it out against me and give me no respite.
  11. “And if you fall deaf and turn away and disregard Allâh’s commands, I do not charge you a price for imparting to you Allâh’s revelations. My reward is only with Allâh, and I have been commanded to be one of the Muslims.”
  12. Yet they charged him with lies, and, consequently, We delivered him by putting him and those who followed him on board ship (the ark) and made them the successors. We drowned those who cried lies to Our divine message and signs. Now look to see what was the fate of those who were warned of impending danger and refused to pay heed.
  13. In succession, We sent other messengers, each carrying a divine message to his people. They presented them with enough evidences to guide them into illumination and enlightenment. But they would not believe in what they had cried lies to earlier. Thus do We stamp upon the hearts of those who thrive on disobedience and transgression.
  14. Subsequently, We sent Mûsâ (Moses) and Hârûn (Aaron) to Pharaoh of Egypt and to his chiefs, to present them with Our divine message imparting intellectual enlightenment and illumination. But they turned indignant and were proud and were a people steeped in crime.
  15. They labeled the divine truth presented to them through Our Messenger Mûsâ—namely, the stick that turned into a snake right before their eyes—as evident sorcery (displayed by a skilled sorcerer).
  16. Mûsâ said, “Do you people call the truth presented to you sorcery? Is this sorcery? But indeed, never will the sorcerers to prosper and be able to withstand the truth.”
  17. They said to Mûsâ, “Did you come to us to turn us away from regarding our fathers’ faith and worship in order that you two be distinguished above all others and exalted grandeur in the land? Never! We do not believe you (nor do we give credence to your message).”
  18. There and then said Pharaoh to his courtiers, “Bring me every knowledgeable sorcerer.”
  19. When all the skilled sorcerers had assembled themselves before Pharaoh, Mûsâ said to them, “Throw forth what you cast.”
  20. And when they cast their devices, Mûsâ said to them, “What you have just come with is simply sorcery that Allâh will make void. Allâh does not make the work of the corruptors of use and benefit.”
  21. By His words Allâh asserts the truth, even though it is hateful to the criminals and they fight it.
  22. The people of Pharaoh knew Mûsâ to be right. Nonetheless, only a few of them believed in the message because of fear of Pharaoh and the chiefs lest they should persecute them. Pharaoh was indeed an exalted ruler in the land of Egypt, who strayed beyond just limits, and in every manner and degree, he was extravagant.
  23. Then Mûsâ said to the believers, “My people, if you have really believed in Allâh and conformed to His will, then in Him you must trust if, indeed, you have submitted yourselves to Allâh and become Muslims.”
  24. There the believers said, “In Allâh we trust.” And they invoked their Lord thus: “O Allâh, uphold us lest we should be lured into the temptation of the unjust people and suffer persecution.
  25. “And deliver us through Your mercy from the disbelieving people.”
  26. There, We revealed to Mûsâ and his brother Hârûn to provide their people with dwellings in the land of Egypt, and We said to them, “Make of your homes a qiblah to turn to at prayer and observe your act of prayer. And announce, Mûsâ, joyful tidings to those who believe.”
  27. Mûsâ prayed, “O Allâh, You have graced Pharaoh and his chiefs with impressive material grandeur, and You gave them riches and abundant valuable possessions, which induced them to make people stray from Your path of righteousness. O Allâh, reduce their riches to obliteration and deafen their hearts to the end that they do not believe in You until they have seen the painful torment laid upon the damned.”
  28. And there, Allâh said, “Mûsâ, the prayer of you and your brother has been granted. Just keep to the way of righteousness and do not follow the way of those who are lacking knowledge of the clear truth.”
  29. We led the Children of Isrâ’îl across the sea, whereupon Pharaoh and his hosts followed them inequitably and aggressively. Then the seawater overwhelmed them in abundance and Pharaoh realized that he was drowning. There and then he uttered his regrets and vain repentance and said, “Now do I realize that there is no god but Him Who has been believed in by the Children of Isrâ’îl, and I am one of the Muslims.”
  30. Allâh said, “Now (that you are besieged by horror and caught in the jaws of death you are willing to submit), when as yet you have withheld obedience and refused to conform to My will, and you are of the corruptors.
  31. “Today We deliver only your body so as to serve as a deterrent to your followers and successors and to be a sign of Allâh’s omnipotence and authority, albeit many people are, indeed, heedless of Our signs.”
  32. We confirmed the Children of Isrâ’îl and provided them with good locations and provided them with wholesome things. Yet they only set themselves at variance after they had received divine knowledge and illumination. But your Lord (Allâh) will judge them on the Day of Judgment on the strained points upon which they used to differ.
  33. If you, Muhammad, or any of your followers are in doubt of what has been inspired to you, then you may ask those who have been reading the Book before you and interpreting it with understanding of what it meant. The truth has already come to you from your Lord. Therefore, do not let their assertion of what is false make you a doubtful and anxious wrangler.
  34. Nor should you or anyone of those who followed you be among those who cry lie to Allâh’s revelations and signs lest you be one of those who are losers.
  35. Indeed, those whose thoughts thrived on disobedience have verified Allâh’s divine preordination that they do not believe.”
  36. They just would not believe even if they were presented with every sign clearly betokening Allâh’s omnipotence and authority until they meet face to face with the painful torment Allâh lays upon the damned.
  37. Did any town believe in Allâh so that the people were induced to piety and profited by it? None did, except the people of Yûnus (Jonah), who, no sooner did they believe in Allâh, than they were the recipients of His mercy. We cancelled their misfortunes that drew upon them worldly disgrace and shame. And We granted them comfort and enjoyment and all Allâh’s blessings and enjoyment for a while.
  38. If Allâh had decided, Muhammad, He would have induced all people on earth to conform to His will and to His system of faith and worship. Would you then compel mankind to be believers?
  39. No self believes in Allâh but by His permission, and Allâh lays the charge to those who have drawn His abomination on themselves. They are characterized by dullness of consideration.
  40. Say to the disbelievers, “Look into all that is in the heavens and on earth, all indicating an All-Powerful Maker!” But what will it avail a man, and what good do the signs and the warnings do to people who simply refuse to believe?
  41. Do they expect but the burdensome days, the like of those eventful days exhaustive to their predecessors? Say to them, “You just await the justice prepared above in Heaven. I will await it, too.”
  42. There and then We will deliver from peril Our messengers, together with those who believed. Thus it is truly incumbent on Us to save the believers.
  43. Say to them, Messenger, “O you mankind, if you are in doubt of the religion I was sent with, you had better realize that I do not conform to worshiping the idols that you worship apart from Allâh, but I do worship only Allâh, Who alone controls your destiny and takes your selves (in death). And I have been commanded to be among those who believe in Him.”
  44. O Messenger and believers, set your face and rest your eyes sincerely upon Allâh, and your heart unswervingly on religion with sincere feelings and actions, and never be one of these who associate other deities with Allâh.
  45. And do not invoke besides Allâh what will not profit you or harm you, for if you do, you will then be one of those who are unjust wrongdoers.
  46. O Messenger, you must realize that should Allâh let an adversity befall you, no one will be able to lift it but Him. And if He mercifully lets charity fall on you, no one can obstruct His favor with which He graces whom He wills among His servants. And He is Oft-Forgiving and Ever-Merciful.
  47. Say to them, Muhammad, “O you people, now that the truth has come to you from your Lord (Allâh), he who chooses to follow the path of guidance will only profit himself, and he who chooses to stray and loses himself in the maze of error will only harm himself. And I am not a constant trustee over you.”
  48. O Messenger, follow all that is revealed to you and exercise patience until Allâh pronounces His judgment, and He is the most charitable of judges.

SÛRAH 11

HÛD

The Prophet Hûd

Revealed at Makkah

The sûrah starts by speaking about Wisdom in the Qur’ân and telling the people to worship Allâh alone. It then warns and gives good news. Then it declares Allâh’s omnipotence and lordship, the people’s attitudes toward receiving Allâh’s blessings and afflictions, the high rank of the Qur’ân and the challenge it offers, the disbelievers’ unjustified disbelief in it, and the reward for believers.

Allâh narrates the stories of the prophets, their peoples’ disputation with them, the affliction of the disbelievers, and the rescue of the believers. The story of Nûh (Noah) is told in more detail here than in Sûrah Yûnus. The present sûrah states the mentality and obstinacy of the disbelievers and how they are afflicted with the wrath of Allâh. Following the story of Nûh, Allâh mentions the story of the `Âd people with Prophet Hûd and the affliction laid on the disbelievers despite their might and strength. Likewise, Allâh mentions the story of His Prophet Sâlih with the Thamûd, and the stories of Prophets Ibrâhîm (Abraham), Lût (Lot), and Shu`ayb. Then Allâh mentions the moral lessons in these truthful stories. He concludes the sûrah by calling upon the believers to work and to await reward. He mentions His perfect knowledge and orders the believers to believe in Him.

In the Name of Allâh,

               The All-Merciful, The Ever-Merciful            

  1. A (alif). L (lâm). R (). The sûrah opens with these letters from the Arabic alphabet to draw attention to the miracle of the Qur’ân, which, though written in the people’s tongue, cannot be emulated. It is a Book whose verses are exact and precise, expressed in proper words in their proper places. It distinctly expresses all that is meant, leaving nothing merely implied, and it expounds all the laws decreed by Allâh, The All-Wise and All-Knowing.
  2. O Messenger, instruct the people thus: “Never worship anyone but Allâh. I am a warner by Him to give you cautionary advice in case you disbelieve and to announce to you joyful tidings if you should believe in Allâh and obey Him.
  3. “And you had better invoke Allâh for forgiveness and repent to Him for the way you conduct yourselves in life. He will make you enjoy good things in life up to a predetermined point of time. In the Hereafter, He will bestow on everyone of merit His divine favor that is commensurate with his merits.” And if they should turn a deaf ear, then say to them, “I only fear for you punishment on an unbearably Momentous Day when all people will be gathered.”
  4. To Allâh will all of you return when He resurrects you from your graves to judge you, and He is indeed All-Determiner for all things.
  5. They bend their chests to hide, as it were, their thoughts and feelings from Allâh. Do they not realize that even when they cover themselves, taking to their beds, and enshroud themselves in the veil of night, Allâh knows all what their hearts store of thoughts and feelings, and all that they suggest secretly to themselves? He is Well Acquainted with all that they utter loudly and with what they whisper below their breath! Indeed Allâh is All-Knowing of all private thoughts and feelings in the hearts.
  6. There is not one single creature on earth but derives its sustenance from Allâh, Who knows its settled habitation and the duration of its life span. He also knows the site of its future demise. All such events are recorded in Evident Book.
  7. Allâh created the heavens and the earth and brought them into existence in six days (determined by His own unit of time). His throne was then set over the water. He created the universe and you people as a part of it in order to determine which of you performs the better deed, and whether his work is imprinted with wisdom and piety. Yet when you, Muhammad, say to the disbelievers that they will rise again on the Last Day after they had been dead and buried, they will say, “This is nothing but sheer sorcery.”
  8. And if We in all wisdom delay their torment to a determined point of time (the Day of Resurrection), giving them a chance to repent, they will say, “What keeps it back?” Indeed, the Day the punishment falls to their lot, no expedient will ever avert it, and they will be beset on all sides by the same things they mocked.
  9. And if We should extend to man Our mercy and make him taste Our benediction and then We justly decide to withhold it, he nurses despair, and in disbelief he shows his worst side.
  10. And if We grace him with a favor following a touch of misfortune, he says, “Now I have been freed of misfortunes,” and he rejoices exceedingly. And he boasts the event and exalts himself unduly and neglects to thank Allâh.
  11. Such an attitude is never adopted by those who exercise patience and do righteous deeds in times of joy and of affliction. Such persons are the recipients of Allâh’s forgiveness and deserve a great reward.
  12. O Prophet, you seem inclined to leave the recital of a part of what is revealed to you, the part that straitens your breast, because it is not to the disbelievers’ liking, when they say, “If only a treasure were sent down to him from Heaven or an angel to accompany him, we may be induced to recognize his mission.” You must realize that you are only a warner, and Allâh is the Trustee of everything.
  13. If they say “He has forged it,” say to them, “So produce ten forged sûrahs, each referring to a different aspect of the same thought, and call on any people and jinn besides Allâh whom you can possibly engage to venture upon this undertaking, if indeed you are declaring the truth.”
  14. And if they do not respond and fail to fulfill such an undertaking, then you people must know that the Qur’ân has indeed sent down from Allâh and has been revealed by His authority, and there is no god but Him. Therefore, are you disbelievers going to conform to Islâm (if indeed you are seeking the truth)?
  15. Those who are concerned only with the pleasures of this life and its mundane things may rest assured that We will apportion to them in full what is due to them, and they will not be unjustly depreciated.
  16. But such persons are those who will be denied Allâh’s mercy in the Hereafter, and Hell is where they will make abode. Their hopes will be doomed to frustration and their deeds to worthlessness; and vain, indeed, and useless will be all their worldly deeds.
  17. Do they compare the person whose innermost thoughts and being are floodlit with divine enlightenment and who is witnessed by the Qur’ân, which features Providence as the guide, and before the Qur’ân by the Book of Mûsâ (Moses), which features Allâh’s guidance and mercy—do they compare him with one who is lost in the maze of error? The former and his like acknowledge the divine nature of the Qur’ân; whereas the latter, together with those who confederate against the truth and deny the Qur’ân, is promised Hell, which is the abode of the damned on the Day of Resurrection. Therefore, Prophet, do not let the disbelievers’ evil disposition influence your conduct and the conduct of those who believe. The Qur’ân is the divine truth manifest from your Lord, but most people do not believe.
  18. And who is more unjust than he who fabricates a lie against Allâh? These and their like will be assembled before Allâh on the Day of Judgment, and there and then they will be reprimanded by the witnesses (the angels, the messengers, and the pious people): “These are they who ascribed to Allâh all the lies they could devise; therefore, the curse of Allâh will be on those who were unjust.
  19. “[Those who] stood in the way to prevent Allâh’s spirit of truth from guiding people, making it their aim to pervert the truth and crook the path of righteousness to their own ends; and they disbelieve in the truth of the Hereafter.”
  20. These disbelievers are not ever in a position to escape His punishment. Nor do they have besides Him protectors to defend them. Their punishment will be doubled in the train of their obstinacy against divine laws, and their struggle to obstruct Allâh’s path of righteousness, and their persistence in closing their hearts and ears to Allâh’s word.
  21. These are they who have not gained a thing by worshiping other than Allâh, and who have been forsaken and renounced by those who they presumed shared Allâh’s divine attributes with Him and who failed their expectation.
  22. It is no wonder that they will be great losers in the Hereafter.
  23. Indeed, those who believe in Allâh and His messengers and did righteous deeds, and whose innermost thoughts and being have complied with the will of Allâh, are they whom Allâh will make the inmates of Paradise, wherein they will live in eternity.
  24. The example of the two parties (those believers in Allâh and those against Him) is like the two partisans: the adherent to falsehood who is blind and deaf, and the adherent to the truth who lifts to Allâh his inward sight and opens his heart’s ears to admonition. Are they equal or do they deserve the same fate? Can you people not consider this matter?
  25. We sent Nûh (Noah) to his people with a divine message. He said to them, “My people, I give you a warning notice with regard to your system of faith (and worship, and show you the path of safety).
  26. “You must not worship any but Allâh. If you turn a deaf ear, then I fear for you an immense torment on a Momentous Day.”
  27. But those disbelieving dignitaries among his people said to him, “It is evident that you are no more than a mortal like the rest of us, and we do not see that you have not been followed by any but the abject among us. Nor do we see that you people are merited with such a distinguishing attribute; to the contrary, we think you are liars.”
  28. h said, “My people, pause here and think: What if Allâh has sent me supported by clear evidence from Him and has extended to me His mercy and message, to which you are blind? Shall we impose on you such spiritual enlightenment when you hate it?
  29. “My people, I do not charge you wealth for what I convey to you of Allâh’s divine message. The reward for divine service rests only in the hands of Allâh. Nor can I dismiss those who believe in Allâh (on account of your despicable opinion of them). They will meet with Allâh on the Day of Judgment. But then I can see that you people are indeed ignorant.
  30. “Can you people tell me who will make me avert Allâh’s punishment if I dare to dismiss them? Can you not reflect and remember that?
  31. “I do not claim to possess the treasuries of Allâh, nor do I indulge in prophecy or claim to foretell future events, nor am I aware of the unseen, nor do I say to you I am an angel, nor do I say to you that those whom you view with contempt will be denied Allâh’s blessings. Allâh alone knows best their innermost thoughts and feelings. If I do this, then I am indeed among the unjust to themselves and to others.”
  32. But they said to him, “O Nûh, you have argued to persuade us to believe in you. In fact, you have argued much until we felt bored. Bring down the promised torment if you are, indeed, declaring the truth.”
  33. h said to them, “But it is Allâh Who causes His torment to alight upon you if He wills, and you will never be able to escape His torment.
  34. “Nor will my admonition profit you simply because I wish you good if Allâh should decide to lead you in the wrong in the train of your ill-natured hearts. He is your Lord, and back to Him all of you will inevitably return on the Day of Resurrection when you will be judged for what you have been doing.”
  35. Or do they (the Quraysh) say about you, Muhammad, “He has forged a long tale!” Say to them, “If I have forged what I am conveying to you to make it seem divine, then I am responsible for my falsehood, which is a grave crime, and I am innocent of all your wrong actions that render you criminal in Allâh’s sight.”
  36. It was revealed to Nûh: “No more of your people besides those who have already believed in the truth of your mission will conform to Allâh’s will; therefore, do not be grieved at heart for what they have been doing to you by holding you a liar and harming you (because We will punish them soon).
  37. “Build the ark under Our supervision and Our revelation so that We might save you by Our Providence, and do not plead with Me for those who are wrongdoers; I made it their destiny for them to be destroyed by drowning.”
  38. As Nûh was building the ark, he was mocked at, as often as leading disbelievers went by. But he said to them, “If you mock at us, we will mock at you, as you mock now.
  39. “In the end you will know who is destined to receive the torment that will humiliate him and make him suffer the everlasting punishment.”
  40. When Our command came to pass and the water bubbled up and rose in billows and erupted through the earth’s surface inundating the land, We said to him, “Carry with you on board ship a pair, a male and a female, of every kind of living creature together with your family, except those against whom Allâh has already given His word, and carry those who believe among your people, who are but some few.”
  41. h said to those of his people whom he was about to carry, “Go on board ship and rest assured of Allâh’s mercy. In the name of Allâh will be its free and secure floatation and when it drops anchor. Allâh is indeed Oft-Forgiving and Ever-Merciful.”
  42. The ark sailed through waves rising in billows and running mountain high. There and then Nûh called to his son, who was in isolation, and said to him, “My son, come with us on board ship and do not stay behind with the disbelievers who disobeyed Allâh.”
  43. The son replied (to his remorseful father), “I will have recourse to a mountain for shelter. It will protect me from the overflowing water.” “My son,” said Nh, “today neither a mountain nor anything else will avail you against Allâh’s command except His mercy.” There, the abundant flow of water, rising in billows, intervened between them, and the son was among those destined to drown.
  44. There and then a divine command was pronounced to the earth: “Engulf, O earth, your water and cease, O heaven, your rainfall.” And the water subsided and the ark rested securely upon Mount Jûdî, and then it was said, “Away with those unjust wrongdoers!”
  45. There and then Nûh prayed to His Lord, “O Allâh my Creator, my son is an integral part of me and my family and You promised to save my family. Your promise is the truth, and You are the fairest of judges because You are All-Knowing and All-Wise.”
  46. “He is not a part of your family,” said Allâh. “By his disbelief, the relation between you and him is severed, and your son was not pious. Your plea on behalf of your son is not an act of wisdom and piety; therefore, do not invoke Me for something whose consequence you do not know. I exhort you not to be one of those in want of intellect.”
  47. h said, “O Allâh, my Creator and Lord, I seek refuge in your counter the consequence accruing from an invocation with a result I do not know; and unless You forgive me and have mercy on me, I will inevitably be one of the losers.”
  48. He was told, “Disembark, Nûh, and go downhill safe and secure with peace and security proceeding from Us and with blessings upon you and your followers and upon their descendants who conform to Our will and upon succeeding generations. Some We will give enjoyment and We will put to the torment laid upon the damned.”
  49. This narrative that We revealed to you, Prophet, is one of facts and events belonging to the unseen and the unknown. Neither you nor your people knew it before in detail. Therefore, be patient and realize that the good and happy outcome will fall to those who entertain the profound fear of Allâh’s torment and who do pious deeds.
  50. Again, We sent to the people of `Âd their brother, the Messenger Hûd, who said to them, “O my people, worship Allâh alone; you have no god but Him. You are indeed a people who forge lies against Allâh (by claiming that He has partners who deserve to be worshiped so that they may be intercessors for you before Allâh).”
  51. He added, “My people, I do not charge you a reward for the divine message I convey to you; the reward for divine service is from Him Who created me. Can you not reflect?
  52. “My people, invoke Allâh your Creator’s forgiveness, and humbly repent to Him. He will pour down upon you rain and blessings, making you a people of prosperity. He will add to your strength to make you stronger in influence and authority that you may have great controlling power over things. Do not fall deaf nor lose yourselves in a maze, precipitating your crime that will cause your destruction.”

53 Nonetheless, they said to him, “O Hûd, you never presented to us clear evidence evincing the truth of your call, and we will not forsake our gods at your word, and we do not give credence to your message.

  1. “We can only say that some of our gods must have gripped you with a touch of demonic illusions.” But Hûd said to them, “Allâh is my witness, and so are you, that I am absolutely innocent of those whom you associate with Him.
  2. “I am quit, also, of all those whom you invoke besides Allâh. Therefore, I defy you all, you and your gods, to scheme against me and to do all you can and give me no respite.
  3. “In Allâh, my Lord and yours, do I trust; there is not a being but He grasps it by the forelock; He is the controlling power over everything. Indeed, Allâh stands straight for the Path of justice and righteousness.”
  4. “Should they turn a deaf ear,” said Allâh, “then say to them, ‘I have conveyed to you, my people, the divine message entrusted to me, and you must realize that Allâh is indeed capable of replacing you by others, and never can you harm or frustrate Him. Allâh is indeed All-Vigilant preserving everything.’”
  5. When Our command came to pass, We rescued Hûd, together with those who believed with him (from the violent storm)—an act of mercy vouchsafed by Us to save them from a harsh torment.
  6. These were the people of `Âd who just would not bow their hearts’ ears to the divine revelations to all His messengers, by disobeying Hûd and by adhering to the same evil line of conduct of every stubborn one who plays the stubborn tyrant.
  7. Consequently, they were followed by a curse from Allâh all their life, and in the Hereafter. Indeed, the people of `Âd disobeyed Allâh and their hearts dared rise defiant against Him; therefore, away from existence were they put.
  8. We sent also to the people of Thamûd their brother, the Messenger Sâlih, who said to them, “O my people, worship Allâh alone; you have no god but Him. He brought you forth from the earth and made it the world you settle in. Therefore, invoke His forgiveness and humbly repent to Him. Allâh is, indeed, in the immediate proximity of everything, and He responds to invocation.”
  9. But they said to him, “Sâlih, you have been thus far the hope that sprang in our breasts. Do you forbid us the faith and worship adopted by our fathers? Indeed, we doubt the validity of what you urge us to do and we think it raises suspicion.”
  10. There Sâlih said, “My people, pause here and think: what if Allâh has enlightened my innermost being and imparted to me knowledge, and wisdom, and extended His mercy to me? Then, how can I neglect the duty of conveying His message to the people? This will be disobedience. If I disobey Allâh, who then can vindicate me from His punishment? You people are simply trying to lead me into error and make me lose my way to Allâh’s mercy.”
  11. He added, “My people, this is the she-camel of Allâh, a distinct sign of the truth of my mission. Let her graze upon the grassland of Allâh and do not lay hands on her or meddle with her to harm her lest you would be overtaken by a dire torment before long.”
  12. But still they hamstrung, and there Sâlih said to them, “You have only three days to enjoy after the way you conduct yourselves in life. This, is indeed, an irrevocable promise not belied.”
  13. When Our Command came to pass, We delivered Sâlih and those who acknowledged Allâh’s message, an act of mercy vouchsafed by Us to save them from the shame and the disgrace incurred on that momentous day. Allâh, your Lord is indeed All-Strong and All-Mighty.
  14. Direful was the one awful cry from heaven; it stirred up a merciless blast that overtook the wrongdoers. There, they were destroyed, cowering on their faces under the ruins of their demolished houses.
  15. Devastating was the blast and irretrievable was the disaster so that the Thamûd looked as if they had never dwelt nor flourished where they perished. Indeed, the Thamûd had disbelieved in Allâh, and their hearts dared rise defiant against Him; therefore the Thamûd were put away from existence.
  16. Once Our messengers—disguised angels—visited Ibrâhîm (Abraham) and told him the good news that he would have a son. They greeted him with the expression of good will, “Peace,” which he returned to assure them they were welcome. Then he placed before them a roasted fatted calf.
  17. But when he noticed that they did not stretch out their hands to eat, he recoiled apprehensive and fearful. They calmed him and said to him, “Do not be afraid. We have been sent to those people of Lût (Lot).”
  18. His wife, standing near, overheard what was said and laughed (for the safety of Lût, her husband’s nephew). And there We announced to her the good news of a son, Ishâq (Isaac), to be followed by a grandson, Ya`qûb (Jacob).
  19. There and then she exclaimed, “Woe to me! Will I give birth to a child at my old age and my husband is an old man! This, indeed, is wonderful!”
  20. “Do you wonder,” said the angels, “at the divine command from Allâh? Allâh’s mercy and blessings be upon you and may all grace be made to abound in you people of the house of prophethood (It is no wonder that He endows you with what He does not endow to others). Allâh is, indeed, worthy of all praise. He is Ever-Glorious, Ever-Generous, and Ever-Giving.”
  21. Then when Ibrâhîm’s dread was gone and his mind was calm and joyful with the good news, he began to argue with Our messengers for the people of Lût, pleading with Us on their behalf.
  22. Forbearance was indeed an attribute of Ibrâhîm, who constantly implored Allâh with plaintive entreaties and lifted to Him his penitence so that He might revoke the punishment of the people of Lût with the hope that they would return to Allâh.
  23. But the angels told him, “Do not envelop yourself, Ibrâhîm, within the folds of this matter, for the Command of your Lord has come; they are destined to suffer a condign torment that no expedient can avert.”
  24. When Our angels—disguised as youths—went to Lût, he was vexed and straitened on account of his expectation that his perverse people would act sinfully in such a circumstance, and he did not know what to do. He said, “This is, indeed, a distressful day.”
  25. His people went to him rushing and intending to precipitate the immoral act that they had long been practicing before. Lût said to them, “These are my daughters, if you wish to join them in wedlock. This will be virtuous and you will be acting with moral righteousness. Be pious to Allâh and shame me not before my guests; is there no one among you characterized by right guidance and prudence?”
  26. They said to him, “You know very well that we do not have the right to claim your daughters nor do we need them. You know quite well what we want.”
  27. t said, “If only I could overpower you or have a powerful support to lean on!”
  28. There and then the angels declared their identity and said to Lût, “We are Allâh’s messengers. Do not grieve at heart. They cannot get to harm you. Just leave town together with your family at the late hours of the night, and make sure that none of you turns to look back in the direction from which you came so that he may not see the condign punishment and lest he should be harmed by it. But not your wife, who is destined to be afflicted by the same fate decreed for the others. The morning is appointed time. Is the morning not near?”
  29. When Our Command came to pass, We turned those towns— Sodom and Gomorrah—upside down and showered them with tiered brimstones of baked clay.
  30. A punishment marked from your Lord, and it is not far from the unjust wrongdoers among your people.
  31. We sent to the Madyan people their brother, the Messenger Shu`ayb, who said to them, “My people, worship Allâh alone; you have no god but Him. You must not fraudulently scant the measure and the weight. I see that you are people of charitable goodness, and I do fear for you the torment coming on a momentous day when all the guilty will be encompassed and there is no escape.
  32. “My people, I advise you to dispense the measure and the weight equitably to the full and not to scant people’s goods and chattels, nor devalue what is valuable, be it goods or possessions, nor perpetrate or make corruption on earth.
  33. “The legitimate profits you people gain lawfully and blessed by Allâh are but an advantage to your cause if indeed you are believers and avoid that which He has prohibited to you. But you must remember, I am not here to guard over your deeds.”
  34. They said to him mockingly, “O Shu`ayb, do your prayers enjoin you to urge us to renounce Our fathers’ worship, or do you tell us that we must not use our money as we will? But we have always thought you were forbearing, right-guided!
  35. There Shu`ayb said to them, “My people, tell me: What if Allâh has enlightened my innermost being and imparted to me knowledge, wisdom, and made His grace and provision abound in me? I want you to realize that I do not move you to this divine course of action and forbid you to adopt your dishonest system of trading and its ill-gotten gains. My aim is only reform; I wish to do the best I can until the pious principle governs your thoughts and you abandon wrongdoing. My successful attainment of the desired end rests with Allâh; in Him I trust and to Him I refer and return penitent.
  36. “My people, do not let our diversity of opinion and purpose incite you to sink deeper lest you should be destined to suffer the same affliction suffered by the people of Nûh (Noah) or the people of Hûd or the people of Sâlih; nor are the people of Lût far off from you in time or distance.
  37. “And invoke Allâh for forgiveness and repent to Him of the way you conduct yourselves in life. Allâh is indeed Ever-Merciful, Most-Affectionate, Who comforts whom He sees in distress.”
  38. They said to him, “O Shu`ayb, we can hardly comprehend much of your speech. In fact, we see that among us you are but a weak man and not at all capable of defending yourself or persuading us. Were it not for your family, we would have pelted you with stones, and you are not that mighty to prevail against us.”
  39. “My people,” said Shu`ayb, “is my clan more esteemed in your sight than Allâh, Whom you have cast behind your backs? Indeed, Allâh is All-Knowing Encompassing all that you do.”
  40. Shu`ayb continued, “My people, you may pursue what you are capable of doing, but I am steering my course of action (which is the reverse of yours). And you will soon come to know who will be befallen with a disgracing torment and who is a liar that intentionally asserts falsehood. You just be on the watch for the justice prepared above in Heaven, and I will also be on the watch.”
  41. When Our command came to pass, We delivered Shu`ayb together with those who believed with him, an act of mercy vouchsafed by Us to whom We bless. And how direful was the shout from heaven, stirring up a merciless blast that overtook the wrongdoers. They were destroyed and were cowering on their faces under the ruins of their demolished houses.
  42. Devastating was the blast and irretrievable was the disaster so that the Madyan looked as if they had never dwelt or flourished where they perished. Therefore the Madyan were put away from existence, just as the Thamûd were put away.
  43. We sent Mûsâ (Moses) well equipped with signs to demonstrate his truthfulness and delegated evident authority.
  44. We sent Mûsâ to Pharaoh and his chiefs, but Pharaoh disbelieved in him and ordered his people to follow him in disbelief. And they followed Pharaoh, whose command was not following right-guidance.
  45. And as Pharaoh led his people in life below to the maze of error, he will lead them to Hell-fire in the Hereafter; miserable indeed is the place they are herded to (where they will drink boiling water to quench their thirst, but it will tear their stomachs apart instead).
  46. Consequently, they were followed by a curse from Allâh all their life, a curse that will be worse in the Hereafter. And miserable indeed are the maledictions poured upon those who in life have drawn Allâh’s wrath upon themselves; such a combination is emblematic of a malignant fate.
  47. Such a historic account of the towns that We destroyed is a narrative of facts and events We relate to you, O Prophet. Some of them are still standing as evidence, and others have been mowed down.
  48. Allâh never did injustice to them by destroying them, but it was they who imprudently did injustice to themselves by disbelief and idolatry. Nor did their gods that they invoked besides Allâh avail them anything, nor did they help them when the command of Allâh came to pass. To the contrary, they added to their detriment.
  49. Thus much is the punishment of Allâh when He overtakes the towns whose inhabitants are wrongdoers, as He did to the people of Nûh, `Âd, Thamûd, and others. Allâh’s act of overthrowing the wicked is, indeed, painful, and terrifying to the unjust.
  50. Indeed, the narrative of these events represents a sermon to those who are certain of resurrection and fear convincing evidence of Allâh’s inevitable punishment on the Day of Judgment, the Day when all will assemble themselves before Allâh for reckoning and will be witnessed by angels and people.
  51. The Day We delay but to a predetermined point of time. (No matter how long it is in the sight of people, it is short to Allâh.)
  52. And when this Day comes, trembling will be so great that no one will speak except at Allâh’s permission. Some (the disbelievers) will be wretched, and some (the believes) will be exceedingly happy.
  53. As for those sorely wretched, the end of their journey is Hell, where they make abode, wherein they are groaning and sighing.
  54. They will remain within as long as the heavens and the earth last, except as Allâh wills. Allâh does what He wills.
  55. But those whom Allâh has graced will instantly make abode in Paradise, wherein they will have eternity, except as your Lord wills. Allâh’s bestowal is continuous and unceasing.
  56. Therefore, do not wrangle, Prophet, about the evil outcome of the system of faith and worship the idolaters follow. They follow the same system their fathers adopted before. We will apportion to them their share of punishment (commensurate with their evil deeds), a punishment that will not be diminished.
  57. The same course of action was adopted when We gave Mûsâ the Tawrâh, and his people differed about it. And had it not been for Allâh’s word proclaimed beforehand to put punishment in respite, their differences would have decided. Those people were as doubtful and suspicious of the Tawrâh (as your people, Muhammad, are of the Qur’ân).
  58. Nonetheless, Allâh will requite both parties with what is commensurate with their deeds. He is All-Knowing, indeed, of all their deeds, good and bad.
  59. Therefore, Muhammad, just follow—together with those who believe—the path of life and action in the manner ordained by Allâh, so as to be people of singular piety, righteousness, and virtue. But do not carry things to excess nor transgress. He is Ever-Seeing of all your deeds.
  60. Nor should your hearts be inclined in the least to follow the unjust lest you deserve punishment by the Fire. And besides Allâh you have no patrons or anyone to help you against your enemies.
  61. Observe your act of prayer at both ends of the day and at the different hours of the night for pious and virtuous deeds cancel evil deeds. This is simply a reminder for those who keep remembering Allâh.
  62. Be patient, Prophet, and remember that Allâh does not waste the rewards that people are entitled to reap from deeds of wisdom and piety.
  63. If only there had been among the preceding unjust generations that We destroyed, a class of persons influential enough to warn people against corruption and to forbid mischief on earth and prohibit perversion as did the few of them whom We saved. But the unjust pursued pleasure and lusted after the mundane luxury they were entangled with and were steeped in crime.
  64. Nor would Allâh unjustly cause the towns to perish when truth governs the thoughts of their inhabitants and they are righteous.
  65. And if Allâh had willed, He would have made mankind one single nation conforming to one religion. Nonetheless, their differences would have induced them to be at variance about everything, even belief in Allâh, His angels, His messengers, and the Last Day.
  66. But not those whom Allâh has graced with His mercy. In this manner of freedom of choice and of thinking He created mankind. Thus has the word of Allâh answered the purpose and complied with His decree: “I will fill Hell with jinn together with people (who were wrongdoers).”
  67. We relate to you, Prophet, these various narratives of the messengers who were sent before you, representing their determined effort under difficulties to accomplish the necessary end. We narrate them to you to confirm your heart-sight and strengthen it in purpose and action. In the recital of these facts, you will find, Prophet, narratives imbued with divine grace, imparting the truth, exhorting and reminding those who believe and those who are inclined to believe.
  68. Say, Prophet, to those disbelievers, “You may exert your utmost effort to fight Islâm and harm the believers, but we are steering our course of action and are steadfast in it.
  69. “And await that which you anticipate for us; we will also await Allâh’s pledge of success of the call and its triumph over its enemies.”
  70. To Allâh alone belongs the knowledge of all that is unseen in the heavens and the earth, and to Him are submitted all matters and all affairs (for consideration, decision, and execution). Therefore, worship Him alone and put your trust in Him and fear no one but Him. He is never heedless of all that you believers and disbelievers do, and He will reward everyone with what he deserves in this world and in the Hereafter.

SÛRAH 12

YÛSUF

Joseph

Revealed at Makkah

This sûrah narrates the story of Prophet Yûsuf (Joseph). Allâh refers to it as the fairest of stories and says that the Prophet Muhammad did not know it before it was revealed to him. At the end of the story, Allâh calls to the Prophet’s attention that this is one of the stories of the unseen. The Prophet was not with Yûsuf’s brothers when they plotted evil for their brother. Allâh says that obstinacy and envy compel most people to be disbelievers. The Prophet does not seek to gain from conveying the message; rather, he conveys the Qur’ân to the people as a guidance and remembrance for all of mankind.

At the end of the sûrah, Allâh points out the messengers whose stories He has revealed, as well as the attitudes of their nations toward them and their final vindication over the criminal disbelievers. Allâh assures that in the stories of these prophets there are morals for people who comprehend and that the Qur’ân is not a forgery or falsely attributed to Allâh. It is, rather, the truth and the Book that bears witness to the preceding heavenly Books, and the guidance and mercy to people who ponder, apprehend, and believe.

The striking characteristic of this sûrah is that it narrates the story of Yûsuf and shows the prevalence of envy in the family when amity was shown to some of them. The envy of Ya`qûb’s (Jacob’s) sons for their brother enticed them to throw him into a well, but Allâh preserved him from their cunning. Allâh also kept Yûsuf away from the seduction of the court official’s wife when he became a youth there. Allâh gave him mastery over the land and made him the resort of those who had conspired against him. Thus is His way with His prophets and those who follow Him loyally. He vindicates them over their enemies and gives them command over the land as long as they stick to what is right and believe in Him and hold fast to His path.

 

In the Name of Allâh,

              The All-Merciful, The Ever-Merciful             

  1. A (alif). L (lâm). R (). The sûrah opens with these letters from the Arabic alphabet to draw attention to the miracle of the Qur’ân, which, though written in the people’s tongue, cannot be emulated. These are divinely revealed verses flowing with the evident precision and grace that are symbolic of the Book (the Qur’ân).
  2. It is a Book We have sent down in Arabic so that you Arabs may, it is hoped, comprehend it and learn it by heart and convey it to people.
  3. We narrate to you, Prophet, a most engaging of narratives. We reveal it to you, this Qur’ân, notwithstanding, that before it you were unmindful of divine knowledge, true events, and illumination and enlightenment.
  4. Once Yûsuf (Joseph) said to his father Ya`qûb (Jacob), “O my father, I saw in my sleep eleven planets, the sun, and the moon prostrating to me.”
  5. His father said to him, “My son, do not relate your vision to your brothers lest they, driven by envy, plot against you and lure you into danger. They may fall into the hands of Satan, who is indeed an avowed enemy to man.”
  6. He continued, “Thus Allâh will select you and teach to you the knowledge of interpreting visions (and what they prefigure of future events). He perfécts His favor and munificence to you and to the progeny of Ya`qûb as much as He perfécted all grace in your grandfathers Ibrâhîm (Abraham) and Ishâq (Isaac) before. Allâh is indeed All-Knowing and All-Wise.
  7. Indeed, there is in the story of Yûsuf and his brothers an instructive example, a warning, and signs for those who are seeking knowledge.
  8. Conspiring against him, the brothers said, “Yûsuf and his (full) brother, Benjamin, are indeed closer to our father’s love than we are. Our father stands, indeed, manifest of error.”
  9. They said, “Kill Yûsuf or take him away to some distant land, for then your father would favor you (and then you stand repentant to Allâh of your evil deed and apologetic to your father, who will accept your apology).”
  10. But one of them said, “Do not kill Yûsuf, for such an act will be a grave crime. Throw him down the well where he will be out of sight, and there, he will be picked up by some travelers or others, if you have indeed decided to get rid of him.”
  11. And so they asked their father, “Our father, why don’t you trust us for the care of Yûsuf? We assure you that we are kind advisers to him, and wish him goodness and guide him to it.
  12. “Send him with us tomorrow to frolic and to take part in games, and we will take care of him (and see that he is not exposed to danger).”
  13. It grieves me at heart to part with him,” said the father, “and I am afraid lest the boy be devoured by a wolf at a moment when you are heedless of him.”
  14. “If this be true,” they said, “and the wolf were to devour him when we are a collective mass of men, then we would be losers.”

15 And they took him and went away. They were united in thought and placed him at the bottom of the well. There and then We revealed to Yûsuf thus: “You will one day inform them of the evil they committed against you at a time when they are unaware of you.”

  1. And they came back home to their father at eventide weeping (their fill).
  2. They said to him, “Our father, we went racing with each other, leaving Yûsuf to take care of our things, and there, standing alone, he was eaten by the wolf. But you do not believe us, although we are telling the truth.”
  3. They brought back his garment stained with false blood. Their father said, “Indeed your selves have enticed you to do something grave. In becoming patience I seek help in Allâh to bear with composure what you have just described.”
  4. There came a caravan of merchants traveling to Egypt. They sent on their water purveyor (the harbinger), who found a well. He let down his bucket to draw water. But as he hauled up the bucket, he did not find water but a boy clinging to the rope and the bucket instead. He announced with joy the good news of hauling up a boy, and they secretly kept him in their merchandise. And Allâh was All-Knower of what they were doing.
  5. They sold him (to a slave dealer) for a paltry price amounting to a small number of silver coins, and they esteemed him lightly had had no interest in him lest his family should catch them, recognize him, and take him away from them.
  6. The man who bought him said to his wife, “Treat him kindly and with honor and respect to make him enjoy his stay. He may prove useful to us or we may adopt him as a son.” Thus We established him firmly in the land, so that We could impart to him the knowledge of interpreting visions and dreams and what they prefigure of future events. Allâh prevails upon His edict, which inevitably produces its intended effect, but most people do not know.
  7. Then when Yûsuf reached the stage of life wherein he had the ability for effective action, We imparted to him wisdom and knowledge. For thus We reward those who turn their thoughts on moral excellence and fair benevolence.
  8. The lady of the house where he lived tried to solicited him. She closed the doors and said to him, “Come to me.” But he said, “Allâh be my refuge! He is my Lord; He has been kind to me; He delivered me from harm and gave me a good home, and my master gave me a hearty welcome and a hospitable lodging in his house. Heaven will never prosper the unjust wrongdoers.”
  9. She had a passionate desire for him, a desire she meant to bring to effect physically; and he had a physical desire for her. It might have been physical, had he not felt the evidence from Allâh in his heart and the internal recognition of the moral quality of one’s motives and actions approving the right and condemning the wrong. We stirred his heart to live in the conscientious practice of all that is good so that We guarded him from obscenity and immorality; He was indeed one of Our sincere worshipers.
  10. She and Yûsuf raced to the door. She could only reach the back of his garment, and in his struggle to advance forward, the back of his garment was ripped. Her master was just coming in and they all met at the door. To justify her action and take her revenge, she said to her husband, “What punishment should be appropriate for someone who tried to assail your wife but that he be imprisoned or suffer a condign torment?”
  11. Yûsuf said, “She tried to solicit me to an immoral act.” When the family gathered to judge the case, one of her family wisely said, “If his garment is ripped at the front, then she is in the right and the truth is on her side, and he is lying.
  12. “And,” he added, “if his garment is ripped from the rear, then she is lying and he has the truth on his side.”
  13. When her husband saw the garment ripped from the rear, he said, “This is one of the plotting of you women; potent indeed is your plotting.”
  14. “Yûsuf,” he continued, “let go this incident, and you, my wife, invoke Allâh’s forgiveness; you were indeed in the wrong.”
  15. The rumor circulated among some women in the city. They said, “The wife of the court officer solicits her young man (slave); she is much enamoured of him and inflamed with love. We see that she is indeed vitiated by error.”
  16. When she heard of their evil scheming, she invited them to her house. The seats were propped up with cushions, the table was set with food, and table knives were put in place. She ordered Yûsuf to come into the room. When the women saw him, they were so overwhelmed with wonder and marveled so at his exceptional good looks that they missed the fruit and wounded their hands. They exclaimed, “Allâh forbid! This is not a mortal; he is none other than a highly impressive, honorable, and distinguished angel.”
  17. There and then she said to them, “This is he on whose account you blamed me. I solicited him, but he refused, and I swear that unless he submits to my command, he will be put in prison and be belittled.”
  18. “O Allâh,” said Yûsuf, “I would rather be imprisoned than submit to their evil desire, and unless You keep their intrigues away from me, I may succumb to them and be one of the ignorant.”
  19. Allâh responded to his invocation and kept their plotting away from him. He is indeed All-Hearing and All-Knowing.
  20. But the men thought it would be in the best interests of all concerned that he be put in prison for a while, although they saw all the signs confirming his innocence.
  21. Along with Yûsuf, two young men serving in the court were put in prison. Each of them had a dream. One of them saw himself pressing grapes to make wine, and the other saw himself carrying bread on his head and the birds were eating from it. They asked Yûsuf, “Can you reveal to us the significance of these dreams? We see you to be a fair-doer and with the ability to interpret dreams.”
  22. “Rest assured,” he said, “before food is provided you, I will have informed you of the interpretation of your dreams. This is a part of the divine knowledge that Allâh has imparted to me. I have forsaken the creed of a people who do not believe in Allâh and refuse to acknowledge the truth of the Hereafter.
  23. “I have followed the creed of my fathers Ibrâhîm, Ishâq, and Ya`qûb. It was never befitting that we associate with Allâh other deities, be they angels, jinn, or humans, let alone idols that do not hear or see. This is His grace abounding in us and in mankind, but most people do not receive this grace with thankful gratitude.
  24. “Fellow prisoners, do you believe that such an immense universe could be controlled with such precision by a group of deities diverse in kind or by Allâh the One and Only, Who is All-Powerful, Absolute, and Vanquisher?”
  25. “In fact,” he added, “those whom you worship besides Him are but names of objects you and your fathers have designated as gods—a system of faith and worship Allâh has never authorized. Indeed, decision, command, and judgment are asserted as Allâh’s own; He ordained that you worship no one but Him. This is the right religion and worship, but most people do not know this fact.
  26. “Fellow prisoners, now you will have the interpretation of your dreams. As for the fellow pressing grapes, he will be released and restored to his position and will serve his lord with wine; whereas the other will be crucified and the birds will eat of his head. There, the case is decreed concerning your inquiry.”
  27. Then said he to the inmate who he thought would be released, “Mention my name (and my story) to your lord when you are in his presence.” But in the midst of the court, the servant yielded to the lower part of his nature, which is guided by Satan, and forgot to mention to his lord the story of his fellow prisoner. Consequently, Yûsuf remained in prison for several years.
  28. And once the king said to his retinue, “I saw in my dream seven plump cows eaten by seven lean and emaciated ones, and seven green ears of corn and seven dry ones. Give me, chiefs, your opinion on that vision I had in my sleep if you are well versed in interpreting visions.”
  29. “These are nothing but jumbled dreams,” they said, “nor are we conversant with the interpretation of dreams.”
  30. There and then Yûsuf’s fellow prisoner who had heard of the king’s dream at last remembered Yûsuf and his story. He said, “Permit me to go to where I can get you the true interpretation.”
  31. The man went to Yûsuf and said, “Yûsuf, O man of righteousness and truth, reveal to us this dream and what it prefigures: Seven plump cows were eaten by seven lean and emaciated ones, and seven green ears of corn together with seven dry ones. Give me your opinion so that I may go back to the people and inform them of what they should know.”
  32. Yûsuf not only told him what people should expect, but he also suggested the safety measures to be taken. He said, “You will sow the land in diligent laboring, and when it is the season for reaping the ripened grain, leave it in its ears and lay it up in store except a little that you will eat.
  33. “Following this period, there will come seven droughty years consuming all that you have saved except the little that you have to use for seed.

49 “Then, there will follow a year in which people will rejoice at the abundance of rain and at the yield of grapevines and olives and other juicy and oily trees, and they will be busy pressing juices and extracting oils.”

  1. The king said, “Bring him to me.” When the king’s messenger went to get him, Yûsuf (with just confidence, said to the messenger), “Go back to your master and ask him to reopen my case and question the women who severely cut their hands at the banquet about what they had in mind to trap. Allâh is, indeed, fully aware of their scheming.”
  2. There and then the king summoned the women and questioned them. He asked, “What was your purpose and intention when you solicited Yûsuf? Was he inclined to you?” They said, “Allâh forbid! We have never known him to be morally depraved.” The court official’s wife said, “Now that the truth has come out, it was I who solicited him and he has, indeed, been telling the truth.
  3. “I declare the truth so that Yûsuf knows that I did not advantage myself of his absence and betray him or attribute falsehood to him. Allâh does not cause the treacherous to attain their end.
  4. “I am not trying to acquit myself of the guilt that resided in my intention. One’s self urges one to propound evil except those who are graced with Allâh’s mercy, and Providence is their guide. Allâh is indeed Oft-Forgiving and Most-Merciful.”
  5. There and then the king commanded that Yûsuf be brought to him. He said, “I will use him as my counselor and he will be exclusively my own.” Then the king said to him, “You are now held precious in esteem, and you are granted security and authority.”
  6. There Yûsuf said, “Now, O king, (that you have faith in me,) then entrust me with the granaries and the storehouses of the agricultural and natural products of the land and with the treasuries of the realm. You will find me trustworthy and capable of guarding the interests of the kingdom and knowing how to manage affairs cleverly.”
  7. Thus We firmly established Yûsuf in the land where he could extend his power and jurisdiction wherever he willed. We bestow Our mercy on whom We will, and never do We waste the reward of the fair-doers.
  8. Moreover, the reward in the Hereafter will be far better; it falls to those who recognize Allâh with believing and pious hearts.
  9. (Years passed and famine ensued and extended to neighboring countries. The brothers, driven like others by the famine, journeyed to Egypt to buy grain.) They went to the man in charge of the granaries (Yûsuf), who knew them while they failed to recognize him.
  10. He supplied them with their requirement of grain. He said to them, “So, you have a brother through your father. Bring him to me. Do you not see that I dispense the measure to the full and that I afford welcome and extend the most generous hospitality to guests and visitors?”
  11. “If you do not bring him,” he added, “I will deny you the provision of grain that you need, and you will not be allowed to come near me.”
  12. They said to him, “We will talk his father into our cause and solicit him into sending our brother with us, and rest assured that we will certainly do this.”
  13. There and then Yûsuf said to his attendants, “Put back their money that they paid for the grain into their saddlebags. They may see it when they go back to their people, and, it is hoped, they will be encouraged to come back.”
  14. When they returned to their father, they said to him, “O father, we have been denied future measures of grain unless we are accompanied by our brother Benjamin; therefore, (we beg you to) send him with us so that we can get our supply of grain, and we promise to guard him home.”
  15. The father said, “Shall I entrust him to you just as I entrusted his brother Yûsuf to you before? You took him away, then came back to say he was eaten by the wolf. Allâh is He Who is the Guardian, and He is the most capable of extending mercy.”
  16. But when they unloaded and opened their bags, they found their money had been refunded to them, and there they said, “Look, father, what more do we want? There is our money; it has been refunded to us. We will provision our family, guard our brother, and add a camel’s load good at need. It is but a small quantity.”
  17. The father said, “I will not send Benjamin with you until you have given me a binding oath with a solemn appeal to Allâh in witness that you will bring him back to me unless you are surrounded.” After they made an oath to him, he said to them, “There, Allâh, Who stands guard over what we say, will be our Trustee.”
  18. Ya`qûb said to them, “O my sons, do not all enter by the same gate but enter by different gates. Not that I will avail you a misfortune that Allâh has meant to befall you. Allâh is He Who has the command; in Him do I trust, and in Him must all the faithful put their trust.”
  19. Albeit they entered in the manner according to their father’s advice, it did not mean that they would have escaped a misfortune decreed by Allâh; it was only a notion in Ya`qûb’s self by which his reason was satisfied. He was imbued with divine knowledge that We had taught him, but most people do not know.
  20. When they came to where Yûsuf was, he took his full brother Benjamin by his side and secretly declared to him his identity and said to him, “Do not grieve at heart over what they did to you and me.”
  21. When he was supplying them with their requirement of grain, (the attendants, who had been instructed earlier,) put the king’s cup in Benjamin’s saddlebag. As all of them started to journey homeward, an announcer said, “(You travelers, stop!) You are thieves!”
  22. The brothers were in terror and turned back and asked, “What is it that you have lost?”
  23. The attendants said, “We lost the king’s tumbler, and we promise to reward whoever finds it a camel’s load of grain.” And the foreman said, “I am the guarantor.”
  24. The brothers said, “By Allâh! You people know that we did not come here to cause corruption, nor are we disposed to theft.”
  25. The attendants said, “What penalty, then, shall be incurred by him who is found guilty of theft if it be established that you are lying?”
  26. Being sure of their innocence, the brothers said, “He who is found guilty of theft shall be the property of the state, for thus do we treat the unjust.”
  27. Yûsuf began the search with their sacks before searching that of his brother Benjamin; then he brought the tumbler out of Benjamin’s saddlebag. Thus did We design a stratagem for Yûsuf to outwit his brothers. He could not have detained his brother by exercising judicial authority not conformable to the statutes of the realm unless Allâh had willed. So it was. We raise whom We will to higher ranks and exalt them in dignity, wisdom, and power. Above everyone having mastery of knowledge, there is one who is endowed with more substantial knowledge; and above everyone with knowledge there is The All-Knowing.
  28. There and then the brothers said, “If he has stolen something, a brother of his had committed theft before.” Yûsuf kept this insult to himself and said aside, “You went further and fared worse, and Allâh knows every falsity you devise.”
  29. They said to Yûsuf, “O you mighty (ruler), he has a father who is advanced in age. Take one of us in his stead; we do see you to be a man of piety and we see you as one of the fair-doers.”
  30. “Allâh forbid,” said Yûsuf, “that we should take into our custody any but the one with whom we found our personal property or else we will be unjust.”
  31. When they lost hope of persuading Yûsuf to change his position, they withdrew and conferred in secret. “Do you not know,” said their eldest, “that your father has bound you by an oath with a solemn appeal to Allâh? What about your negligence regarding Yûsuf? Therefore, I have resolved never to depart from here until my father has permitted me to do so or Allâh has decided for me a course of action; He is The Most Charitable among all judges.
  32. “Go back to your father,” he added, “and say to him: Your son has stolen the king’s cup and we only testify what we know; and when we bound ourselves by the vow, we do not know the Unseen.
  33. “If you are in doubt of what we relate to you, then you may send whom you trust to the city in which we were, to inquire in the matter of the theft, and you may also ask the caravan with whom we came forward, and rest assured that we are telling the truth.”
  34. The rest of the sons went back to Ya`qûb (Jacob) and told him the story as instructed by their oldest brother. The news of the loss of his second son saddened him. Ya`qûb said, “Indeed, your selves have instigated you to do something evil and impelled you to feign this tale. So patience is most becoming. May Allâh bring them all back to me; He is, indeed, All-Knowing and All-Wise.”
  35. He withdrew away from them and retired from their society, weeping and expressing his feeling of grief for the loss of Yûsuf. He said, “What a pity it is to lose Yûsuf!” And he felt profound grief and mourned so passionately that his eyes turned white and impenetrable to light in the train of his repressed mental pain.
  36. His sons said to him, “By Allâh, will you keep on recalling Yûsuf to your memory with deep sorrow and weep out your eyes and heart until you are decrepit by disease or perish (in the wreck of sorrow)!”
  37. He said, “I only express my anguish and grief to Allâh, and I know from Allâh what you, my sons, do not know.
  38. “My sons, go back to your older brother and feel all of you after Yûsuf and Benjamin, and do not nurse despair or give up hope of Allâh’s relief. Indeed, no one despairs of Allâh’s relief but those who disbelieve.”
  39. When the brothers went back and joined the oldest brother and were granted audience of the mighty vizier (Yûsuf), they said to him, appealing to his charity, “O mighty one, we and our family have had a severe touch of misfortunes, and the famine has levied distress upon us, and we have brought the little we could afford in exchange for the grain we need. We should be grateful, indeed, if you would give us the full measure of grain and consider the extra you add as charitable alms comforting the poor; blessed, indeed, is he who considers the poor, for Allâh rewards the donators.”
  40. Yûsuf was remorseful and then said, “Do you know what you did to Yûsuf and his brother? You probably are ignorant of the danger and the consequence of what you were doing.”
  41. They said, “Indeed, you are Yûsuf, are you not?” “Indeed, I am,” said Yûsuf, “and this is my brother Benjamin. Allâh has been bounteous to us with His divine favor and benediction and conferred on us prosperity, for he who is pious to Allâh and is unwearied in the face of difficulties and able to endure evil will be greatly rewarded. Allâh does not waste the reward of the people’s deeds of wisdom and piety.”
  42. They said, “Indeed, Allâh has taken you by preference out of all of us (and exalted you in status, rank, and fortune). We do acknowledge our sinful deeds.”
  43. “Today,” said Yûsuf, “I cannot reproach you. Allâh forgive you, for to Him belong mercy and forgiveness; He is The Most Merciful of all those who show mercy.”
  44. Then Yûsuf asked them about his father. When they told him about his loss of sight, Yûsuf said, “Go back with this shirt of mine and lay it on my father’s face; he will recover his sight. And bring me all the members of your family.”
  45. When the caravan was on its way homeward, Ya`qûb, by divine inspiration, had a presentiment of the event that was about to happen. He said, “I do perceive Yûsuf’s scent in the wind, albeit you people might think I am doting.”
  46. But those who were around him harshly said to him, “By Allâh, you still live in your old perplexity and error!”
  47. But when the harbinger of good news (the oldest brother) reached home and laid Yûsuf’s shirt on his father’s face, Ya`qûb recovered his sight and exclaimed, “Did I not tell you that I know from Allâh what you people do not know?”
  48. There the sons said to their father, “O father, invoke Allâh’s forgiveness on our behalf; we were, indeed, sinners.”
  49. The father said, “I will eventually invoke Allâh’s forgiveness on your behalf; my Creator is indeed Oft-Forgiving, Ever-Merciful.
  50. When they all had gone to Egypt and were granted audience of Yûsuf, he took his parents (father and stepmother) beside him and said to them, “You are most welcome to enter Egypt, where you may dwell, Allâh willing, safe and secure.”
  51. And he raised his parents to his (the vizier’s) throne of dignity and authority, and there and then all of them prostrated in reverence. There, Yûsuf said to his father, “O father, this is the interpretation of my vision that was brought before during sleep, and Allâh has verified it and made it come true. He was gracious to me: He brought to effect my release from prison and your emigration from the desert to settle in the city in Egypt after Satan had sown malevolence and ill will in my brothers’ hearts against me. Indeed, my Lord is Most Kind in what He wills. He is, indeed, All-Knowing and All-Wise.
  52. To express his gratitude to Allâh, Yûsuf invoked thus: “O Allâh, You have graced me with kingship, and You have imparted to me the knowledge of interpreting visions (and what they prefigure of future events). You are He Who generated the heavens and the earth. You are my Guardian here and in the Hereafter. Take me up as a Muslim, O Allâh, and join me to those who are righteous.”
  53. Such narrative is of the Unseen, Muhammad, except through Our revelation. Nor were you in their circles when they all (the brothers, the retinue, and the women) resolved to accomplish what they had maliciously schemed.
  54. Nor are most people moved by the convincing divine signs and marvels to believe, even though you, Muhammad, are eager to guide them to all truth.

104 In fact, you never ask them for a price, nor do you strike a bargain with them for advantaging them of divine knowledge in the Qur’ân, which is but a divine illumination and enlightenment revealed to guide mankind to all truth.

  1. In the heavens and the earth there are countless convincing divine signs of the Creator’s existence, oneness, and perfection, but in some way people veer away from them.
  2. Nor do most of them believe in Allâh without associating other deities with Him.
  3. Are they certain that they are secure against a destructive torment from Allâh, or that the Hour will be striking them at the root, which might well be planted unexpectedly, while they are unaware?
  4. Say to the disbelievers, “This is my way of presenting divine inducements to the people, based on clear and comprehensible evidence—inducements that I, in collaboration with those who follow me, use to invite people to the path of Allâh. Glory to Him, and extolled are His glorious attributes! Therefore, I never associate other deities with Him.”
  5. We never sent messengers before you, Muhammad, to whom We revealed but they were men whose deeds were natural to man, chosen from among the town dwellers. Have these people not journeyed through the land and looked at what was the end of those who preceded them? Indeed, the residence in Paradise is infinitely better for those who are pious to Allâh as He deserves in life below; can you people not consider?
  6. Our messengers, Muhammad, do face hardships and difficulties, adversities and distresses to the extent that they give up hope of their followers and begin to think that they take them for liars. There and then the turning point is reached, and Our victory comes in good time. We deliver whom We will and punish whom We will, and never is Our violence averted from those who are criminals.
  7. Indeed, there has been an example or a great lesson in the narratives of the Messengers—a lesson guiding those of intellect into abhorrence of impatience and despair. Such narratives as have been disclosed by divine means are not fabricated discourses, but an integral part of the Qur’ân, corroborating and authoritatively validating all the divine Books revealed before it and serving as an excellent interpretation expounding all the statutes and ordinances, past and present, revealed to all human beings, exacting obedience from the whole. It is a guidance and mercy to people who believe.

SÛRAH 13

AR-R`AD

The Thunder

Revealed at Madînah

The sûrah takes its name from thunder, which, we are told, extols Allâh. The sûrah begins by showing the high status of the Qur’ân and by declaring that it is revealed by Allâh. Then it shows Allâh’s supremacy over the universe and draws attention to its marvelous creation. The sûrah then moves from the absolute power of Allâh Almighty over creation to that of His power over re-creation and resurrection. Allâh has knowledge of everything, and His power to afflict punishment in this world is a token of the punishment in the Hereafter.

Then the sûrah calls attention to the striking miracles in the universe. Allâh shows the attitude of people toward receiving the Qur’ânic guidance: the characteristics of believers and the lack of morals of the disbelievers and their adamancy in demanding miracles. The sûrah also shows how badly they mocked at their messenger and informs the Prophet that messengers before him were also mocked. But Allâh Almighty has supremacy over all things and all creatures, and He will requite all as they deserve. He further tells us that the Qur’ân is the supreme miracle that will continue to exist until the Day of Resurrection; that it is Allâh Almighty Who provides His messengers with miracles if He wills; and that if the disbelievers deny the Prophet’s mission, Allâh bears witness to its truth—a testimony that is enough for him.

In the Name of Allâh,

 The All-Merciful, The Ever-Merciful

  1. A (alif). L (lâm). M (mîm). R (). The sûrah opens with these letters from the Arabic alphabet to draw attention to the miracle of the Qur’ân, which, though written in the people’s tongue, cannot be emulated. These are divinely revealed verses of the Qur’ân distinctly indicating that all that has been revealed to you, Muhammad, is from Allâh. It is the truth guiding to all truth, but most people do not believe.
  2. Allâh Who sent down this Book is He Who raised the heavens with their heavenly bodies—super structures that are kept aloft without visible pillars. Then He levelled Himself on the Throne of supremacy and dominion, of grace and mercy, and subjected the sun and the moon to a state of subservience, each orbiting for a determined period of time. He conducts the Command over all affairs and expounds His revelations and clearly displays His cosmic signs and renders His words readily understood so that you people may have certitude that you will inevitably assemble before Him at the predetermined time.
  3. He it is Who extended the earth, spreading it out for you to go east and west, and in it He placed mountains, fixed as with an anchor, and rivers with copious streams of fresh water, and of every fruit He produced a pair, male and female. He enshrouded the day with the veil of the night. Indeed, in the universe and its wonders are signs Allâh’s omnipotence and authority, which are sensed by those who meditate.
  4. And in the earth are areas bordering each other, orchards of vines, edible grain, and palm trees bearing clusters of dates on one stem or on more than one stem, arising from the same root, nourished with the same water. Yet We make the produce of one unlike that of the other in quality and quantity, and We prefer some in taste over others. Indeed, in these wonders are signs sensed by those who consider.
  5. What strikes you with wonder is their astonishment. They say, “Do you believe that after we have been reduced to dust, we will be restored to life and be created anew?” This is, indeed, flat blasphemy thought and felt by those who decisively disbelieve in their Lord, and these are they who will be fettered with shackles round their necks, and these are the inmates of Hell, wherein they will have eternal suffering.
  6. They defiantly ask you, Muhammad, to hasten the promised punishment instead of seeking the truth and hoping for Allâh’s mercy, albeit they heard of the typical instances of the past, forming particular cases of a principle and instances of punishment. Nonetheless, Allâh is indeed Oft-Forgiving. He extends His forgiveness to people despite their unjust actions, but surely your Lord also punishes severely.
  7. Yet the disbelievers defiantly say, “If only a sign other than the Qur’ân (such as moving mountains) were revealed to him to evince the truth of his mission!” But you are only a warner, and to every nation Allâh sent a guide to the truth, with a miracle supporting his mission. (They are not in a position to choose; they only have to answer the challenge of bringing the like of this Qur’ân.)
  8. Allâh, The All-Knowing, knows what every female bears (in her womb), not only in terms of the wombs subsiding or exceeding, but also its determined future (in terms of misery or happiness, belief or disbelief, wealth or poverty, life span, as well as all other matters in this world).
  9. He is All-Knowing. He knows the invisible and the seen. He is uniquely and imposingly The Great, The Exalted (and He is infinitely far above the whole and all in all).
  10. Indeed, everything that is said or done comes to His knowledge, whether it be expressed in thoughts or in words, and whether it be said or done by one who hides under the veil of night or by one who moves about in daylight.
  11. Each and every one has a succession of guardian angels guarding him before and after him upon Allâh’s high Command. Allâh does not change the state of life of a given people until the people have changed the state of their innermost beings. And when it is His will that a people be stricken with a misfortune, no expedient whatever nor anyone can turn it back, and besides Him they have no patron.
  12. It is He Who exhibits to view the lightening that strikes you people with the feeling of fear. It might bring suffering, strike one dead, or engender a storm. Or you may have the feeling of hope of rainfall (to revive the land that has been stricken with drought). And it is He Who engenders the thick clouds.
  13. And thunder, like the rest of His creation, as it declares itself, extols His praises, and so do the angels, whom you cannot see, because of fright of Him. He sends the engendered thunderbolts wherever He wills to strike therewith whom He wills. Yet the disbelievers dispute about Allâh, when He is The All-Powerful and The All-Mighty Who strikes at the root in punishment.
  14. The call for truth that guides to all truth is asserted as Allâh’s own; whereas those objects they worship and invoke besides Him do not respond to them any more than the thirsty one who stretches out his hand to lift water to his gaping mouth but it never reaches his mouth. Indeed, the invocation of the disbelievers is simply worthless and leads them to error.
  15. To Allâh, Who controls the fate of all, do all beings in the heavens and on earth prostrate themselves—to His government and to His supreme controlling power—willingly or unwillingly. So do the shadows they cast on the ground by the intercepted sunrays in the forenoons and afternoons*.

———————–

* A prostration should be performed here.

  1. Ask them, Muhammad, “Who is the Lord of the heavens and the earth?” And say to them, “It is Allâh.” And ask them, “Have you taken besides Him other deities who have no control over what befalls them of good or harm?” Ask them, “Do you consider equal the one without the sense of sight with the other who perceives objects by sight? Are darknesses equal to light?” Or did those whom they associate with Allâh call into existence or form out of nothingness any creature, animate or inanimate, identical with any of those created by Allâh, to the extent that they seem alike to them? Say to them, “It is Allâh Who is the Creator of everything; He is the One and Only Vanquisher (the supreme controlling power inherent in the whole and in all in all).”
  2. He sends the rainwater from the heaven, and there it is conveyed along valleys of various capacities in due measure. Where the flood flows, it drives before it unworthy scum and impurities floating on the surface gathering into a heap of froth resembling the foamy admixture and impurities mounting to the surface of the heated ores for the separation of precious metals used for ornaments and other uses. Thus does Allâh give examples with allegorical representations of truth and untruth. The froth and the scum are rejected and disappear; whereas what is profitable to the people remains behind on earth. Thus Allâh strikes the similitudes.
  3. Those who respond favorably to their Lord are the recipients of Allâh’s blessings and gratifying rewards; whereas those who do not respond are losers. If they have all things on earth and the like of it with it, they would gladly give it as ransom of their guilt at Judgment, but far from it. (These and their like must expect a manifest discomfort). Much misery and hardship will be the insignia of their reckoning when the account of their life and conduct is rendered at Judgment. Their abode is Hell, and evil indeed is the bed they have made for themselves.
  4. Does he who is certain of the truth of your mission, Muhammad, and who knows that all that has been revealed to you from Allâh is the truth guiding to all truth, compare with him who is blind? Indeed, those who believe in Allâh are people of insight—those who are imbued with intellects by which they perceive, know and judge;
  5. Those who fulfil the covenant of Allâh and to Him they render their vows, and they do not breach a legal or a moral bond nor an obligation or a promise;
  6. Those who join together all that Allâh has ordained to be joined together and who are apprehensive of Allâh, and they fear the misery and hardship experienced at Judgment;
  7. Those who patiently seek the Face of their Lord purposed to fulfill their obligation to Allâh and to satisfy their conscience and their hearts; those who duly engage in prayer and spend in benevolence and benefaction, secretly or openly, of the provisions of life We granted them, and who repel pride with prudence and evil with good. Such persons will have eternity in the heavenly and blissful abode, Paradise,
  8. Enjoying themselves in the Gardens of Eden. They are heartily welcomed together with those who are righteous among their parents, their mates, and their progeny; and there they will be visited by the angels, who make entry through every gate
  9. To bid them welcome and greet them with “Peace be upon you for your patience and endurance; how excellent and how blissful is this eternal residence!”
  10. Those who break their covenant with Allâh after they have solemnly vowed to Him to do what has been enjoined—disjoining humanity instead of joining them, and disjoining all that Allâh has ordained be joined together and making corruption on earth—will be losers. These and such persons have come within the measure of Allâh’s curse, and in their final abode they will have eternal suffering.
  11. Allâh gives livelihood generously and confers support gratuitously on whom He wills, and He also gives with restraint and by measure to whom He wills. The worldly minded rejoice beyond a common joy with life here below before the Hereafter. But how little are the material and the immaterial things that minister to enjoyment and content here as compared with the Hereafter.
  12. Yet the disbelievers insolently say, “If only a sign (other than the Qur’ân) were revealed to him from his Lord to prove his mission!” Say to them, “Indeed, Allâh misleads whom He decides, and He guides those who lift to Him their penitence.”
  13. Their hearts become quiet and composed at the remembrance of Allâh. Indeed, at the remembrance of Allâh do hearts find peace, repose, and tranquility.
  14. Those who believe in Allâh have hearts impressed with religious deeds. Blessed are they with the beatitude of Heaven and eternity in perpetual resort.
  15. Thus have We sent you, Prophet, to a people before whom generations who received messengers have passed away, so that you recite to them Our divine revelations and narrate to them all that We have revealed to you, notwithstanding that they disbelieve in Ar-Rahmân, The All-Merciful, and His mercy, and their hearts dare rise defiant against Him. Say to them, “He is my Lord. There is no god but Him; in Him do I trust, and to Him do I humbly repent.”
  16. And if there were a Qur’ân that has a firm place in the realm of fact, a word by which mountains could be set in motion or the earth be torn apart or the dead be spoken to, it would be (none other than) this Qur’ân. But command, control, domination, and decision are asserted as Allâh’s own. Further, do those who believe not realize that if Allâh had willed, He could have guided mankind as a whole to His path of righteousness? Nonetheless, disbelieve in Allâh will not cease to be bombarded with smiter hitting them directly in requital of their evil deeds, or hitting them close enough to their homes until Allâh’s promised (punishment) comes to pass. Allâh never fails to keep His promise.
  17. O Prophet, messengers sent before you were also mocked at. The disbelievers mocked at them. But despite their wickedness, I put their punishment in respite; then I cast them down from a position of prosperity and power and brought them to ruin, and how unbearable was the punishment!
  18. Does He Who stands guard over every self, and His sentinel angels record every deed that is done or in the making, and to Whose knowledge everything comes instantaneously compare with a false object of worship or a helpless creature or dumb idols whom they called holy gods? Yet they still associate other deities with Allâh. Say to them, “Name them, or do you inform Allâh of objects on earth that He has no knowledge of?” The fact is that the disbelievers’ intrigues and cunning allured them to brighter words and led them to a path other than that of righteousness. And he whom Allâh misguides will find no one to guide him.
  19. They have torment in this world, and worse will be the torment in the world to come; and no one can afford them protection from Allâh.
  20. To represent in words the Paradise promised the pious by Allâh —it is the Garden of bliss and delight, of protection and security beneath which rivers flow. Its fruits and its shade are eternal, and therein they will have eternity of joy. This is the destination of those who are pious to Allâh as He deserves; whereas the intended end of those disbelievers is the fire of Hell.
  21. The People of the Book rejoice at the Qur’ân and at all that has been revealed to you, Prophet. They find in it an extension of the basic principles of the oneness of Allâh; the validation of previous Scriptures; and the unity of purpose, feeling, and action. But among the sects are those who reject some parts. Say to them, “I have been commanded to worship Allâh and never to associate other deities with Him and to Him I call; and to Him will all return.”
  22. And thus did We send down the Qur’ân (as the constitution of Our sovereign power) in Arabic. And should you, Muhammad, be inclined to follow the prejudices after divine knowledge has been imparted to you, then you will have lost Allâh’s patronage and protection. (This is addressed to the Prophet and to the believers, to whom the warning is real.)
  23. We sent messengers before you, Muhammad, who were human, and We entered them into matrimony, and We gave them offspring, and it was not for any of them to work a sign of his own; their signs were authorized by Allâh and were imparted to them as He ordained. Every period of time has its divine Book and appropriate sign.
  24. Allâh erases whatever He wills as He wills, and He confirms what He wills, and this and that are put on record in the (Mother) Essence of the Book in Heaven.
  25. And We either show you, Muhammad, in your lifetime some part of the punishment We promised them or We occasion your death before that. You are only responsible for relating the divine message, and We are responsible for their reckoning on the Day of Judgment.
  26. Do the disbelievers not see that We reduce the earth from its outlying borders? And Allâh is He Who commands, and no one will ever be able to reverse His judicial decision; He is swift, indeed, in reckoning.
  27. Their predecessors schemed, and the wicked plotted against the messengers, but who can get the better of Allâh’s plans or defeat His predetermined events? He is the Master Who controls all plans at will. He has absolute power and knows all that each self earns of qualities, actions, and deeds. The day will come when the disbelievers know with much regret to whom belongs eternity in the heavenly and blissful residence!
  28. Thus still, the disbelievers say to you, “You are not sent by Allâh, nor are you charged with a message from Him to mankind.” Say to them, “Good enough for me is Allâh as a witness of my actions and of your actions. He knows the truth of the Qur’ân and of every Book, and so do those who have knowledge of the Book.”

SÛRAH 14

IBRÂHÎM

Abraham

Revealed at Makkah

This sûrah proclaims the duty of the messengers of Allâh and the value attached to the Books they have been given. The prophets are all human beings who are sent as signs and warnings, but they are totally unable to produce a supernatural act without Allâh’s will and authorization, nor can they guide anyone to the path of righteousness and out of darkness to light and enlightenment without His permission. The sûrah gives parables beginning with life here and ending with life in the Hereafter; it portrays those who are thankful in contrast to those who are ungrateful. It indicates that, generally speaking, man is not truly grateful. Yet, if people consider Allâh’s favors, they will find them countless, but those who lift to Allâh their inward sight ponder His revelations and signs and endure misfortunes, and contentment live ever in their thankful hearts. The sûrah ends by mentioning Allâh’s omnipotence to render many of the physical forces subservient to man. It shows that more things are wrought by prayer than this world dreams of, and this is beautifully illustrated in Ibrâhîm’s (Abraham’s) message and character.

In the Name of Allâh,

The All-Merciful, The Ever-Merciful

  1. A (alif). L (lâm). R (). The sûrah opens with these introductory letters from the Arabic alphabet to draw attention to the miracle of the Qur’ân, which, though written in the people’s tongue, cannot be emulated. A Book (the Qur’ân) the source of enlightenment—We have sent it down to you, Muhammad, to guide people to all truth and to lead them, by the permission of their Lord, out of darkness into illumination and enlightenment, and to direct them to the path of righteousness, the path of Allâh The All-Mighty and The Owner of all praise (to Whom are extolled the glorious attributes),
  2. Allâh, to Whom belong all that is in the heavens and on earth. Woe to the disbelievers who deny Him. They will pass to eternal torment.
  3. Those worldly minded who hold the world below better than the Hereafter, who do not seek grace to guide their choice and stand in the way to prevent Allâh’s path to truth from guiding people to all truth, making it their aim to pervert the truth and crook the path of righteousness to their own ends, are losers. These and their like are, indeed, lost in far error.
  4. We never sent to a people a messenger who did not master their tongue; so he made himself understood, distinctly expressing all that is meant. There and then Allâh misguides whom He wills and guides to His path of righteousness whom He wills, and He is The All-Mighty and The All-Wise.
  5. We sent Mûsâ (Moses) with Our signs pointing to Allâh’s authority, and We commanded him to guide his people to all truth and lead them out of darknesses and out of want of spiritual and intellectual sight into illumination and enlightenment. We enjoined him to remind them of the eventful days of Allâh, His means of trial, and His mode of action for every patient, thankful person.
  6. And there, Mûsâ said to them, “My people, remember Allâh’s grace and blessings that He imparted to you. He delivered you from the house of Pharaoh who laid upon you cruel impositions and intolerable torment. They brutally slaughtered your sons and spared your women in humiliation, and this was, indeed, a severe but sure test from your Lord of your actions and reactions echoing your true beliefs and the prevalent inclination among you.
  7. “And in consequence Allâh proclaimed, ‘If you are thankful, I will make all grace increase in you, but if you show disbelief, then you must realize that My torment is, indeed, severe.’”
  8. And Mûsâ added, “Should you disbelieve and, together with all those living on earth, inclined to disobedience, then you must realize that Allâh is Absolutely Affluent, Praiseworthy (and Independent and His glorious attributes are extolled).”
  9. Have you people not been informed of what became of your predecessors—the people of Nûh (Noah) and those of `Âd and the people of Thamûd and their successors whom no one knows but Allâh? Their messengers brought them evident and plain revelations guiding out of darkness and into illumination and enlightenment. But they drew their hands across their lips to indicate their refusal to accept the divine message and said, “We flatly disbelieve the truth of your mission and we are in doubt of the system of faith that you invite us to follow. It excites suspicion.”
  10. Their messengers said to them, “Can there be doubt about Allâh when it is He Who generated the heavens and the earth and brought them into existence, and He calls you to His worship so that you qualify to receive His blessings and the forgiveness of your sins? He grants you respite to confess yourselves mistaken and He puts you in respite up to a predetermined point of time.” They said, “But you are simply mortals like us and you just want us to turn our backs upon the gods our fathers worshipped! Give us then solid evidence and authority that prove the conclusion.”
  11. Their messengers said to them, “But we are only mortals like you, and Allâh imparts His bounty to those of His worshipers whom He chooses as He wills, and it is not within our power to present you with authority except with Allâh’s delegated power and authorization. And in Allâh do the believers put their trust.
  12. “And why should we not put our trust in Allâh when He has guided us to His path leading us to righteousness and endure unjust affliction! And in Allâh should all those who trust put their trust.”
  13. And the brutal disbelievers insolently and defiantly said to their messengers, “We will most certainly oust you from your homes and drive you out of our land unless you return to our creed and worship.” But Allâh revealed to them confidence and assured them thus: “We will put the unjust wrongdoers to rout.
  14. “And We will dwell you in their land to make abode after We have destroyed them. This is a favor that We confer only on him who entertains the profound reverence due to Me and regards the moment he assembles before Me with reverence and threat.”
  15. The messengers prayed for victory, but the hopes of every stubborn transgressor are doomed to disappointment.
  16. He is defeated in this world, and Hell is in his pursuit, and offensive festering water will be his drink.
  17. He drinks of it by sips that he can hardly swallow, but then he will drink up the dregs of it forever, and over him death shakes his dart, but he will not die, and the torment laid upon the damned will be in his pursuit.
  18. Those disbelievers in their Lord will be losers. Their efforts are useless and are like ashes that are exposed to violent high winds scattering them in all directions. They are unable to benefit themselves of what they have earned, and this is error in the extreme.
  19. O Man, can you not see that Allâh created the heavens and the earth and brought them into existence in truth, and if He wills He can do away with you and replace you by a new creation.
  20. And this would not be a mighty act for Him to accomplish.
  21. And when all the disbelievers have emerged from the graves and assembled before Allâh at Judgment, the weak who lacked strength of purpose will say to those who were proud, “We were your followers. Are you now going to carry, on our behalf, a share of Allâh’s torment laid upon the damned?” The proud will answer, “If Allâh had guided us to His path of righteousness, We would have guided you to it; now it is all the same whether we be impatient or patient, and never will we be able to evade (torment).”
  22. Then Satan, when the Command is decreed, will say to those whose hopes were doomed to disappointment, “Allâh promised you the truth affording expectation of all that is good, showing signs of future excellence. I also promised you and afforded you expectation of all that would seem good and allure you to brighter worlds. But as was expected, I broke my promise. I had no authority over you; I simply presented you with false inducements attracting your attention and influencing your appetites, and I led the way. Therefore, do not blame me, but you should lay the blame upon yourselves. I cannot help you now, nor can you save me, either, from the torment laid upon the damned. Indeed, I disbelieve in your idea of associating me with Allâh; the unjust wrongdoers are destined to painful torment.”
  23. But those who believed and did righteous deeds have been enrolled as the honored inmates of the beatitude of Heaven in blissful gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will have eternity, Allâh permitting, feeling security and peace of mind: “Peace.”
  24. Do you not see, people, how Allâh exemplifies the good word of truth? It is like a blessed fruit tree whose roots are firmly planted and whose branches are springing out towards heaven.
  25. It yields its produce, its Lord willing, periodically in season. Allâh sets forth parables by which mankind would remind themselves.
  26. A wicked word stands like an wicked tree: it may flourish to begin with, but soon enough it is uprooted from the surface of the earth. It does not have the strength to grow erect, nor does it eventually grow at all.
  27. Allâh confirms those who believe in opinion, action, purpose, and in their words of truth expressing their thoughts and corroborating their faith in life here and at judgment in the Hereafter. Allâh misguides the unjust wrongdoers, and Allâh accomplishes what He decides.
  28. Have you not seen, O Man, into the way these disbelievers act? They exchange the efficacious grace of Allâh for disobedience and infidelity and set up their people in the abode of futility.
  29. The abode is Hell wherein they are enveloped in flames; and miserable, indeed, is the repository.
  30. And they set to Allâh compeers presumptuously possessing a like degree of quality or attribute and at the same level of dignity, power, and excellence to lead people into error and in the wrong direction. Say to them, Muhammad, “Enjoy yourselves; you have decided your own destiny to the Fire.”
  31. O Muhammad, say to My servants who believe that they should engage in the act of prayer and spend, secretly or openly, of the provisions of life that We provisioned them with before the Day comes when there will be no trading nor fellowship.
  32. Allâh is He Who created the heavens and the earth and sent down from heaven rainwater causing the various products to spring up from the soil—products fit to be used as food for human sustenance. He subjected the ships under your dominion to be buoyant by His Command. He ordered the rivers in subservience to your advantage to provide water for you and your plants.
  33. He subjected for you the sun and the moon, constantly revolving their paths, and the night and the day were not subjected but to serve you.
  34. And He made all grace abound in you. He gave you of everything you asked for, and if you were to count the divine favors, you would find them out of all count. But man is, indeed, most unjust most disbelieving.
  35. And mention, Prophet, to your nation what Ibrâhîm (Abraham) expressed in a prayer: “O my Lord, may I ask You to confer on this city (Makkah) security and make it afford a safe retreat and freedom of fear and anxiety, and guard me, O Allâh, and my progeny from worshiping idols.
  36. “These objects of worship, O my Lord, have allured many people who strayed from Your path of righteousness; therefore, he who follows me and submits to Your system of faith and worship will be an integral part of me, and he who disobeys me will be left to plead his causes and You decide them. You are Oft-Forgiving and Ever-Merciful.
  37. “Our Lord, I have made some of my offspring take abode in an uncultivated valley in the vicinity of Your Inviolable House to engage in the act of worship. Let the hearts of people, O Allâh, yearn toward them with tenderness and affection, and provide them with the fruits of the earth so that they may be thankful.
  38. “You know, Our Lord, all our thoughts and all that our hearts conceal, and You know all that we say in public, and simply nothing whatsoever is concealed from Allâh, be it on earth or in the heavens.
  39. “My heart swells and answers thanks to Allâh, Who has bestowed upon me in my old age with the procreation of Ismâ`îl (Ishmael) and Ishâq (Isaac). Indeed, Allâh, is All-Hearing, and He responds to invocation.
  40. “O my Lord, help me express my gratitude to You in the act of prayer, and make me and those whom You will of my offspring devout with prayer. My Lord, and grant me my humble invocations.
  41. “Our Lord, extend Your mercy and forgiveness to me, to my parents, and to the believers on the Day of Judgment when all will answer for their conduct and render an account of their lives.”
  42. Do not think, O Messenger, that Allâh is heedless of the doings of the unjust wrongdoers. He only defers their punishment to a Day when they stand gazing fixedly with their eyes wide open in horror.
  43. They rush at an excessive pace with hearts sinking, lifting up their heads in supplication for forgiveness. Their eyes cannot blink; they are fixedly gazed wide open in terror, and their heart-sights are empty of intellect and of all hope.
  44. Therefore, warn people, O Messenger, of the Day when they are overtaken by Allâh’s torment. Then the unjust wrongdoers will say, “Our Lord, if only You would delay our punishment for a term close at hand, we will apprehend the voice from heaven and follow the messengers.” But they will be told, “Did you not swear before that you will never suffer extinction either in life or in the Hereafter?
  45. “You dwelt in the dwellings of those who were unjust wrongdoers, and much did you apprehend the quiet of their cities, which was purchased by the ruin of their land (and the ultimate wretchedness of both). And We put forth to you parables by which moral and spiritual relations were typically set forth.”
  46. Yet, with cleverness in scheming, the Makkan disbelievers had recourse to stratagem, but all their scheming is with Allâh, notwithstanding that their scheming is so overreaching that it removes mountains.
  47. Therefore, do not think, Messenger, that Allâh will fail His promise to His messengers. Allâh is All-Mighty, indeed, and He justly avenges His own right.
  48. Such a punishment will come into effect on the Day when the planet earth is changed to another planet and the heavens, too. And there, the people emerge from their graves and assemble before Allâh, The One, and The Only Who vanquishes all.
  49. There and then you will see the criminals bound together in fetters (with their devils),
  50. Vested in skins of pitch with their faces enveloped in a veil of flames.
  51. And in accord with equity and justice, Allâh will requite every self with what is commensurate with its qualities and worldly deeds. Surely Allâh is Swif at reckoning.
  52. This is a proclamation sent (from Allâh) to His Messenger to use as a warning to all and to spread it in the wide circle of all so that they may, it is hoped, know that He is One God and that those endowed with intellects may remember.

SÛRAH 15

AL-HIJR

The Rocky Territory

Revealed at Makkah

The sûrah starts with letters of the Arabic alphabet to call attention to the fact that the Qur’ân is composed of the letters that form words. Despite this, it cannot be emulated because it is revealed by Allâh. These letters have long vowels, which draw the attention of those who turn their backs to the Qur’ân and call them to listen to it so that they might benefit from it and be guided by Allâh The All-Mighty.

The sûrah gives examples of what befell previous nations and points out how past prophets were received by their people. It refers to the divine signs of Allâh in the universe, such as the heaven and the constellations, level land, firm mountains, clouds carrying water, and pollen of trees and plants.

The sûrah deals with the very first battle in creation between the accursed Iblîs (Satan) on the one hand, and Âdam and his wife on the other. It shows that this battle between good and evil is going on until the end of this life, when evil will be punished and goodness will be rewarded on the Day of Resurrection. Following this, Allâh narrates the stories of the Prophets Ibrâhîm (Abraham) and Lût (Lot) and that of the people of the rocky territory (al-hijr). The sûrah also points out the high status of the Qur’ân, how the disbelievers received it, and what the Prophet should do in view of their denial of it—namely, to proclaim his mission and make it publicly known, and to worship Allâh until he (the Prophet) inevitably passes away.

In the Name of Allâh,

The All-Merciful, The Ever-Merciful

  1. A (alif). L (lâm). R (). The sûrah opens with these letters from the Arabic alphabet to draw attention to the miracle of the Qur’ân, which, though written in the people’s tongue, cannot be emulated. These are divine verses of the Book and a perspicuous Qur’ân, which stands evident of enlightenment and imparts knowledge, and wisdom.
  2. Perhaps the Day will come sooner than expected when those who disbelieved Allâh wish they had conformed to Islâm as ordained by Him.
  3. Let them feast their senses with infidelity and disobedience and experience with delight the pleasure they draw from such a disposition and be fooled by their hopes; they will come to know that they are doomed to disappointment.
  4. If they ask for worldly punishment like what Allâh inflicted on previous nations, let them know that We never destroyed a town, a people, or a nation but according to a known Book (time).
  5. Nor can a people or a nation hasten their own term earlier than the predetermined date, nor can they delay it either.
  6. Acting against their own best interests, they accuse the Messenger of falsehood. They mockingly say to him, “O you who claim to have received the divine message from Heaven, you are indeed a madman.
  7. “Why then, do you not bring down the angels to substantiate your claim if indeed you are declaring the truth?”
  8. They do not realize that We do not send down the angels except with the Truth (to execute Allâh’s decrees). And if We do send them down, the disbelievers will be respited.
  9. We have sent down the Qur’ân, featuring the virtuous divine message of truth that will never suffer eclipse, and with Us is its preservation against corruption, addition, or loss.
  10. We sent messengers before you, O honorable Messenger, to the various sects of the distant past who were adherents of different systems of faith and worship.
  11. And never did a messenger present himself to them but he suffered malicious mockery and was laughed to scorn (exactly as they are doing to you).
  12. Even as We made the Qur’ân enter the hearts of the believers and enlighten them, We let disbelief enter the hearts of the criminals who grow more and more wicked.
  13. They just refuse to accept his message, notwithstanding that Allâh’s enactment (of punishment), which has long been pursued in the past for each typical instance, will not alter.
  14. And if We were to open to them a gate in Heaven to provide a free passage so as to admit their continued ascent into the realm, they would not believe.
  15. And they would still say, “This is an eye trap. Our eyes have been confused. In fact, we have been bewitched.”
  16. We established in the heavens stars and constellations, and We adorned them with qualities affording keen pleasure to the onlookers.
  17. And We guarded them from disturbing satanic forces and from those with characteristics befitting Satan the outcast.
  18. He who peers inquisitively into the realm to steal whatever comes to his hearing of the speech of the inhabitants of these stars is pursued by a flame of fire (that does not miss).
  19. And We spread out and stretched the earth and furnished it with anchorages (mountains) placed in a certain setting, fixed as with an anchor, and therein did We produce and cause to grow a set of every kind which (preserves your life and) speaks of the bearing of proportion.
  20. And We provisioned you thereon with livelihood, and We provisioned those creatures for which you are not responsible for the necessities of life.
  21. No material or immaterial object but We have infinite treasuries thereof, and what We release from all and each and send down to meet the needs is determined by due estimate.
  22. And We send the wind as an agent of fertilization in plants, and it impregnates also the clouds, and there issues the rain We send down from heaven, and We afford you water to drink. It is not under your dominion or control that you can lay it up in store.
  23. And it is We alone Who give life and occasion the moment of death, and, indeed, it is We Who are in the end the Inheritor of the heavens and the earth.
  24. And We already know those of you whose turn to die comes first, and We already know those of you who would follow later.
  25. And it is Allâh Who will muster them all at Judgment. He is indeed All-Wise and All-Knowing.
  26. And We created man from dried clay, a product of dark clay that has been modeled.
  27. And the jinn We created earlier from a fiery blast of fiercely hot wind.
  28. And mention, Prophet, the origin of creation, when for once Allâh said to the angels, “I am creating a human from dried clay, the product of dark modeling clay.
  29. “And when I have fashioned it and furnished it with a definite shape and imparted to it My spirit, then prostrate yourselves to him (in greeting and admiration).”
  30. There and then did the angels cast themselves down prostrate all of them together.
  31. Except Iblîs (Satan), who refused to join the angels who prostrated themselves in obeisance to Allâh.
  32. “What kept you, Iblîs,” Allâh asked, “from joining those who prostrated themselves down (in greeting and admiration)?”
  33. Iblîs said, “It is not I who would cast himself down in prostration to a mortal whom You created from dried clay, a product of dark modeling clay.”
  34. “Then get out of Paradise,” Allâh said. “You are dismissed and outcast.
  35. “And the curse will pursue you till the Day of Judgment (when you and your followers will be punished).”
  36. Then Iblîs requested, “O my Lord, respite my condemnation till the Day of Resurrection.”
  37. “Respite is granted to you,” Allâh said.
  38. “Till the specified Day on which the point of time has been predetermined. No matter how long it is, it is limited.”
  39. Iblîs said, “O my Lord, now that You have destined me and I have erred, I will entangle them with adornment, and I will misguide them all.
  40. “But not the devout among Your worshipers whose hearts have been touched with the divine faith.”
  41. Allâh said, “This is the path the devout tread. It is the path of righteousness that leads straight to Me.
  42. “My devout worshipers do not come under your authority, nor do you have the power to influence their conduct and actions; you only have influence over those misguided who follow you and in vanity they waste their days.
  43. “And Hell is, indeed, the destination wherein they will all make their promised abode.”
  44. It has seven gates through each of which will enter those appropriated to the degree of suffering that is appointed for their evil deeds.
  45. Whereas those who have piety towards Allâh as He deserves will be blessed with divine favor. They are destined to make abode in blissful Gardens in the beatitude of Heaven watered with running springs.
  46. They will be addressed thus: “Make entry into Paradise. We bid you a hearty welcome wherein you will live in peace, safe and secure.”
  47. And We will have erased rancor from their breasts; now they are an association of brothers seated on settees of dignity facing each other.
  48. There and then they are not overtaken by toil, and they will not be asked to leave or depart therefrom.
  49. Tell My servants, O honorable Prophet, that I am, indeed, The Oft- Forgiving and The Ever-Merciful.
  50. And also tell them that My torment is indeed painful; it is the torment laid upon the damned.
  51. And inform them, Prophet, of the (disguised) angels who were the guests of Ibrâhîm (Abraham).
  52. When they entered his home and greeted him with the expression of good will, “Peace,” he recoiled back and said, “We feel tremulous of you”.
  53. “Do not be tremulous,” they said. “We are here to announce to you the birth of a son Ishâq (Isaac), who will be imbued with wisdom and divine knowledge.”
  54. Ibrâhîm said, “How can you give me such news when I have been carried through age to advanced life? Is this glad tiding that you are telling me?”
  55. They said, “We have told you the glad truth and, therefore, do not entertain the idea that the thing that seems hopeless makes you despondent of Allâh’s mercy.”
  56. “Those who would be despondent of Allâh’s mercy,” Ibrâhîm said, “are only the ones who are lost in the maze of error!
  57. “And now, what is the mission on which you messengers have been sent by Allâh?”
  58. “We have been sent,” the messengers said, “to a criminal people who grow more and more wicked, the people of Lût (Lot).
  59. “But not the family of Lût, all of whom Allâh has commanded us to save,
  60. “Excepting his wife, who did not follow her husband but was with those laggards who deserve the torment.”
  61. And when the messengers presented themselves to Lût,
  62. He said to them, “You are strangers who are foreign to me.”
  63. “But,” said the messengers, “we have brought you pleasant news, the answer to the problem of those who wrangled with your divine message.
  64. “And we have brought you the truth, and we conduct ourselves sincerely in accordance with the divine standard.
  65. “Just escort your family and take them out of this town in the dead hours of the night, walking behind them, and none of you shall look in the direction from which you have left but keep going to where you are commanded.”
  66. And We informed him of this command: “These wicked people shall be uprooted by morning.”
  67. In the meantime there came the city dwellers, displaying their pleasure and joyous delight at the thought of the presence of young men.
  68. “These are my guests,” said Lût. “I beg you not to bring shame upon me.
  69. “And be pious to Allâh and do not disgrace me.”
  70. “Did we not forbid you,” they said, “to entertain people in your house (and prevent us to do what we desire)?”
  71. “There,” said Lût, “you may wed my daughters if you must exercise your desire.”
  72. “By your life, O Prophet,” he was told, “the wicked are wandering here and there being deceived by their blundering in their stupor.”
  73. And there it was: a single shout from Heaven stirred up a merciless blast, which overtook them by sunrise.
  74. And We turned those cities (Sodom and Gomorrah) upside down and rained them with brimstones as hard as baked clay.
  75. These are indeed divine signs making a deep impression on those scrutinizers.
  76. And the evidence still stands on the way as a scene of dismal devastation to the travelers (in the neighborhood of the Dead Sea).
  77. This is indeed a meaningful sign that is quite impressive to the believers.
  78. Thus much did the woodlander people of Madyan wrong themselves and their messenger and were unjust.
  79. And in consequence We took just vengeance on them, and both sites stand evident of the events on a course of travel where people can see.
  80. Similarly did the dwellers of the rocky territory (the Thamûd) deny the truth of the divine message conveyed to them by the messengers (and were wrongdoers).
  81. And We presented them with Our signs betokening omnipotence and authority, but they took objection against them and veered away.
  82. And they hewed the mountains into homes wherein they dwelled and enjoyed safety and security.
  83. Nonetheless, a single shout from Heaven’s realm overtook them by daylight.
  84. And so be it; what they gained of riches and enjoyed of safety did not avail them nor help them avoid destruction.
  85. Nor did We create the heavens and the earth and all that lies between them but in accordance with truth (and for just ends). And the final predetermined Hour is inevitably coming; therefore, Muhammad, pardon your opponent’s human instability with gracious forgiveness.
  86. For, it is Allâh, indeed, Who is the Creator of the whole and of all in all, and He is The All-Knowing.
  87. And We have given you, O honorable Prophet, seven verses of the Qur’ân opening in Allâh’s Name: in praise, in thanks, in action, and in prayer, and the magnificent Qur’ân (which is eminently entitled to the designation, The Great).
  88. Do not direct your sight wistfully, Messenger, at the advantages We gave to some of the disbelievers among the various sects, nor grieve at heart for their disobedience to Allâh. And be soft in temper and disposition to the believers and lower your wing to them.
  89. And say, “I hereby declare to all disbelievers that I am delegated by Allâh to make evident His warning against denying Him and His laws.”
  90. Just as We had sent down a warning to those who treated Our Scriptures (in the way it suited them, dividing them into parts, accepting some, and rejecting others).
  91. And together with the disbelievers they schemed to discredit the Qur’ân by fragmenting it into parts, labeling some as sheer poetry, some as legend, and others as divine.
  92. But by your Lord, your Creator, there will come the Day when all of them will have much to answer for.
  93. And all their misdeeds will be laid to their charge.
  94. Therefore, you just proclaim Allâh’s message, Muhammad, and proclaim all that you have been commanded to declare and veer away from those who associate other deities with Him.
  95. We have guarded you from the danger of those who hold the truth in mockery, and We maintain your cause against their cunning.
  96. And they associate other deities with Allâh, but soon will they know and experience the losses and injuries that are the consequence of their crimes.
  97. And We do know how much their vain talk straitens your breast and oppresses your thoughts and your feelings.
  98. But extols with praise Allâh and His glorious attributes and join yourself to those who prostrate themselves to Him.
  99. And worship Allâh your Creator until the encounter with death, which is, indeed, a matter of certainty.

SÛRAH 16

AN-NAHL

The Bees

Revealed at Makkah

This sûrah was revealed at Makkah, except for the last three verses, which were revealed at Madînah. The sûrah starts with an assurance of the punishment that will be inflicted on those who associate other deities with Allâh and a statement of Allâh’s ability to carry out His decree, a token of which is the creation of the heavens and the earth. Allâh then mentions His blessings bestowed on all people. These blessings entail the necessity of thanking Him and worshiping Him alone.

The sûrah also portrays how those who associate other deities with Allâh received the call to the oneness of Allâh, made false allegations against the glorious Qur’ân, and claimed that it was fables of old. Then Allâh points out the torment of those who associate others with Him on the Day of Resurrection and the bliss of the believers. He mentions the polytheists’ adamant denial of the resurrection. Allâh counters their denial by showing how feeble they are. He confirms His promise to the righteous and His threat to the disbelievers. Then He speaks of resurrection by showing His omnipotence over them and how the whole universe is subjected to Him. He also exposes the polytheists’ fables in believing that their idols possess power when they can do neither harm nor good, and in believing that the female is inferior to the male.

Allâh then refers to the previous messengers and mentions some of the lessons to be learned: how He created and formed things of use to man; how He gave different amounts of provisions to the rich and the poor; how He blessed man in creating males and females and their procreating children through marriage. Allâh gives parables of His omnipotence and greatness. He then shows the rules of Islâm pertaining to justice, the maintenance of family relations, and the fulfillment of promises.

And again He shows the inimitability of the Qur’ân and the polytheists’ disbelief in it and their false allegations against it. He points out the status of the polytheists on the Day of Resurrection, and how in life they judge things as lawful or prohibited without any evidence. He also says that the Jews who are close to polytheists will be punished in the same way. He bids the believers to be steadfast and patient, righteous and benevolent.

In the Name of Allâh,

 The All-Merciful, The Ever-Merciful

  1. Allâh’s Command is coming to pass (and so you disbelievers need not reproach the Messenger for divine visitation in a sarcastic way). So do not cut off your last hope of forgiveness by wishing (scornfully) that it be hastened on. Glory be to Him and extolled are His glorious attributes; He is infinitely far beyond those whom they associate with Him.
  2. He sends down the angels with the Spirit of His Command on whom He chooses of His worshipers as He wills, warning people of the danger of polytheism and to relate to them thus: “There in no god but Me, so entertain the profound piety due to Me.”
  3. He has created the heavens and the earth in accordance with truth and for just ends. He is infinitely Exalted far beyond those they associate with Him.
  4. He created man from a sperm-drop emitted, yet man is an evident adversary, more ready to argue than to obey.
  5. And He created the cattle, camels, sheep, and goats (al-an`âm) for you to advantage yourselves for warmth. And you make use of them for other purposes, and they are raised to serve as food.
  6. And they afford you keen pleasure to the sense of sight when you drive them home (with filled stomachs) and when you lead them to pasture to graze.
  7. And they carry your burdens to a land you could not have reached but with arduous toil. Your Lord is indeed Compassionate and Most-Merciful.
  8. He also created horses, mules, and asses for you to ride and to use as an adornment, and He creates what is yet unknown to you.
  9. It is Allâh Who indicates to you the way to tread, the path of truth, with some ways deviating from righteousness. And had He willed, He would have guided you all to the one path leading directly to Him.
  10. It is He Who sends down the rainwater from heaven, suitable to drink and instrumental in springing up vegetation for your cattle, camels, sheep, and goats to graze and to supply you with milk, meat, and wool.
  11. And therewith He causes vegetal growth of grain, olives, palm trees, grapes, and of all kinds of fruits. Indeed, all this is emblematic of omnipotence—food for thought taken by those who meditate.
  12. And He subjected for you the night and the day, the sun and the moon to a state of subservience, and He ordered the stars and the planets in subservience to your advantage and your end—signs of omnipotence and authority making a deep impression on those who consider.
  13. Next comes all that He distributed to your necessity and advantage of objects of various glorious colors within and without the surface of the earth. This is, indeed, a great sign to those who remember Allâh and lift to Him their inward sight.
  14. It is He Who made the sea subservient to you to use as a source of aliment and ornaments. You eat of its fresh and tender flesh and wear its coral and pearls. And you see the ships parting its surface and plowing its billowy waves. They help you accomplish your object of seeking after His bounty to the end that you may be thankful.
  15. And He cast in the earth with firm mountains placed in a certain setting, fixed as with an anchor to stabilize it lest it should reel with you from side to side or in all directions. And He furnished it with rivers and roadways to use as a guide in your travels from one place to another.
  16. And He created other visible waymarks together with the stars serving as guideposts to guide people on land and at sea.
  17. Therefore, would He Who creates and brings things into existence out of nothingness be likened to him who simply can never create any entity? Can you people not consider this?
  18. And if you were to count the favors of Allâh, you would find them uncountable, innumerable. Allâh is indeed Oft-Forgiving and Ever-Merciful.
  19. And Allâh is All-Knowing of all that you converse secretly, and He knows what you utter aloud.
  20. And those whom they invoke besides Allâh are incapable of creating any entity. On the contrary, they themselves have been created.
  21. Inanimate dead idols and lifeless objects insensible to feeling and knowing, unaffected by anything specified. They do not perceive resurrection nor when their devotees will be resurrected. (Therefore, it is not proper for you to associate them with Allâh in worship.)
  22. In fact, things all around point clearly to you people that your God is absolutely One Eternal God. Those who deny Hereafter simply close their hearts and demonstrate pride that get the better of their prudence.
  23. Allâh is, indeed, fully knows all that they converse secretly or openly declare and of all that is being said. He does not love the arrogant who exercise inordinate pride.

24 And when they are asked if they know what Allâh has sent down, they dismiss it (contemptuously) with the remark “myths of old.”

  1. Such is the disposition of those who will bear their burdensome lot at Judgment and the burden of their wrongs in full, in addition to the wrongs of those unknowing people whom they misled into error. Evil, indeed, is the fate of those who are burdened with wrongs, and evil, indeed, are the wrongs they bear!
  2. Potent was the scheming of their predecessors that it deserved Allâh’s punishment. He struck them at the bases of their foundation, their roofs collapsed over their heads, and they were unexpectedly tormented unaware.
  3. And at Judgment they will be put to disgrace and be asked the whereabouts of those associates whom they once presumed to be divine and in whose favor they contended with opposing arguments against Allâh’s omnipotence and authority. There and then those with knowledge will say, “This is the Day when disgrace and torment are laid upon those disbelievers.”
  4. They are those who persist in doing wrong and continue firmly in the state of disbelief in Allâh until the encounter with the angels of death. There and then they express their submissiveness to Allâh and learn at last acceptance of their lot and claim they never did wrong. But the angels say to them, “But you did, and Allâh is indeed All-Knowing of all you did.”
  5. “And now,” they add, “enter through the gates of Hell, wherein you will pass to eternal suffering. Odious, indeed, is the abode of the proud arrogant.”
  6. So would those who believed in Allâh be asked if they knew what Allâh has sent down. “All that is truthful and charitable,” they say, “and all that was imparted to us of knowledge, wisdom, and light.” These and such persons whose deeds were imprinted with wisdom and piety in life below will reap the fruits of their piety. Allâh bestows on them His efficacious grace here, and His efficacious grace is far better for them hereafter; and how excellent and supreme is the heavenly residence of the pious!
  7. It is the Gardens of Eden wherein they enter and experience the pleasure afforded by the rivers running directly beneath. Therein they will have whatever they desire to give them pleasure for thus does Allâh reward those who are pious to Him as He deserves.
  8. They are the good ones whose lives the angels take up. The angels greet them with the expressions of good will: “Peace be upon you. Enter into Paradise, which is the reward commensurate with your deeds.”
  9. Do the disbelievers wait until some fitting event presents itself and they distinctly perceive the angels or experience the execution of Allâh’s decree of punishment? Thus much did their predecessors behave, and We did not do them injustice, but it was they who unjustly wronged themselves.
  10. By consequence, the evil deeds they committed afflict them, and they were beset on all sides by the same things they had mocked.
  11. And to excuse their disbelief, the polytheists insolently say, “Had Allâh willed, neither our fathers nor we would have worshiped other gods besides Him, nor would we have invented prohibitions other than those decreed by Him.” Thus badly acted their predecessors. But is the Messenger really responsible for any act or duty other than proclaiming the divine message and elucidating its text?
  12. And to every nation We sent a messenger to say to them, “Worship Allâh alone and avoid at any cost worshiping anything else—human or idol.” And so, among the people there were those whom Allâh had guided to His path of righteousness and others who were justifiably led into error. See how was the end of the beliers.
  13. In fact, if you, Prophet, are anxious for their guidance to Allâh’s path of righteousness, you had better realize that Allâh does not guide those who thrive on disobedience and draw His wrath on themselves, nor will they find those who vindicate them.
  14. And the polytheists swear by Allâh that Allâh will never resurrect anyone once he is dead. But indeed He will. This is a divine promise, and the promise of Allâh is the truth, but most people do not know this.
  15. It is an act of mercy to both the guilty and the innocent that Allâh resurrects the dead and restores them to life to make evident to them the points upon which the whole unreasoning turned and the points that were once in the heat of difference so that the disbelievers who denied Him and His laws realize how unjust they were liars.
  16. Indeed, all it takes when We will to bring anything into existence is simply to say to it “Be” and it is.
  17. And those who migrated because of persecution and moved to where they could best serve Allâh’s cause will be the recipients of His mercy and blessings. We will confer on them Our prevenient and efficacious location here; the efficacious grace promised hereafter is, indeed, far greater if only they knew.
  18. These are the votaries who had patience, purposed to fulfill their obligation to Allâh, and in Him they put their trust.
  19. And never did We send messengers before you, Prophet, but they were men (not angels) to whom We revealed Our message. Therefore, you disbelievers may ask those who are well versed in the earlier Scriptures (Jews and Christians) if, indeed, you do not know.
  20. We sent to them clear revelations and signs, as well as the Zubur (the Book revealed to Dâwûd [David]; the Psalms), which guide out of darkness and superstitions of later times. And We sent down to you, Prophet, the Qur’ân to explain to the people all that has been sent to them of decrees, ordinances, and the fundamental principles of Allâh’s system of faith and worship so that they may meditate.
  21. And now does the disbelievers’ scheming bad deeds make them feel secure against Allâh’s wrath, while this may cause the earth to sink under their feet, or they may unexpectedly be seized with torment from where they never expected or perceived.
  22. Or are they certain that He will not seize them with punishment in the midst of their doings and that they will not be defiant?
  23. Or that He will not punish them by constant sense of danger and cause their gradual fall from power. At some point they may wake up for Allâh is indeed Oft-Forgiving and Ever-Merciful.
  24. Did the disbelievers not see into Allâh’s cosmic sign of the shadow, and how everything that He has created casts its shadow upon a surface by intercepting the direct rays of the sun and other luminaries, and how objects turn their shadows right and left according to the relative position of the source of light, and how such shadows are governed by cosmic laws in comely and lowly prostration to Allâh.
  25. And to Allâh all created beings in the heavens and all moving creatures on earth prostrate themselves in reverence and adoration, and so do the angels, who do not display pride.
  26. They entertain the profound reverence and fear due to Him and keep in awe of Him Who is far above them and beyond all, and they discharge their duties in obedience to His command*.
  27. And Allâh has made evident His oneness and uniqueness. He repeatedly said, “Do not worship two gods; He is One and Only; therefore, fear Me and keep in awe of Me alone.”
  28. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth, and religion is a duty and an obligation lasting and incumbent on all. Therefore, will you all hold in piety a god other than Allâh?
  29. Do you people not realize that all favor abounding in you is the grace of Allâh? And when you are befallen with an adversity, it is to Him that you instinctively implore, pray, and beseech for help.
  30. Yet when He delivers you from the adversity a group of you associate other deities with their Lord.
  31. [That is] a way of showing ingratitude and the indisposition to acknowledge the benefits received. But you just keep lusting after your sinful system of faith and worship, and before long you will come to know the consequence of denying the truth.

———————-

* A prostration should be performed here.

  1. They dedicate to their idols, designating them ignorantly as gods, a part of what We apportioned to them of Our bounty (cattle and crops) when neither themselves nor their belongings or possessions are really their own, but Allâh’s own. By Allâh, you disbelievers will have much to answer for and will be heavily punished for your fabrication.
  2. They presume upon Allâh; they regard the angels as females and ascribe them to Him as His daughters. Extolled be He! Yet they ascribe to themselves the males, the sex they approve and favorably accept.
  3. When any of them hears the news of the birth of his own female child, his countenance at once speaks dark dejection, and he falls into the darkness of repressed dismay.
  4. He hides from people or keeps out of sight because of the news, which allegedly defames him and harms his repute. He does not know whether to keep his child alive and be both defamed and despised, or to bury her in the dust. Evil indeed is the resolution uniting their judgment.
  5. Their image would always be an exact similitude of evil, and Allâh, like unto Him, there is none. And He is The All-Mighty, The All-Wise.
  6. And if Allâh were to punish the people for their unjust doings the minute they commit themselves to such a line of conduct, He would not allow one single living creature to remain on earth. But He defers them to a predetermined point of time so that, it is hoped, they may repent. And when their time comes, they will never be able to delay it or anticipate it for one hour.
  7. And they ascribe to Allâh the female sex that they themselves hate, and their tongues speak falsehood far in excess. They presume upon Allâh that all that is fair and pleasing will fall to their lot. It is no question that they will be rushed to the Fire.
  8. Rest assured, Prophet, by Allâh, that We sent messengers before you to nations who preceded in order of time. (They presented them with the truth guiding to all truth.) But Satan allured them to brighter worlds as a result of their doings, and he led the way then and he leads it now amid the encircling gloom wherein he is their patron, but they will suffer painful torment.
  9. And We have sent down the Book (the Qur’ân) to you, Muhammad, only to serve Allâh’s purpose and be of service in effecting Allâh’s object of making evident to the various sects and to the people at large the points in the heat of differences. It is the truth that guides to all truth, as well as a mercy to those who believe in Allâh and the Books He sent.
  10. And it is Allâh Who sends down rainwater from the heaven wherewith He revives the earth after it has suffered death. This is, indeed, a sign for a people who hear.
  11. And you certainly have a lesson in cattle (serving as an incitement and exhortation to you people). We supply you with a drink from their bellies, a drink produced in the udders by conjoint action between chyle (the product of chyme or digested food in the intestines) and blood, which carries to the udders all necessary aliment and elements, and there flows wholesome milk, pure white and palatable to those who drink it.
  12. And out of the products of the date palm and the vine you extract sweet juices and other wholesome provision, another sign (among the marvels of Allâh), esteemed highly by those who consider.
  13. And Allâh has revealed to the bees with the instinct of building their homes or hives in the mountains, on the trees, and in the trellis (constructed for the climbing vines amid people’s habitations),
  14. And to collect their food from the nectar produced by the blossoms of the various kinds of fruits and to travel the paths to which Allâh has guided them. There issues from their bellies a nutritious, juicy drink of varying colors, affording cure to mankind. Indeed, this is an outward and visible sign of grace appreciated by people who meditate.
  15. And Allâh is He Who brought you people into being (and caused you to exist). Then He takes you up, and among you is he who is carried through to decrepit age that he loses the wits once about him, and he loses remembrance of the knowledge he had formerly mastered, surely Allâh is Ever-Knowing, Ever-Determiner.
  16. And it is Allâh Who graced some of you with more livelihood than others and made His grace abound more in some than in others. And those who are graced will not go shares with what has fallen to their lot with those whom they have on hand (captives and slaves) so that they be as the master although they are humans like themselves. How then do they make Allâh go shares with His servants? Is this not simply a repudiation of His favor that abounds in them?
  17. And it is Allâh Who provided you with wives and from them did He bless you with sons and grandsons. And He provisioned you with the wholesome sustenance of food and drink. Is it then that the disbelievers assert falsehood and will not esteem Allâh’s efficacious favor abounding in them?
  18. Yet they worship besides Allâh objects with no power to provision them anything from the heavens or from the earth, nor can they possibly do that.
  19. And you disbelievers must not strike similitudes for Allâh, and like unto Him there is none (therefore, do not make any comparisons between Him and created beings), for Allâh knows and you do not.
  20. Allâh cites an instance of two men. One is a slave, the property of his master, who is divested of freedom and personal rights; the other is the master in whom Our fair provision abounds; he is free to spend in services secretly and publicly. Can they achieve something equal or possess a like degree in any aspect of life? Never! (Therefore, how can Allâh the Creator of all be equaled with any being?) Praise be to Him, (and extolled are His glorious attributes) but most of them do not know.
  21. Again Allâh strikes a similitude of two other men to illustrate a general truth: one of them is dumb, unable to accomplish anything, totally dependent on his patron for his livelihood. Wherever his master sends him to perform a job, he utterly fails to accomplish the desired end. Is he equal to him who is whole and just and who keeps on the path of righteousness?
  22. And it is Allâh alone Who is All-Knowing of all the Unseen, the unknown, and the mysteries in the heavens and the earth, which are beyond human knowledge or comprehension. The bringing about of the eventful, predetermined Hour takes as much time as the twinkling of an eye or even less. Allâh is All-Determiner, indeed, over all things
  23. And it is Allâh Who brought you from your mothers’ wombs to the external world unconscious of your surroundings, (devoid of intellectual acquaintance or with perception of your environment) and empty of all knowledge. He provided you with the faculties of hearing and seeing, faculties divine, and He implanted in you the heart-sight that you may, it is hoped, be thankful.
  24. Do the disbelievers not apply their sight to the birds moving through mid-air in the firmament of heaven? No one keeps them in the air but Allâh Who designed their construction and made it fit for its purpose. Is this not, indeed, emblematic of omnipotence, to which bow the people who believe?
  25. And it is Allâh Who made of your homes a dwelling of calm and peace; of the skins of animals He provided you with portable homes (tents) easy to carry in your travels from place to place and to pitch them where you choose to rest. And from the animals’ wool, fur, and hair He furnished you with movable articles, goods, and chattels to enjoy up to a predetermined point of time.
  26. And it is Allâh Who made the trees and other objects He created cast shades (when they intercept light), to protect you from the scorching heat of the sun. And He hollowed out for you caves in the hills and the mountains to shelter you, and He equipped you with garments to protect you from the heat and other garments (armor) to shield you from the weapons when you combat in warfare. Thus does Allâh mean to make all favor abound in you that you may, it is hoped, conform to Islâm.
  27. O Prophet, if they should yet turn a deaf ear, you incur no blame, for you are responsible only for delivering the evident proclamation (and elucidating its text).
  28. These disbelievers fully know Allâh’s favor abounding in them, but their wrongful actions and their impious deeds bespeak clearly of the denial of Allâh’s favors. And those of them who disbelieve in Allâh’s goodwill constitute the majority.
  29. The day will come when We raise again a witness from every nation (the messenger sent to them) to testify of his peoples’ response. There and then those who dibelieved in Allâh will never be permitted to plea in justification of their deeds of inequity. And if they invoke His forgiveness, they will not be allowed to amend.
  30. And on the Day the unjust are confronted with the torment, it will never be lightened nor be put in respite.
  31. And when those who associated other deities with Allâh see their partners, they will say, “O Allâh, these are our partners whom we invoked besides You.” But the partners will cast back the charge and say to them, “You are indeed liars. (You did not worship us, but you worshiped your whims, and we are no partners to you.)”
  32. There and then the disbelievers will offer submission to the will of Allâh and whatever they used to fabricate will err away from them.
  33. Those who disbelieved in Allâh and stood in the way to prevent His truth from guiding people to all truth from Allâh will have much to answer for. We will increase their torment above torment. They will be requited for the denial of Allâh and for obstructing divine truth and corruption.
  34. The day will come when We raise again a witness from every nation—the messenger who evolved from their midst and conveyed Our message—to testify to his peoples’ response, and We summon you, O Prophet, to testify of your peoples’ response. The Qur’ân that We sent down to you is the fountainhead of divine knowledge and the chief source of divine information. It is a guide to all truth, a mercy extended to the people, and joyful tidings to Muslims.
  35. Allâh commands justice, deeds of wisdom and piety, and benevolence to those of your kindred who are in need. And He forbids all that is wrongful and obscene, all that is maleficent and excites disgust and unwarranted iniquity course of action. He exhorts you to what is good and laudable, that you may, it is hoped, consider.
  36. And fulfill the solemn covenant if you make one, and keep the vow and do not break the oaths after being ratified and after you have made solemn appeal to Allâh in Sponsor thereof. Allâh knows all that you perform.
  37. Do not be like the unstable workwoman who unravels the strands of her woven fabric after she has manufactured it (in a loom). What a tangled web you weave when you deceive. You use your oaths fraudulently among yourselves; you break and dishonor your vows with the weak when you find them more advantageous with the strong and more numerous. Allâh tries your prudence and on the Day of Judgment He will clear up matters with which you were at difference.
  38. Had Allâh willed, He would have made all of you one nation united in feeling and thought, but He deafens the heart of whom He pleases and guides whom He wills. Rest assured that you will be questioned for all that you did in this life on the Day of Judgment (and will be rewarded accordingly).
  39. And do not fraudulently use your oaths among yourselves to practice deception lest one’s foot should slide and lose its hold after it has been holding in a stable position and you suffer the evil consequence of precluding Allâh’s way from guiding to all truth and you suffer a tremendous torment.
  40. And do not dishonor My covenant or exchange it for the vanity of the fleeting and ephemeral price. What Allâh has in store for those who honor their vows is indeed in superlatives if only you knew.
  41. What you people may have of advantages will be depleted; whereas, what Allâh has is eternal and everlasting. And We will richly recompense those who possessed patience that was purposed to fulfill their obligation to Allâh. Their reward will be assessed according to the best of their deeds.
  42. Anyone—male or female—whose deeds are imprinted with wisdom and piety and will be made to enjoy a good and happy life that is worth living. And We will recompense them in the hereafter according to the best of their worldly deeds.
  43. And when you recite the Qur’ân begin with the opening formula of seeking Allâh’s refuge against the outcast Satan.”
  44. He has no authority on those who believe and who trust in Allâh and draw help from Him.
  45. But he exerts authority upon those who take him as a patron and associate other deities with Allâh.
  46. If We happen to exchange a verse for another verse—and Allâh knows exactly what to reveal and when—the disbelievers accuse you, Muhammad, of fabrication. Indeed, most of them do not know.
  47. Say to them, “All divine revelations are being conveyed by the Holy Spirit from your Lord with the truth to strengthen those whose hearts have believed, and they are a guidance and glad tidings to the Muslims.”
  48. And We do know what they say: “He (Muhammad) is being taught by a man who dictates to him the words he expresses to the people.” But the man they refer to is foreign while the Qur’ân is being revealed in an evident Arabic language.
  49. Indeed, those who do not believe in Allâh’s revelations (signs) will not be blessed with Allâh’s guidance to His path of righteousness and must expect the torment that will be laid upon them.
  50. Those who dare to intentionally fabricate falsehood are but those who do not believe in Allâh’s revelations, and it is they who are the liars.
  51. He who disbelieves in Allâh after having believed in Allâh’s will, will suffer for it unless he was forced to do so by persecution but deep down he preserves a heart happily maintaining belief. But he who cunningly and deceptively rejects the idea of faith will draw Allâh’s anger upon himself, and these are they who will pass to eternal torment.
  52. This is on account of their love for life here before that in the hereafter, besides the fact that Allâh does not guide to His path of righteousness those who are disbelievers.
  53. These are they whose hearts Allâh has set a seal of dullness of comprehension and whose faculties of hearing and sight lack perception, and these are the heedless.
  54. It is no question that in the hereafter they will be the losers.
  55. Nevertheless, Allâh accepts true repentance and the atonement made by people. Therefore, those who immigrated to where they could best serve Allâh after they had suffered temptation and persecution, and who strove in Allâh’s cause and endured the hardships with patience and perseverance, will find Allâh indeed Oft-Forgiving, Ever-Merciful.
  56. The Day will come when each self disputing on behalf of itself and is requited with what is commensurate with its deeds, and never will they be done injustice.
  57. Allâh represents the fate of those who rebelled against His law by means of a similitude of the town in which His grace abounded in security and in opulent supplies of provisions from every direction. But instead of living contentedly with ever thankful hearts, its people were disbelieving and ungrateful to Allâh and disobedient to His laws. Consequently, He afflicted the town with humiliation and hunger and fear devolving upon it in requital of what its peoples were doing.
  58. A messenger from among them was sent to them (with the spirit of truth guiding to all truth), but they denied Our message and accused him of falsehood. In consequence, they were unjust and were made to suffer torment.
  59. Therefore, you Muslims, eat of what Allâh provisioned you lawful and good; it is replete with choice of all delight. And be thankful to Allâh for His grace, if it is He Whom you worship.
  60. He only forbids you to eat the flesh of a dead beast, blood, the flesh of swine, and the acclaimed flesh of a beast slaughtered under the invocation of a name other than that of Allâh. But if one disobeys under compelling circumstances and not through willful disobedience and transgression, Allâh will admit of excuse that no sin is incurred. Allâh is, indeed, Oft-Forgiving and Ever-Merciful.
  61. Do not speak falsehood at the grossness of which common sense revolts. You create prohibitions for yourselves and designate this as lawful and that as forbidden, wherefore you assert what is false and ascribe it to Allâh. Those who fabricate falsehood to Allâh or wittingly endeavor by falsification of words to make things seem divine that are not, will not prosper.
  62. They derive pleasure and enjoyment from their falsehood, but the pleasure it affords them is of a short duration. Then comes the encounter with the painful torment.
  63. As for the Jews, We prohibited for them—for their iniquities—the things We have already mentioned to you earlier, O Prophet. We were never unjust to them, but it was they who always did injustice to themselves.
  64. Nevertheless, Allâh always extends mercy and forgiveness to those who wrong themselves in ignorance and repent thereafter, imprinting their deed with wisdom and piety. Allâh is indeed Oft-Forgiving and Ever-Merciful.
  65. Ibrâhîm (Abraham) was, indeed, a perfect leader of excellence: submissive to the will of Allâh and a devout unswerving Muslim. He never associated other deities with Allâh.
  66. He was always thankful for the favors of Allâh abounding in him. Allâh selected him and guided him to His path of righteousness.
  67. And We bestowed upon him Our prevenient and efficacious reward here, and he will be among the righteous in the hereafter.
  68. And We revealed to you, O Prophet, what We ordained: that you follow the system of faith and worship followed by Ibrâhîm, the unswerving Muslim who never associated other deities with Allâh.
  69. The Sabbath was imposed on those who were hardhearted and always differed about it and argued against its validity and its timing (the Jews on Saturday and the Christians on Sunday. And many among them defiantly and shamefully broke it). And they will always contend with opposing arguments until Allâh will judge between them about their dispute on the Day of Judgment.
  70. O Prophet, call people graciously to the path of (Allâh) your Lord, the path of righteousness, with wise, graceful, and appropriate admonition, meeting them on their own ground and propitiating them, each in his own capacity. Reason with them in a gracious manner. Allâh (your lord) knows best those who have erred away from His way of righteousness, and He knows best those who steer a straight course and whose guide is Providence.
  71. And if you should inflict punishment, exact retribution, or make reprisals for injury, harm, or wrong, then you may avenge your right with a similar injury and to the same extent. But if you bear the wrong and endure patiently (as an obligation to Allâh and not as a reflection of human weakness) you will derive great benefits, and advantage yourselves of Allâh’s charity.
  72. And have patience, Prophet. Show forbearance under their provocation, and bear with them their faults and limitations. For in patience you apply yourself unto Allâh. And do not be grieved at heart for their denial of the divine message (and for their hearts that dare rise defiant against Allâh). Nor should you be sorely distressed on account of their scheming.
  73. Rest assured that Allâh upholds those who entertain the profound piety due to Him, and turn their thoughts on moral excellence and fair benevolence.

SÛRAH 17

AL-’ISRÂ’

The Night Journey

Revealed at Makkah

The sûrah starts by glorifying Allâh. Then it mentions the Night Journey and the mission of Mûsâ (Moses) and how the Children of Isrâ’îl received it. The sûrah refers to the status of the Qur’ân as a guide to the truth, to the cosmic signs of day and night, and to how people will be judged on the Day of Resurrection according to what they did in this life. Allâh shows the reasons behind the corruption of nations, the position of people as regards their endeavors, and the results of their deeds in the hereafter. The following verses ordain holding one’s parents in esteem, show the attitude of people toward their riches, and give ten commandments to build a righteous society. The sûrah then refutes the false claims of the polytheists as regards angels and shows that such claims are baseless.

Allâh then speaks of the glorification He deserves and of the polytheists’ denial. Allâh gives commandments to the believers and shows His treatment with disbelievers in this world and in the hereafter. Then Allâh speaks of the creation of man and Satan. Again Allâh warns the polytheists. He then deals with human dignity and reminds of the torment on the Day of Resurrection. Then He mentions the attempts of the polytheists to make the Prophet abandon his mission and how Allâh provided him with the ability to overcome these attempts. Then Allâh gives several guiding commandments to the Prophet as well as supplications with which to invoke Allâh.

The sûrah then again refers to the status of the Qur’ân, and it deals with the spirit (ruh) and its secrets. Allâh mentions the inimitable nature of the Qur’ân and the inability of jinn and humans to produce anything similar to it. He shows the attitude of people toward the Qur’ân and His ability to bring about other verses. Finally, Allâh shows that the Qur’ân includes the truth. He shows the position of the true believers and that they should always thank Allâh and praise Him.

In the Name of Allâh,

The All-Merciful, The Ever-Merciful

  1. Glory be to Allâh and extolled are His glorious attributes attendant upon His manifestation of conducting His servant by night from the Inviolable Mosque (in Makkah) to the farthest mosque (Al-Aqsâ in Jerusalem), whose precincts We had blessed. It was a journey that was planned without the factors of time or space to show him some of Our signs evincing both Our omnipotence and all-hearing. Allâh is indeed All-Hearing (with unlimited audition) and All-Seeing (Who clearly sees all things).
  2. It was within these precincts, which constituted the heart of the sacred environs. And We sent to them Mûsâ (Moses), to whom We gave the Book (the Tawrâh), which We made a guidance to the Children of Isrâ’îl. And We enjoined them thus: “Take no trustee other than Me.”
  3. They were the offspring of those whom We carried in the ark with Nûh (Noah), who was a thankful worshiper in whose heart reigned piety and gratitude.
  4. We decreed for the Children of Isrâ’îl in the Book, thus: “You will occasion two events of self-induced corruption; twice your arrogance will stir you up to exaltation and be your greatest incitement of evil, to the end that you will go to mischief and create discord.”
  5. When in due time the first occasion came to pass, We humbled your arrogance by wedding you to a calamity. We sent against you servants of Ours invested with merciless violence and martial daring, who ravaged deep in the land and made their way right through your residences. And there the promise was fulfilled.
  6. When the conquerors abounded in self-conceit and you humbled yourselves to Allâh, We gave you back mastery over them and We made you abound more in manpower.
  7. There you can see that if you do fair deeds, you advantage yourselves of good behavior. But if you should bode ill, misbehave, or commit odious deeds, you will have harmed your own selves. Then, when in due time the second occasion came to pass, you were overpowered and vanquished so that your countenances are disgraced, and the enemies broke into the Mosque as they did once before and annihilated all that they acquired.
  8. May Allâh have mercy on you! But should you resume your iniquities, We will, in turn, resume Our punishment. We have made Hell the dungeon’s grim confines for the disbelievers.
  9. This Qur’ân does indeed guide to the best way of moral rightness (which has had everlasting residence in the character of the Godhead and to the uprightness of decision). It announces joyful tidings to the believers (who acknowledge Allâh with believing hearts and do righteous deeds): they will be recipients of a great reward.
  10. And it announces an ominous destiny to those who do not believe in the Hereafter: that they must expect the painful torment laid upon the damned.
  11. Man moves quickly and sometimes unjustly to invoke evil upon people, just as he moves quickly to invoke a blessing upon them, for man has a natural propensity in him to be unduly hasty.
  12. We made the night and the day two outward, visible signs. We effaced the light from the entity of the night. We made the day a visible entity for objects to be perceptible by the sense of sight in order to betake yourselves to Providence, for His bounty, and in order to know the number of the years. This is also to reckon the time occupied by the sun in its apparent passage through the zodiac and the period of the earth’s revolution round the sun, which form a natural unit of time so that you can compute time and determine it by reckoning. And everything did We expound and make plain and abounding in detail.
  13. We encircled the neck of every human being with a bird of omen (as it were) auguring good or ill, and on the Day of Judgment We will present each with a book spread open bearing his precise record laid open to view.
  14. There and then each will be told, “Read your own book and enough is your secret self today to be your constant reckoner.”
  15. Indeed, he who is steered by the spirit of truth benefits his own self, and he who errs and strays from the path of truth and righteousness will harm his own self. No self, bearing wrongs or not, will in any way bear the wrong of another, nor would We inflict a torment on a people until We had sent to them a messenger (serving as a warning and they turned a deaf ear).
  16. And when We justly decide on perishing a town for its iniquity, We incite those of its luxuriant people to indulge in the style of shameless immorality, and there comes the true Word that was predicted beforehand (that they are to be losers) and We destroy it.
  17. How many generations have We caused to perish after Nûh (Noah), and enough is Allâh as Ever-Cognizant, Ever-Beholding of the guilty deeds of His servants (and He will punish them in return).
  18. He who is willing to go by the world and its fleeting, evanescent, and ephemeral enjoyment will find Allâh to respond to whom He wills and to apportion to him what He wills. But in the end We will make Hell his abode to roast, reprobated, despised, and rejected.
  19. But he who chooses the hereafter and has purposed and directs his efforts to fulfilling the requirements incidental to this end with a believing heart—he and such persons will find that their endeavor is esteemed and highly appreciated.
  20. Those and these are given what is apportioned to them. We bestow on both of them of our bounty, and never was the bounty of Allâh restricted to any limits.
  21. See how We have graced some in status, rank, or fortune above others! And We have made the hereafter excel the world below and be the world of grace.
  22. Do not set up with Allâh another god or associate other deities with Him lest you should be reprobated and left humiliated and abandoned.
  23. Allâh your Creator has ordained that you worship no one but Him and you adore Him with appropriate acts and rites and that you commit your parents to your fairest care. When one or both of them attain old age (they expect your friendly disposition by your conduct to them). Therefore, do not offend them by saying “Fie” or by giving vent to an exclamation of impatience or disgust, nor should you scold or reprimand them, and let your speech with them be sweet.
  24. And lower to them the wing of power in humility, standing manifest of kindness and mercy, and invoke Allâh to be merciful to them thus: “O Allâh, I pray and beseech You to extend to them Your mercy in return for their bringing me up in my childhood.”
  25. (Allâh) your Lord knows best your thoughts and feelings and all that is stored in your innermost being. If you are righteous, He is, indeed, Ever-Forgiving to those who humbly resort to Him repenting.
  26. And render to the poor being of kin his rightful due and also to the indigent and to the wayfarer who does not have the means for transportation; but do not squander wastefully.
  27. Indeed, the squanderers given to excessive expenditure are the twins of the satanic, and Satan has been rebellious, disobedient, and ever-disbelieving to Allâh his Lord.
  28. But if you keep away from those of them who are needy, in expectation of Allâh’s mercy to help you be helpful to them, then let your speech with them, until then, be reasonable and sweet.
  29. And do not shackle your hand to your neck, as it were, unwilling to spend anything. Nor should you spread it wide open, lest you sit blameworthy brooding in the vast abyss of reprimand and woeful want.
  30. Indeed, (Allâh) your Lord gives provision generously and confers support gratuitously to whom He wills, and He also gives by measure to whom He wills. He has always been All-Cognizant and All-Seeing, Whose constant vigilance is extended to all His creatures.
  31. Do not kill your children for fear of want. We provide for them and for you. Indeed, killing them has been a flagrant violation of Allâh’s system of faith and worship and a major sin.
  32. Nor should you even come close to committing adultery. It is a forbidden sexual union regarded by Allâh as an immoral act, a degrading vice, and an obscenity.
  33. Nor should you kill a self that Allâh has made inviolable unless it be justified for a proven crime. And if someone has been killed unjustly, then his patron is authorized by Allâh to use the means of procuring redress of grievances through avenging his right. But should he choose to avenge his right, he must not carry it to excess, for the divine law is on his side.
  34. Nor should you come near the property of the orphan, unless it be with the motive of improving, advancing, or raising it to be a better quality or condition, until he reaches maturity and is able to take charge of it. Fulfill the solemn covenant if you should make one, and keep the vow, and meet your engagements and obligations. A covenant is a great responsibility, and those who break it will be questioned for it on the Day of Judgment.
  35. Dispense the quantity ascertained by measuring to the full when you sell. And when using the method of weighing, then you are enjoined to use a precise balance conforming to a standard and an exemplar of equity. This is more charitable ensuring safety and leading to the determined purpose.
  36. And do not pursue a subject of which you have no knowledge (nor charge anyone with a fault or a crime when you are not sure of his guilt). Indeed, you are held responsible for the faculties of hearing, seeing, and intellect on the Day of Judgment.
  37. Nor should you walk on earth displaying arrogance, for even if the incessant tread of your feet pierce the rough stones, you will not be able to rend the earth, nor will you be able to reach a level like a mountain in height.
  38. Of all such attributes, those that have a name of evil savor stand in your Lord’s (Allâh’s) sight deserving of hatred.
  39. These are maxims of wisdom Allâh has revealed to you. He has issued a mandate commanding that you people not associate with Him another god or deity lest you should be cast into Hell, where you are balmeworthy in the vast abyss of reprimand and rejection.
  40. Do you disbelievers really believe that your Lord (Allâh) has elected for you sons and ascribed to Himself daughters from among the angels? In effect what you put in words to describe your thoughts of Him is indeed monstrous (slanderous, blasphemous, and of grave consequence).
  41. We have expounded and oriented Our revelations in this Qur’ân to circumstances and requirements so as to remind the disbelievers; yet they do what is contrary to that normally expected. It increases their repulsion.
  42. Say to them, “If indeed He had, as they say, associate deities who share His divine nature, His omnipotence, and His authority, then they would have certainly sought out a way to the Owner of the Throne.”
  43. Praise be to Him and extolled are His glorious attributes! He is infinitely far above the impiety they utter against Him.
  44. The seven heavens and the earth and all animate and inanimate beings therein praise His glory and extol His glorious attributes. There is not one single creature but extol His praise and His omnipotence and exclusive authority, but you disbelievers do not comprehend their way of extolling His glory. Indeed, He has always been Ever-Forbearing and Oft-Forgiving.
  45. When you, Prophet, recite the Qur’ân, We interpose an invisible screen between you and those who do not believe in the hereafter to keep you out of their sight.
  46. We enshrouded their hearts with lids to preclude them from exercising intellectual power or understanding and struck them deaf so that nothing that engages the intellect would come to their hearing. These are the people whose hearts dare rise defiant against Allâh. When you recite the Qur’ân and Allâh is mentioned as the sole owner of omnipotence and exclusive authority, they insolently turn their backs upon you with a repulsion and repugnance.
  47. We do know the reason why they lend you their ears when they listen to you, Muhammad; they are reticent about their intention disclosed only in their secret conferences. To keep their nobility and authority in the status quo, the unjust wrongdoers publicly say, “You people only follow a man who has witchcraft.”
  48. See how they describe you, Prophet, in irrelevant similes reflecting deviation so that they are unable to find the path of truth.
  49. They say in wonderment, “Do you mean that after we have been reduced to bones and fragments we will be restored to life and be created anew?”
  50. Say to them, “So be it, even if you were converted into stones or iron
  51. “Or any other material and you know it is beyond animation.” There and then they will say, “Who will then restore us to life?” Say to them, “He who originally brought you into being and caused you to exist in the first creation.” There, they will wag their heads in doubt and ask, “When?” Say to them, “It may well be quite near.
  52. “This will be the Day when He summons you all from the graves, and you respond praising Allâh and His glory, and you surmise that you have not lingered except a little while.”
  53. O Prophet, tell My servants who declare or state in words a specified fact, thought, opinion, or intention to say what is friendly, favorable, and laudatory, for Satan is on the alert for an occasion to incite mankind and set them at variance and to stir up enmity among them. Indeed, Satan has always been an evident enemy to man.
  54. Allâh knows best your disposition. He has mercy on you if He wills, or if He wills, He inflicts you with torment. And We did not send you to the people to be their trustee (but to be a bearer of joyful tidings to believers and a warning to disbelievers).
  55. Allâh your Lord knows best all creatures in the heavens and on earth, and We graced some prophets with more privileges than others, and We gave David the Zabûr (Psalms). (It is no wonder that We gave you the great grace of the Qur’ân).
  56. Say to the disbelievers who associate other deities with Allâh, “Invoke those objects of worship who you suppose share with Allâh His divine nature (and you will realize that they will utterly fail to respond). They have neither the power to relieve you from adversity or transfer it away.”
  57. Those to whom they make a devout supplication—saints, jinn, or angels—are themselves devout servants of Allâh striving [to see] which of them will be the nearest to Allâh and the more efficient in serving His purpose. They hope His mercy, and they fear His torment. Indeed, the torment Allâh inflicts on the offender makes one heedful.
  58. There is not one single town but will suffer destruction before the Day of Judgment or We make them suffer severe torment, an ordinance that has been decreed and inscribed in the (Archetypal) Book.
  59. In fact, nothing prevented Us from sending you, Muhammad, to the people with the power of working miracles to evince both your mission and Allâh’s omnipotence and rightful authority except that people of bygone times refused to acknowledge them. Among them were the Thamûd, to whom We sent the she-camel as an evident and undoubted sign, but they did injustice to her without due regard and wronged themselves. We only authorize the work of miracles so that the people be moved with a mingled feeling of fear and reverence toward Allâh (and realize the evil consequence of disobeying or denying Him).
  60. And for once We told you, Prophet, that Allâh encompassed mankind. (Therefore, declare Allâh’s message and do not ever be afraid.) We only made you see the vision of glory We presented to you in your night journey to test the inclination of the mankind and their moral attributes. The same purpose was also served by the accursed tree growing in the bottom of Hell to feed the sinners. We purposed that the disbelievers be moved with a mingled feeling of fear and veneration toward Allâh and (realize the evil consequence of disobeying and denying Him). But on the contrary, it only makes them increase in great inordinance.
  61. We said to the angels, “Prostrate yourselves to Âdam.” And they prostrated to him in comely order (praise, and admiration) except Iblîs (Satan-to-be), who said, “Shall I prostrate myself before him whom You created from clay? (You created me from fire, and therefore I am better than he is.)”
  62. And he added, “Do You see that creature whom You treated with more honor than You treated me? If You defer me from death till the Day of Judgment, I will bridle his offspring, control them, and misguide them excepting a few (whom You have kept away from wrongdoing).”
  63. “Reprieve is granted,” said Allâh, “for which reason, you and those of them who follow you will suffer the fatal consequence. Hell will be ample requital of the manner in which you conducted yourselves in life.
  64. “Entice those of them whom you can allure to brighter worlds with your (whispering) voice and assault them by any means your cavalry and your infanty, and have shares with them in their gains and children and promise them.” In effect what Satan promises them is only what is vain, deceptive, and deluding.
  65. “Indeed,” Allâh added, “My devout servants do not come under your authority (nor do you have the power to influence their conduct or actions), and enough is Allâh to be their Ever-Trustee from Whom they seek help in getting rid of you.”
  66. It is your Lord (Allâh) Who keeps the ships afloat and makes them move on the surface of the sea to be of service in seeking the objects of His Grace and Bounty. Indeed, He has been always Ever-Merciful to you.
  67. And when you are befallen with a misfortune or with a distressful condition at sea, those whom you invoke besides Him err away. And when He delivers you safe ashore, you veer away from Him. So man has always been inclined to disbelief.
  68. Do you disbelievers feel really secure that He will not cause that a side of the land to cave you down? Or are you sure that He will not make you suffer the disastrous consequences of a whirlwind with a squall of gravel? And no one will you find then a trustee to afford you protection or to render void Our decree.
  69. Or do you feel really secure that He will not send you back to sea on another occasion and send against you a rumbling wind of considerable strength that drowns you in requital of your disbelief? And no avenger will you find against Us on your behalf.
  70. We have honored the children of Âdam, and We provided them with means of transportation to carry them on land and sea, and We provisioned them with good, wholesome things, and We graced them above many of Our creatures, and We endowed them with distinguished attributes.
  71. And the Day will come when We call all folks, each nation with its respective leader, who is to bear witness to the behavior of his people and their conduct in life. There and then those who are given their book of their record in life in their right hand will be delighted to read their records, and no one will ever be wronged, not even to the equivalent of a single hair or the dry integument of the smallest seed, or a date-plaiting.
  72. And he who has been blind here below will be just as blind in the hereafter, more astray from the way.
  73. The disbelievers tried their best to tempt you, Muhammad, and incite you to make some concessions. They thought they had almost seduced you into a course of action totally undivine in terms of the deletion of certain passages of what Allâh has revealed, and fabricating others. And then they would have accepted you as a close fellow in their circles (but you were not to do this because you are Our honorable Messenger).
  74. Had We not confirmed you and impelled you to the feeling of authority and security of position, you would have gone along with them up to a point, thinking that with making a small concession you would succeed in making them firm believers in Islâm some day.
  75. But then, by consequence, We would have made you taste a double punishment in life and in the hereafter, and no protector would be found against Us.
  76. They were resolved to impel you to the feeling of fear to make you resolve to quit the land and depart from Makkah. But then they would have been allowed to linger only for a short time after you (wherefore We vanquish them and destroy them).
  77. This has always been Allâh’s enactment, which has long been pursued in the past with those of the messengers whom We sent before you in time. This enactment, you will find, will never alter.
  78. You just engage in the act of prayer for Allâh at the point of time of the sun’s declination from the meridian of the sky as it begins to sink toward setting and onward to the time when the dusk of the night prevails—namely, the dawn, noon, afternoon, evening, and night prayers. And noteworthy is the Qur’ân when recited at dawn; it is attended by the angels who witness its perusal.
  79. And keep vigil during the hours of the night with the Qur’ân in additional devotional prayer, which is meritorious and adds to your credit. May Allâh your Creator elevate you to a position of great honor, excellence, and glory.
  80. And call upon Allâh in your invocatory prayer thus: “O Allâh, make my entry upon the stage of life an entry by the gate of truth wherefore I stay my course in accordance with the divine standard. And make my exit at the end of my doings vested with fidelity and truthfulness. And grant me the authority of vindication over my enemies.”
  81. And say, “Truth has now come and falsehood has expired, for falsehood is always apt to expire (in the wreck of time).”
  82. And We have sent down of the Qur’ân what serves as a remedy and a mercy to those whose hearts have believed; whereas it adds to the loss of the unjust wrongdoers.
  83. When We mercifully bring man in Our grace and show it in Our munificence, he veers away and entires from what Allâh inclines him to propound, and when he is befallen with evil he nurses despair.
  84. Say to them, “Everyone acts according to his inherent disposition or character, and your Lord (Allâh) knows quite well who exercises his will to be guided to Allâh’s way.”
  85. Instigated by the Jews, they ask you, Muhammad, about the Spirit (h). Say to them, “The spirit is of the Command of my Lord (that transcends human comprehension), for you have been given but a little of His knowledge.”
  86. If We decided, We could take away memory, Muhammad, all that We have revealed to you of divine discourse, and you will find no trustee against Us on your behalf.
  87. But it is only through the mercy of Allâh your Lord that it continues to be preserved. Indeed, (great is His bounty and) much is His grace that abounds in you.
  88. Say to them, “It could not be more emphasized that if both mankind and the jinn should gather together to come up with a book like the Qur’ân, never will they be able to come up such a book even with the help of one party to the other.”
  89. We have propounded for mankind and oriented Our revelations in the Qur’ân to circumstances and requirements, and (We quoted every typical instance forming a particular case of a principle) yet most mankind simply refuse to acknowledge the truth and accept nothing but disbelief.
  90. They say to you, Muhammad, “We will not believe you until you have caused a fountain to gush forth and flow in a constant stream out of the ground (of Makkah).
  91. “Or until you have an garden in Makkah enclosing palm trees and vines, and you cause the earth to erupt in its midst forming channels for water to flow forever.
  92. “Or until you have caused the sky to fall on our heads in pieces as you claimed it would, or until you have brought Allâh and His angels together before us.
  93. “Or until we have seen you residing in a home adorned (with gold), or until we have seen you ascending heavenward, nor will we believe in your ascent until you have brought down a book that we can read.” Say to them, “Praise be to my Lord (Allâh) and extolled are His glorious attributes! Am I in any respect any but a mortal messenger?”
  94. In effect nothing holds back mankind from belief (as ordained by Allâh), despite His sending messengers to guide them (but their presumption upon Providence. “Is it conceivable,”) they say, “that Allâh sends to mankind a mortal messenger?”
  95. Say to them, “If it were possible for angels to feel safe and secure when they move about on the earth here below, We would have sent down to them an angel as a messenger.”
  96. Say to them, “Enough is Allâh to be my witness and your witness; He is indeed All-Knowing and All-Seeing, Whose constant vigilance is extended to all His bondmen.”
  97. He whom Allâh guides to His path of righteousness is the one who is guided (by the spirit of truth). But those whom Allâh sends astray, never will you find for them patrons besides Him. We will muster them drawn on their faces on the Day of Judgment, blind, dumb, and deaf to be delivered to their appropriate abode in Hell, which is constantly fed with fuel. As often as it abates We feed it so that they suffer the increasingly fierce and merciless flames of the fire.
  98. This is in recompense of their (denial of Allâh’s omnipotence and authority, and of their) refusal to acknowledge His revelations and signs. And they insolently voice their denial of resurrection thus: “Is it conceivable that when we have been reduced to bones and fragments we will be raised again to life and created anew?”
  99. Do they not perceive by visual tokens that Allâh, Who created the heavens and the earth, is All-Determiner enough to re-create the like of humans and jinn and restore the dead to life and create them anew? It is He Who determined their term of life beyond suspicion (which He decreed to end at a certain and undoubted point of time); yet the unjust disbelievers refuse to acknowledge the truth.
  100. Say to them, “If you disbelievers were to have the power of governing and controlling the vast treasuries of Allâh’s mercy, you would have exercised holding back by virtue of your apprehension and for fear of want. Nonetheless, man has always been characterized by grudging parsimony.”
  101. We brought Mûsâ (Moses) nine evident signs. You, Muhammad, just ask the Children of Isrâ’îl about the course of events relative to Mûsâ as he presented himself to Pharaoh and his people. Pharaoh said to him, “I do think that you, Mûsâ, are, indeed, bewitched.”
  102. “But you know,” said Mûsâ, “that no one could have sent down these divine and evident signs but The All-Powerful Who is the Creator of the heavens and the earth. He made them clear to the understanding and judgment. In effect, I think that you, Pharaoh (are obstinate) unyielding to the truth; and with unerring doom.”
  103. Pharaoh decided on what he thought would be the best course of action, namely, to rid the land of Mûsâ and the Children of Isrâ’îl, but We drowned him together with all those with him.
  104. Following Pharaoh’s drowning, We said to the Children of Isrâ’îl, “Now you may have your abode in the holy land in the Levant, and when the promised Day of Judgment comes to pass, We will gather you and all the others from wherever you may be.”
  105. In truth We sent down the Qur’ân, and in conformity with fact and in agreement with the truth has it been revealed. We have only sent you, Muhammad, as a bearer of glad tidings and a warning.
  106. A Qur’ân that has been revealed at intervals so that you may recite it, Muhammad, to the people slowly and deliberately. We revealed it in succeeding stages.
  107. Therefore, say to the disbelievers, Muhammad, “Believe in it or do not believe in it; those to whom We imparted knowledge, and wisdom before it was revealed, collapse upon their faces in reverence and submission. When it is recited to them, they cast themselves down prostrate in humility and veneration.”
  108. And they say, “Praise be to Allâh our Creator, and extolled are His glorious attributes! Indeed, the promise of Allâh inevitably comes to pass and is always fulfilled.”
  1. The Qur’ân makes them collapse upon their faces weeping, and as they stand in awe of their Creator, they prostrate themselves in profound reverence and humility*.
  2. Say to the polytheists who reject the attribute All-Merciful, “Invoke Allâh or invoke The All-Merciful, whichever you choose, for to Him belong all the graceful names that are the Fairest Names in which His unique qualities are ascribed.” In the act of prayer, Muhammad, just entertain the profound reverence due to Allâh. And do not voice your prayer loudly nor pronounce it inaudibly, but hold a middle way between the two extremes.
  3. And express your praise to Him in words for His oneness, thus: “Praise be to Allâh Who did not beget a son. There is no one to share His divine nature or His realm, nor is He dependent upon a guardian to protect Him from harm and from humiliation. And magnify Him highly for His imposing magnificence.”

——————

* A prostration should be performed here.

SÛRAH 18

AL-KAHF

The Cave

Revealed at Makkah

This sûrah starts with praising Allâh for sending down the glorious Qur’ân. It shows that the Qur’ân is a warning and joyful tidings. The Qur’ân includes a warning to those who claimed that Allâh has begotten a son. The sûrah mentions how the Prophet is keen on the belief of those whom he called to the path of Allâh. Then it mentions the story of the people of the cave, who slept then rose after they had spent 309 years. They were a number of the People of the Book, who fled from the persecution of their ruler. They lay there for this duration of time, then were resurrected in a token of Allâh’s omnipotence over resurrection after death.

After this, Allâh commands His Prophet to recite the Qur’ân and to give warnings and joyful tidings by means of it. He then shows the condition of the people of Paradise and those of the Fire. Allâh gives a parable of two men: a rich one who takes pride in his wealth and progeny, and another who obeys Allâh. Allâh shows that His sovereignty is the truth, that the adornment of this life below is doomed to annihilation, and that there will either be eternal bliss or painful torment on the Day of Resurrection. Then Allâh mentions the story of Mûsâ (Moses) with the righteous man who was given knowledge from Allâh. In this narrative Allâh shows that man is ignorant, even if he is a prophet sent by Allâh, unless Allâh grants him knowledge. Then there is a mention of Thul-Qarnayn and how he reached the far east and built a barrier. The sûrah then deals with the Day of Resurrection and what is going to happen on that Day and the reward awaiting believers. Then the sûrah mentions Allâh’s absolute knowledge of everything and His words that have no end. The sûrah concludes by showing the way to satisfying Allâh.

In the Name of Allâh,

The All-Merciful, The Ever-Merciful

  1. Praise be to Allâh, Who sent down to His servant the Qur’ân (well founded, constant, resolute) and did not allow therein obliquity or crookedness.
  2. But [it is] straight, in accordance with what is divinely and authoritatively established as the truth so that it strongly warns the impious of the violence laid upon the damned. It announces joyful tidings to those who believe and do righteous deeds, to expect a distinguished reward.
  3. The reward is Paradise, wherein they will stay to eternity.
  4. And to give a warning against those who say that Allâh has taken to Himself a child.
  5. Neither they nor their fathers have the true knowledge that is consistent with fact and reality. How enormous, monstrous, and atrocious is the word they project and which comes out of their mouths! Indeed, what they utter is nothing but a lie.
  6. Seemingly, you, Prophet, are consuming yourself over their tracks with distress and torturing yourself lest they should not believe this divine discourse.
  7. We have caused the material world on earth to be of the nature of an adornment in order to (test the peoples’ reaction to the grace of Allâh and) distinguish those of them who will do more pious deeds.
  8. One day We will render the face of the earth arid dry, barren and destitute of vegetation.
  9. Have you meditated, Muhammad, upon the event of the inmates of the cave and the Inscription of their names (and upon Allâh’s intervention exhibiting His control over the laws of nature and serving as evidence of His almightiness and omnipotence). It stood as a wondrous sign.
  10. A group of young men resolved to escape persecution. They took themselves to a cave in a mountain near by as an abode, where they invoked Allâh thus: “O Allâh our Lord, extend to us of Your mercy what will help us endure our tribulation, and direct us to the right way determining what You commend for us of future events.”
  11. We, in response, struck them on their ears and induced them to sleep for a number of years.
  12. Then We raised them so that We see which of the two arguing parties would come closer to the span of time they lingered (dormant as a marvel of Allâh correlative with resurrection).
  13. We will narrate to you, Messenger, in truth, the incidents of their true story. They were a group of young men who believed in their Lord, and We increased them in guidance.
  14. We confirmed their hearts, and declared themselves and revealed their true belief. They said, “Our Lord is Allâh, Lord of the heavens and the earth. Never will we invoke besides Him another god, for then we will have uttered injudicious error against Him.”
  15. “These are our people,” they said to each other, “who have pitifully taken other gods besides Him. If only they would present an authoritative evidence in support of their assumption! In effect they presumed upon Providence, and who is more unjust than he who intentionally fabricates what is false and ascribes lies to Allâh?”
  16. “If you should remove yourselves,” said some of them, “from their society (and not participate in their system of faith and worship), then go to the abode in the cave where Allâh will extend to you of His mercy what abounds in you and conveniently help you endure your tribulation and overcome your difficulties.”
  17. You could see the sun, Muhammad, as it rose declining from their cave to the right and as it set passing away to the left while they occupied a gap within in a state of dead sleep—a wondrous sign from Allâh, indeed. He whom Allâh guides to His path is indeed guided to all truth; whereas he whom Allâh leads into error—never will you find for him a rectifying patron.
  18. You would have reckoned that they were awake though they were lying down. And We turned them over from one side to the other, right and left, while on the threshold lay their dog with his forelegs outstretched. If you had viewed them you would have run away from them, making your flight filled with horror.
  19. As We aroused them, We made them rise again into activity only to question each other as to the length of time they had lain to rest. “How long do you think you have been sleeping in this place?” asked one of them. “Probably a day or less,” they said. “(Allâh) your Lord knows best how long. Meantime, send one of you with this silver coin to the city in quest of the best food, and he brings back some of it (to satisfy our hunger). But he must be courteous and not attract attention directly to himself nor indirectly to you.”
  20. “For, should they get the better of you,” he continued, “they will pelt you with stones or else turn you to their creed, and you will never prosper here and in the hereafter.”
  21. Thus, We ordained that their identity be revealed so that they would know that the promise of Allâh is truth manifest and that the Day of Judgment is above suspicion. The people, who by then had conformed to Allâh’s will, contended the number and the event and its significance, some resolving to construct a building on the site. Their Lord knows them best. Others, whose decision prevailed, resolved to erect a mosque on the site.
  22. Tossed with their controversies, the People of the Book were divided in opinion relative to the number of the young men, and in the course of time, some will say, “They numbered three, their dog was the fourth.” Others will say, “Five, their dog the sixth,” guessing at the Unseen; whereas others will say, “Seven, and their dog the eighth.” Say to them, Muhammad, “Allâh knows best their number; it is only a few who have been given the knowledge of the number (and the significance of the event).” Therefore, do not wrangle, Muhammad, in the heat of their dispute, but treat the subject from an objective standpoint only so as to exhibit the outward facts and never seek pronouncement from any of them upon the event.
  23. Therefore, do not say, “I am doing something tomorrow,
  24. Except if it be the will of Allâh.” And should you forget this divine axiom, remember your Lord to guide you to a better choice than that which you had before: “I pray and beseech You, O Allâh, to guide me to near rectitude.”
  25. They, the young men, lingered in the cave for three hundred years (solar calendar) with an additional nine years (lunar calendar).
  26. Say to them, Messenger, “Allâh alone knows how long they lingered in the cave. Knowledge of the mysteries of the heavens and the earth is a divine attribute of Allâh. To Him (belongs) the Unseen of the heavens and the earth. How well He beholds, and how well He hears. They have, apart from Him, any patron; and He does not associate in His Judgment anyone.
  27. And recite, Messenger, what has been revealed to you of the Qur’ân of Allâh, Whose words no one can alter. Nor will you find besides Him a protector to afford you shelter.
  28. Be patient, Messenger, and rest content with those who invoke Allâh’s mercy morning and evening in quest of nothing but His acceptance and His Face. And let not your eyes turn aside from them or vacillate between them and the worldly-minded, setting your thoughts upon the ephemeral and fleeting glories of the world. Nor should you obey the one whose heart We made heedless of Our remembrance, following his prejudices, and who has gone to all excess.
  29. And say to them, “(Allâh’s) your Lord’s truth has come to guide us to all truth, and he who wishes to believe is free to do so, and he who wishes to disbelieve is free to do so.” We have prepared for the disbelievers a fire whose scorching and merciless flames beset them on all sides. As often as they cry for help they are given a draught of boiling water like molten brass or molten lead scalding the faces. Miserable is the drink and odious is the resting place!
  30. Indeed, those whose hearts have believed in Allâh and have done their deeds with wisdom and piety are the recipients of Allâh’s mercy and divine reward. We never annul, cancel, or render unprofitable the due reward accruing from a good deed.
  31. Such persons are promised the Gardens of Eden beneath which rivers run. They are adorned therein with golden bracelets and are dressed in green silken attire and rich brocade and are reclining on dignified couches. How excellent is the reward and how excellent is the resting-place!
  32. Give them, Messenger, the example illustrating the two men. On one of them, the rich, We bestowed two gardens enclosing grapevines and surrounded by palm trees with plants in between.
  33. Both gardens yielded their produce in due season and never failed to yield all that both will hold, and in their midst We caused a river to erupt with a copious stream.
  34. Abundant was the produce so that the rich boasted and said to his fellow man, the poor, “I have more wealth than you have. I have abundant means at command and my family and my men far exceed yours in number and might.”
  35. The rich man entered his garden exclaiming being unjustly proud, “I cannot imagine that this garden will ever perish in the wreck of time.
  36. “Nor do I think that the Final Hour of Judgment will come up, and even if it does and I am sent back to (Allâh) my Lord, I will surely find a better one.”
  37. Speaking with him on this point, his fellow, the poor man, said to him, “Do you disbelieve in Him Who created you from dust, then from a sperm drop of fluid emitted, then He molded you in the shape of a man!
  38. “As for me, He is Allâh my Lord, and I do not associate other deities with my Lord.
  39. “If only when you entered your garden you had exclaimed ‘Praise be to Allâh; whatever He wills will be; no one can command power but Him.’ If you do see me in comparison less than you in wealth and children,
  40. “Perhaps Allâh will bestow on me what is better than your garden. And He may send against it from heaven a thunderbolt reducing it into a slippery and unproductive piece of land.
  41. “Or He may cause its water source to sink below a reachable level (so that by trying to reach what is beyond your reach, you reach nothing at all).”
  42. Suddenly were his fruits not harvested but suffered to rot to nothing. There, he kept wringing the palms of his hands in token of grief caused by the loss of what he had spent on it. There stood the orchard so desolate, empty but of dilapidated trellises over hills of ruin. There and then he said, “I wish I had not associated other deities with Allâh my Lord.”
  43. Nor did he have a cooperative group to afford him help besides Allâh, nor could he vindicate himself.
  44. There, it becomes evident that the only indisputable help and patronage come from Allâh, The All-Powerful Who is the Truth, and the best purveyor of divine requital, and the only power that commands the final end.
  45. Express to them, Messenger, the likeness of life here. It is as water We send down from the heaven; it mingles with the product of the earth, which absorbs it and thrives thereby; then it eventually withers into chaff and gets winnowed by the winds. And Allâh has always been All-Determiner, capable of doing all things.
  46. Wealth and children feature the adornment and allurement exciting the pleasurable emotion of people in life here below, but what is infinite in future duration—considered by Allâh to have eternal consequences and hopeful requital—are the deeds imprinted with righteous and piety.
  47. The Day will come when We set the mountains in motion and you see the earth bare of the natural objects it once had, and We will have mustered all people to judgment, leaving not one behind.
  48. They will be set before Allâh, your Lord, in rows and be told, “Now you have come back to Us (open to view, and unprotected) as We created you the first time, yet you asserted earlier upon Providence and took for granted that We would not predetermine for you an appointment.”
  49. Now the Book of personal records is laid open to view, and you will see the criminals timorous at its contents and struck with sudden fear and apprehension of danger. They say, “Woe betide us! This book does not leave out a minor or a major offense unrecorded.” And they will find that every single deed, good or bad, is recorded, and then they will realize that Allâh your Lord does no injustice to anyone.
  50. For once We said to the angels, “Prostrate yourselves to Âdam in greeting.” And the angels prostrated to Âdam in comely order, except Iblîs (Satan-to-be), who was a jinn juxtaposed to the angels, and by consequence he rebelled against his Lord’s Command. So conditioned, do you people take him and his offspring as patrons besides Me when they are your avowed enemy? Miserable, indeed, is the substitute adopted by the unjust.
  51. Never did I invite any creature, to witness or to be associated with the event of the creation of the heavens and the earth, nor of themselves. It is not Allâh Who would use the support of others, much less the wicked who mislead people.
  52. The Day will come when Allâh says to the disbelievers, “Call forth My ‘associates’ that you presumed shared My divine nature and omnipotence,” and they will do so, but their gods will give back no response. And We established between them and their gods in the life below a chasm.
  53. And the criminals will see the Fire open to view and realize that they will have to fall headlong therein and that there is no escape.
  54. And We have expounded and oriented Our revelations in this Qur’ân to circumstances and requirements, and We expressed many parables, but man has always been known to raise disputes about most things (and to try to find fault unfairly and without good reason).
  55. What kept people back from accepting the truth and to believe as guidance came to them, and ask forgiveness from their Lord, except until the same calamities befell them that befell those of old, or until they saw the torment face to face.
  56. We do not send the messengers but to serve as givers of glad tidings and warnings. But the disbelievers try to seek everywhere vain proofs and false arguments for which they are ready to dispute to their life’s end to refute the truth. They indignantly mocked at My signs, My revelations, and My warnings, and they laugh them to scorn.
  57. And who is more unjust than he who has been reminded of Allâh’s evident signs and revelations and shuns them, forgetting what his hands have committed? The fact is that We enshrouded their hearts with lids to preclude them from exercising understanding and struck them deaf. And if you call them to accept the spirit of truth, they will never acknowledge Providence as their guide.
  58. If Allâh your Lord, the Source of true forgiveness and divine mercy, were to censure them for their demerits, He would have hastened them to their painful torment. But We have determined for them a point of time (when they will be destroyed), and they will find no one besides Allâh to afford them retreat.
  59. Such were the towns of old whose inhabitants We did away with when they proved themselves unjust, and We determined the appointment at which We carried this punishment into effect.
  60. Once Mûsâ (Moses) said to his attendant, “l will not give up journeying until I have reached the junction of the two seas (said to be the juncture of the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, or probably the two arms of the Red Sea) irrespective of how many epochs it takes, be it a year, a decade, or longer.”
  61. And when they had reached the junction of the two waters, they forgot that they had carried a fish for their meal. The fish had stealthily found its way to the sea, where it disappeared.
  62. And when they had journeyed beyond that spot (unaware of the incident), Mûsâ said to his attendant, “It is time to eat. Bring us our meal; we are exhausted. This journey has caused fatigue to us.”
  63. “Do you remember the rock,” asked the attendant, “to which we resorted on the way? I had forgotten all about the fish, and this was a lapse of memory effectuated by Satan, who made me forget to mention it to you. It mysteriously took its way to the sea in a most astonishing manner.”
  64. “This is exactly the place we were seeking,” said Mûsâ. They went back retracing their footsteps.
  65. There they found one of Our bondmen to whom We extended mercy from Our Providence and to whom We imparted of knowledge from close to Us.
  66. Mûsâ asked him, “May I follow you with the provision that you agree to convey to me of the righteous knowledge (imparted to you by Allâh)?”
  67. The righteous teacher said to Mûsâ, “But you will never be able to bear with me patiently, nor will you quietly await the course of events.”
  68. He added, “And how could you put up with something whose significance you do not know, nor do you encompass with your cognizance?”
  69. “But you will find me forbearing, Allâh willing,” said Mûsâ, “and I will not disobey any of your commands.”
  70. “Therefore,” said the righteous teacher, “if you should follow me, then do not look for the how and the why and the wherefore until I have given you a mention of it.”
  71. And there they made their way onward until they boarded a ship, in the bottom of which the teacher made a hole (to sink it). There Mûsâ said, “Have you scuttled it to drown its passengers? You have, indeed, committed a grave thing.”
  72. The righteous teacher said to Mûsâ, “Did I not tell you that you would never be able to bear with me or show patience with my actions?”
  73. Mûsâ said, “Please do not reproach me for my lapse of memory, nor impose on me an action hard to understand.”
  74. Again they made their way onward until they met a lad, whom the teacher killed. There and then Mûsâ exclaimed, “Have you killed a person when the lad committed no murder? You have, indeed, committed a truly maleficent act.”
  75. The righteous teacher said, “Did I not tell you that you would never be able to bear with me or show patience with my actions?”
  76. “Indeed,” said Mûsâ, “if ever I should question anything you do from now on, then do not accompany me any longer; you have been patient enough to get an excuse from me.”
  77. Again they made their way onward until they came across a town where they asked the people for food, but the people neither offered (nor afforded welcome to strangers) and consequently refused them hospitality. So they made their way onward only to find a wall about to collapse. The righteous teacher repaired it and brought it back to its original state, and there Mûsâ exclaimed, “Had you willed, you could have charged a reward for it.”
  78. “Now is the turning-point,” said the teacher. “We break off and part from each other. And now I will give you the interpretation of all the events you were unable to endure patiently.”
  79. “As for the ship,” said the righteous teacher, “it belonged to indigent seamen, and I intended to make it defective to prevent their king, who pursues boat owners, from taking their boat by force.
  80. “As for the young man, his parents are righteous people and he would have oppress them with inordinance and disbelief.
  81. “We decided to exchange him with another child who would be a symbol of faith, kindness and mercy.
  82. “As for the wall,” the righteous teacher said, “it constitutes a part of the property belonging to two orphan youngsters in the city, and it rested directly on a treasure. Their father was a righteous man, and Allâh has decreed that they reach maturity and dig out their treasure, an act of mercy vouchsafed by Allâh your Lord. I did not do that of my own accord; there you have the interpretation of the incidents you could not patiently endure.”
  83. Some ask you, Muhammad, about Thul-Qarnayn (which means “the one with two horns”). Say to them, “I will recite to you an account (of some of his actions).”
  84. Allâh says, “We established him on earth, and We imparted to him the knowledge of the ways and means of everything.”
  85. And he purposefully led the way.
  86. He took the lead in an expedition toward the west until he reached a body of water where the sun set muddy in a spring and where he found a people over whom We gave him authority. We left to him the manner of dealing with them. “Either you torment them,” We said, “or show them kindness.”
  87. He stated, “We will torment the unjust wrongdoer here and he will be left to Allâh his Lord, to impose upon him the maleficent torment laid upon the damned in the hereafter.
  88. “Whereas he who believes and does righteous deeds will be recompensed with what is best, and we will treat him kindly and impose on him what he can bear with ease and what sets his mind at rest.”
  89. Again, he purposefully led the way (this time to the east).
  90. He conducted an expedition eastward where the sun rises until he reached an open territory where the sun rose and where the people, who were primitive, had no screen from the sun.
  91. For thus We knew all about him. (He likewise called on the people to believe as he had done before).
  92. Again he purposefully led the way (between east and west).
  93. Until he reached—in his third journey—a stretch of territory towered by two high barriers, beneath which he found a people who could hardly understand a foreign word.
  94. They said to him (through interpreters), “O Thul-Qarnayn, the tribes of Gog and Magog are people who spread corruption in the land. May we apportion to you a tribute in payment of raising a barrier between us that would be invincible against all assaults?”
  95. He said, “What my Lord established me in wealth and power far exceeds your tribute. You just help me with your laborious attempt and strenuous exertion of power, and I will erect a rampart between you.”
  96. “Bring me blocks of iron,” he said, “to fill up the space between the two natural cliffs.” Then he said to them, “Now you may subject it to fire and use your bellows to make it red hot.” And when it softened, he asked them for molten brass to pour on the iron (to weld it into a solid mass).
  97. In consequence, the tribes could not scale it, nor were they able to make their way through it by digging.
  98. At the end Thul-Qarnain said thankfully, “This is a mercy graciously vouchsafed by Allâh my Lord, and when Allâh’s (my Lord’s) predetermined promise comes to pass, He will turn it to dust. The promise of Allâh (my Lord) has always been the truth.”
  99. And on the Day when the promise is fulfilled, We will leave the people in an undulating conformation until the trumpet is blown, and then We assemble them all together.
  100. There and then We will bring Hell in view near enough as to be clearly seen by the disbelievers,
  101. Whose eyes were covered from apprehension, knowledge, or perception of My divine nature and My omnipotence and authority and from My signs and revelations. They turned a deaf ear and were unwilling to open their ears.
  102. Do the disbelievers think that they do better by taking My servants as their patrons apart from Me? Indeed, We have prepared Hell and made it ready for the lodging of the disbelievers (whom it asserts as its own).
  103. Say to the disbelievers, Messenger, “Shall We tell you who they are whose deeds in life have lost them the most?
  104. “They are those who presumed conducted themselves in life according to error, and they thought they were doing what is fair.”
  105. It is these who have disbelieved their Lord’s signs and turned deaf to His spirit of truth and to His promise of meeting Him. In consequence, their hopes will be doomed to frustration and their deeds to worthlessness, and on the Day of Judgment We will attach to them no weight.
  106. These are the ill-fated who justly deserve the abode in Hell by reason of their disbelief and disobedience, and by consequence of mocking My revelations and signs and My messengers.
  107. But those whose hearts have truly believed will be the recipients of Allâh’s mercy and blessings. We have prepared for them the Gardens of Paradise as a lodging,
  108. Wherein they would have passed to eternity, admitting of no transfer from them.
  109. Say to the people, Messenger, “If the vast body of water on the surface of the globe were a supply serving the purpose of committing my Lord’s words to writing, sooner would the vast body of water be depleted than would the words of my Lord, even if we bring another immense supply.”
  110. Say to them, Messenger, “I am only a mortal like you; it is revealed to me that your God is only One God. Therefore, he who acknowledges resurrection and judgment and hopes to meet his Lord has to do righteous deeds and never associate other deities with his Lord nor worship any besides Him.”

SÛRAH 19

MARYAM

Mary

Revealed at Makkah

This sûrah is Makkan except for verses 58 and 71.

The sûrah starts with letters, as many other sûrahs do. It includes the story of the birth of Yahyâ (John), son of Zakariyyâ (Zachariah). After he had become a very old man and although his wife was barren, Zakariyyâ invoked Allâh to grant him a son. The sûrah then narrates the story of the virgin Maryam (Mary) and her giving birth to `Îsâ (Jesus). Then it tells the story of Ibrâhîm (Abraham), his call to the oneness of Allâh, his request to his father to desert idol worship, and the discussion between them about idols and the dominance of Satan.

The sûrah refers to the prophets from the progeny of Ibrâhîm— namely Ismâ`îl (Ishmael), Ishâq (Isaac), and his descendents—then mentions Idrîs. Then Allâh mentions the successors who came after the prophets, both the righteous and the sinful. He mentions that Paradise is the reward for believers and Fire is the punishment for disbelievers. He then shows the status of disbelievers in Hell and refers to the people who went astray by saying that Allâh has begotten a son.

Allâh shows the status of the Qur’ân, warns the disbelievers, and gives parables of the destruction of the sinful who did not follow the prophets, pointing out that the disbelievers will be destroyed.

 

In the Name of Allâh,

The All-Merciful, The Ever-Merciful

  1. K (kâf). H (). Y (). (`âyn). S (sâd). These introductory letters are intended to show that the inimitable Qur’ân is composed of such letters. They are also intended to call the attention of those who listen to the Qur’ân.
  2. This, O Messenger, is a narrative relative to the particular occasion when Allâh your Lord extended His mercy to His bondman Zakariyyâ (Zachariah),
  3. Who called Allâh his Lord in a concealed call.
  4. He said, “O Allâh my Lord, I have lived long enough to make my bones feeble and my hair has turned gray, and never has my invocatory prayer to You, Allâh my Lord, been unblessed or wretched.
  5. “I only fear that my kindred may not know, after I have met my end, how to serve You, and my wife has been barren. I pray and beseech You, O Allâh, to give me through Your efficacious grace a descendent destined to be a patron,
  6. “Who inherits the divine knowledge You imparted to me, and who inherits the possessions of the family of Ya`qûb [Jacob] (who had the world all before them). And make him, O Allâh my Lord, acceptable to You and to people.”
  7. He was told, “O Zakariyyâ, We relate to you the glad tidings: it is the procreation of a son named Yahyâ (John), whose appellation We designated to no one before.”
  8. Zakariyyâ exclaimed, “How will I have a son when my wife has been barren and I have been carried through to a decrepit age?”
  9. “So be it,” says Allâh your Lord. “This is an easy act actuated upon My will, and I created you earlier when you were nothing.”
  10. Zakariyyâ said, “O Allâh my Lord, may I be given a sign.” He was told, “Your sign will be your inability to talk to people for three nights albeit you are in perfect shape.”
  11. And so he went out of his prayer chamber to his people, and by making signs he indicated to them to thank Allâh frequently and to glorify Him and extol His glorious attributes morning and evening.
  12. Yahyâ was born and grew up, and he is now addressed thus: “O Yahyâ, take the Book (the Tawrâh, the Book revealed to Mûsâ [Moses]) and adhere fast to all that We have imparted to you. (And observe the code of discipline and body of regulations, hold them in esteem, and hold to your promise and pay attention.)” And We imbued him with wisdom in his childhood.
  13. And We imbued him with sympathy and tenderness of heart, and We made purity reign in his heart, and he entertained the profound piety due to Allâh.
  14. He exhibited a kind and affectionate disposition by his conduct to his parents, and was not arrogant or disobedient.
  15. Peace be unto him the day he was born and the day of his death and on the Day of Judgment when he is restored to life.
  16. Relate, Messenger, to the people what is narrated in the Qur’ân about Maryam (Mary) when she withdrew from her family to an eastern chamber (to perform her religious observances).
  17. She screened herself from them, since solitude best serves deep devotion. There We sent to her Our spirit, who appeared as a human all sound.
  18. She exclaimed, “I seek refuge with The All-Merciful counter to your personage (for infringing upon my privacy), if indeed piety reigns in your heart.”
  19. He said, “But I am the Messenger of Allâh your Lord. I am assigned to grace you with a son who is stamped with purity.”
  20. “How will I possibly bear a son,” asked Maryam, “when no man has ever touched me, nor am I a prostitute?”
  21. “So be it.” Thus said Allâh your Lord. “This is an easy act actuated upon My Will, and We will make him a a sign to mankind of Our omnipotence. He is a mercy from Us to guide the people to all truth, and this matter has already been decreed.”
  22. There, Maryam conceived and retired to a distant place,
  23. (Just to be confronted with the onset of labor.) And there the severe labor pains drove her to the nearby trunk of a palm tree. Overwhelmed with fear mingled with grief, she exclaimed, “I wish I had died before this and were consigned to complete oblivion.”
  24. There and then, a cry of triumph and joy came out from below: “Do not feel grieved. Allâh your Lord has provided beneath you a brook (that is moved for you).
  25. “And if you shake the trunk of the palm tree, it will shower you with ripe and delicious dates (in plenty).
  26. “Eat then and drink,” he said, “and compose your countenance and let your eyes speak content. Should you see any mortal, just say, ‘I vowed to Allâh The All-Merciful to fast from talking, so I will not speak today to a human being.’”
  27. She carried the baby home to her people, who exclaimed, “O Maryam, you have committed yourself to a fabricated line of conduct of grave consequence.
  28. “O Maryam, sister of Hârûn (Aaron) in piety, never was your father a man of adultry nor was your mother a prostitute!”
  29. She simply pointed her finger at the baby with intimation, as it were, that they ask or speak to him. But they exclaimed, “How (in Allâh’s Name) can we talk with a baby in the cradle?”
  30. The baby `Îsa (Jesus) said, “I am a devout servant of Allâh, Who will entrust me with His Book (the Injîl) and make me a Prophet.
  31. “He conferred on me benediction that I will be blessed wherever I may be, and He has enjoined me, for as long as I live, the practice of praying to Him and of paying zakâh (alms).
  32. “And that I should be kind and dutiful to my mother, and He excluded arrogance and wretchedness from my nature.
  33. “Peace be upon me the day I was born, the day I die, and (on the Day of Judgment) when I am restored to life.”
  34. This is `Îsa, the son of Maryam, declaring the truth of his own eventful birth. He was called into existence as stated in divine truth and not in the manner that (the People of the Book) maintain by disputation.
  35. It is never becoming that Allâh should take to Him a son. Praise be to Him and extolled are His glorious attributes! When He decrees a Command, He only says “Be” and it is.
  36. “Allâh is my Lord and your Lord,” `Îsa continued. “(He exacts obedience and submission from the whole and from all in all.) And so worship him with appropriate acts and rites, for this is the path of righteousness.”
  37. Nevertheless, the various parties found a cause for which they were ready to differ to their life’s end. Woe betide the disbelievers who will not acknowledge Allâh’s oneness, and how distressful will be the scene they will have to witness on a Momentous Day!
  38. How acute will be their hearing and their sight on the Day they assemble before Us, on the Day of Judgment when the unjust wrongdoers will realize their evident error!
  39. Warn the wrongdoers, O Messenger, of the Day of regrets when the Command is decreed when convicted by reason of their negligence of Allâh’s laws and their disbelief in Him and in His messengers and in resurrection.
  40. They do not seem to realize that it is We Who inherit the earth and the whole and all in all thereon. They all return back to Us (for reckoning).
  41. Narrate to the people, O Messenger, what is said in the Qur’ân about Ibrâhîm (Abraham), who was a man who kept Allâh’s truth so sincerely (and his words accorded with his deeds). He was a truthful prophet.
  42. For once he asked his father, “O father, why do you worship objects that are deaf and blind and can avail you (absolutely) nothing?”
  43. “O father,” he continued, “I am a recipient of divine knowledge imparted to me and not imparted to you. So follow me, and I will guide you to the level path (that leads you to the truth and happiness).”
  44. “My father,” he said, “do not worship Satan. He incites you to worship idols, and he exercised open and determined disobedience to Allâh, The All-Merciful.”
  45. “O father,” he added, “I am afraid lest a punishment should touch you from The All-Merciful in requital of your submission to Satan, and that will make you a patron to him in the Fire.”
  46. There the father exclaimed, “Do you, Ibrâhîm, drop my gods into oblivion and dismiss them as unfit for worship? Unless you refrain from disqualifying them, I promise I will pelt you with stones. You would better forsake me for some time so that you do not draw my wrath on you and until I have calmed down.”
  47. “Peace be upon you, father,” said Ibrâhîm. “I will invoke Allâh on your behalf for mercy and forgiveness. Allâh has always been hospitable and gracious to me.
  48. “Meanwhile, I will keep apart from your society and remove myself from your atmosphere of idolatry that you profess other than the faith in Allâh. I will devote my act of worship to Him alone and invoke Him for forgiveness and look forward to His mercy. Maybe I will not be wretched.”
  49. When he kept himself apart from them and the idols they worshipped besides Allâh, We bestowed on him Ishâq (Isaac) and Ya`qûb (Jacob), each of whom We made a prophet.
  50. We extended to them Our mercy and made all grace abound in them, and We favored their speaking tongues with prudence and truth that was exalted.
  51. You may narrate to them, Messenger, what is said in the Qur’ân about Mûsâ (Moses), who was chosen for his faith and purity. He was a messenger and a prophet.
  52. We called him from the right side of the mount AtTûr (Sinai) and We brought him in a proximate position to honor him and to talk with him.
  53. We mercifully bestowed upon him an assistant, his brother Hârûn (Aaron), whom We proclaimed a prophet.
  54. Also narrate to the people, Messenger, what is said in the Qur’ân about Ismâ`îl (Ishmael), who was true to his promise, and whose words accorded with his deeds. He was a messenger and a prophet.
  55. He always enjoined his family and his people the practice of praying to Allâh and the religious duty of zakâh, and he was very near and well pleasing to Allâh his Lord.
  56. And narrate to the people, Messenger, what is said in the Qur’ân about Idrîs. He was a man who was so sincere (and his words accorded with his deeds); he was a prophet.
  57. We exalted him and graced him with an exalted position.
  58. These aforementioned were among the prophets on whom Allâh favored with His blessings. They were the offspring of Âdam and of those whom We carried with Nûh (Noah) in the ark and of the posterity of Ibrâhîm and Isrâ’îl and of the posterity of those whom We guided to all truth and whom We chose to promote the divine knowledge. When Allâh’s revelations were recited to them, they fell prostrate in adoration and (were moved with reverential awe that prompted) weeping*.
  59. These righteous people were succeeded by generations who wasted the prayer, and lusted after the worthless. But as there came the Day to those of old, the Day will come to those of today and to those of the future when they will taste the evil consequence here, and worse will it be in the hereafter.
  60. But excluded are those who humbly repented and were wise enough to acknowledge Allâh their Lord and did righteous deeds. These and such persons will receive the welcome in Garden, and never will they be unjustly wronged in one way or another.
  61. The All-Merciful has promised the Gardens of Eden, to His devoted servants even though till now it is unseen. Indeed, His promise is truth and will come to pass.
  62. No vain talk will they hear therein, but only peace. And in Allâh’s Name will they be greeted with the formula of good wishes and respect, “Peace,” and they will be provided with food and drink morning and evening.
  63. Such is the Garden that will be the eternal inheritance of those of Our devout servants in whom reigned piety.

———————–

* A prostration should be performed here.

  1. In response to the Prophet’s unrest due to the long intervals between revelations, the Angel Jibrîl (Gabriel) said to him, “We angels do not just come down at Allâh’s command. To Him belong all that is before us and all that is behind us and all that is between, and never is Allâh your Lord forgetful.”
  2. Allâh is the Lord of the heavens and the earth and of all that is between. Therefore, worship Him and revere Him as He deserves, and exercise patience in religious observance and in face of difficulties and hindrances. Think but this: Do you know of any who shares His Divine Name and His divine attributes?
  3. Yet man says to himself, “Would I be resurrected and be restored to life after I have long been dead?”
  4. Does man not remember that We created him in the beginning when he was nothing?
  5. By Allâh your Lord, We will muster them together with the Satans and gather them all kneeling girdling round Hell.
  6. Then We will haul up from every sect those who were most disobedient and rebellious against The All-Merciful.
  7. We do know quite well the most deserving roasting among the wide circle of all to the torment to be laid upon the damned in Hell.
  8. None of you people but will go passing by Hell, an inevitable event that is promised by Allâh and incumbent upon Him (and no one is destined to escape it).
  9. There, will We lead safely those who entertained the profound piety due to Allâh and leave to it, down on their knees, the unjust wrongdoers whom it asserts as its own.
  10. When Our revelations are recited to them—revelations distinctly expressing all that is meant, the disbelievers exclaim to the believers, “Which of the two parties holds a high position in the social scale and status and in society, the nobility who do not follow Muhammad or those who follow him?”
  11. They fail to realize how countless were the generations We destroyed, generations who came to this world before them and were more affluent in wealth and goods and enjoyed more splendor.
  12. Say to the disbelievers, Messenger, “Those who are satisfied with their state of loss in the maze of error will experience more of it. Allâh The all-Merciful will give them an extension to allow them free scope of action to commit themselves until the encounter with the promised torment (either at the hands of the Muslims here below or on the Day of Judgment in the hereafter). There and then, will they know who are in the most grievous and dreaded state and have the lesser and weaker hosts!
  13. “But those who chose the path of guidance and Providence is their guide—Allâh will make circumstances favorable to them to think better and do better, because the everlasting deeds of righteousness and piety are esteemed by your Lord (Allâh) as most rewarding in requital and of so much consequence.”
  14. Do you see, Messenger, the one who totally disbelieves in Our revelations and denies the hereafter as well as Our convincing signs, and mockingly says to his creditor, “I will be given plenty in the hereafter and live in affluence and have numerous offspring (and then I will pay you the debt).”
  15. How insolent to presume upon Providence! Has he been given divine knowledge of the unseen, or has he entered into a covenant with Allâh, The All-Merciful?
  16. Never! (But he had better restrain himself from uttering words conveying absurdities.) We will record all that he says and extend the torment to such an extent as he never expected.
  17. We will inherit of all that he said he would have of fortune and offspring, and he will come back to Us all alone.
  18. The disbelievers chose to take besides Allâh false gods through whom they seek might.
  19. Never! But they will disbelieve in their zealous devotion and exercise active opposition against them, and as opponents the false gods will obtain their end.
  20. Look, Muhammad, into the way We use the satanic! We send them against the disbelievers to allure them and incite them to do evil.
  21. Therefore, Messenger, do not call upon Allâh to hasten the punishment on them. We keep count of their misdeeds and all their pursuits of the world during their numbered days here.
  22. The Day will come when the pious are mustered before The All-Merciful as a presentable and dignified deputation.
  23. And We drive the criminals to Hell like thirsty herd.
  24. No one will have the advantage of intercession except him who has been promised a covenant to this effect by The All-Merciful.
  25. They say, “(Allâh) The All-Merciful has taken up a child.”
  26. You blasphemers have instituted a notion that is indeed monstrous, hideous, and atrocious,
  27. (A notion indeed shocking.) Its impact makes the heavens almost tear apart, and the earth cloven down and almost parts asunder, and the mountains collapse razed.

91.Because they attribute to The All-Merciful a child.

  1. When it is (absolutely) unbecoming, nor is it consonant with His supreme majesty that He should take up a child.
  2. Besides the fact that there is not one single creature in the heavens and on earth but will come back to stand before The All-Merciful as a servant submitting to His authority and surrendering to judgment.
  3. He has counted them and ascertained their number.
  4. All and each will present himself or itself to The All-Merciful all alone (with no vindicators or riches).
  5. But not those who have believed and who have done righteous deeds. They will be the recipients of Allâh’s mercy. The All-Merciful will overshadow them with His gracious wing and impart to them His loving care.
  6. We have revealed the Qur’ân in a language conducive to ease, worded in your own tongue, Muhammad, in order [for you] to use it when you announce joyful tidings to those pious who entertain the profound reverence due to Allâh and to warn the obstinate disdainful people.
  7. How many generations before them have We caused to perish! Look around and see if you can find any one of them or hear their voice, be it uttered loudly or as a murmur?

SÛRAH 20

TÂ HÂ

Revealed at Makkah

This sûrah was revealed at Makkah except for verses 130 and 131. It starts with two vocal letters to draw attention to the miracle of the Qur’ân and to make those who hear it listen attentively. It then  mentions the status of the Qur’ân and that its honorability is derived from Allâh Almighty Who revealed it. He is the Lord of the heavens and the earth Who knows secrets and all that is more hidden and subtle than secrets. The sûrah then mentions the story of Mûsâ (Moses) with Pharaoh and how Mûsâ’s messengership started and his request that his brother Hârûn (Aaron) be an assistant to him. Then there is an account of how they met with Pharaoh after they had been reluctant to do this because of his great tyranny. Meanwhile Allâh Almighty shows the upbringing of Mûsâ.

The sûrah includes the conversation that took place between Mûsâ and Pharaoh, then between Mûsâ and the magicians. It mentions how Mûsâ was afraid lest he should be defeated by the magicians and how they believed and were tortured by Pharaoh. The sûrah also deals with how Mûsâ and the Children of Isrâ’îl were saved from Pharaoh, who was drowned when he followed them after the splitting of the sea. The sûrah tells us how Mûsâ went to AtTûr after he left his people and how he went to converse with his Lord and how the people were tempted by As-Sâmirî, who whispered to them to worship the golden Calf that sounded as a result of the air passing through it. Mûsâ was angry about what happened and in his anger pulled his brother by the head.

Then the sûrah narrates what happeneded to As-Sâmirî. Allâh Almighty points out the lessons to be learned from the stories of Mûsâ and other prophets. At the end of the sûrah, Allâh Almighty gives us honorable commendation of patience, chastity, and prayer. There is also a statement of the adamant demand of polytheists for a miracle other than the Qur’ân, and Allâh Almighty points out the wisdom behind sending prophets. Finally, the glorious sûrah concludes by reference to the punishment to be inflicted upon the disbelievers and the reward to be given to the believers.

In the Name of Allâh,

The All-Merciful, The Ever-Merciful

  1. T (tâ). H (). The sûrah opens with these introductory letters from the Arabic alphabet to draw attention to the miracle of the Qur’ân, which, though written in the people’s tongue, cannot be emulated.
  2. We have not revealed to you, Messenger, the Qur’ân to cause you wretchedness nor to put you to trouble,
  3. But to serve as a reminder to those who keep in awe of Allâh and entertain the apprehension due to Him—
  4. A disclosure of divine knowledge to man from Him, The All-Merciful Who Created the earth and the heavens of the (imposing) altitude,
  5. The All-Merciful Who levelled Himself on the Throne (of supremacy and dominion),
  6. The All-Merciful to Whom belong all that is in the heavens and on the earth and all that is in between, and all that lies in the depths below the face of the ground.
  7. If you speak aloud, Allâh knows what is secret and what is more concealed.
  8. He is Allâh, there is no god but Him; to Him belong the Fairest Names.
  9. Has there come to you, Prophet, of the discourse of Mûsâ (Moses)?
  10. He saw a fire from afar; he said to his family, “You stay here. I have just perceived a fire; perhaps I will be able to bring you a brand from the burning wood or be able to find someone who would guide me the way to pursue.”
  11. And when he reached the fire, he was called to. “O Mûsâ,” Allâh said,
  12. “I am Allâh your Lord. You are in My presence; therefore, take off your shoes; you are in the Holy Valley, Tuwâ.
  13. And I have chosen you (to convey My divine message); therefore, listen to all that will be revealed (to you).
  14. “I am Allâh; there is no god but Me. Therefore, worship Me (and adore Me with the appropriate acts and rites), and observe the act of divine worship, remembering Me.
  15. “The predetermined Eventful Hour will (inevitably) come to pass. I would almost conceal it so that every self would be requited with what is commensurate with its endeavors.
  16. “Therefore, do not let those who disbelieve the idea of resurrection and follow their own prejudices bar you from it lest you should divert and topple down.”
  17. “And,” Allâh asked, “what is that (you hold) in your right hand, Mûsâ?”
  18. “It is my staff,” Mûsâ said. “I lean on it, and with it I beat the bushes (the shrubs, and the trees to furnish my sheep with food), and I use it for other purposes (such as fending off animals).”
  19. “Cast it down, Mûsâ,” Allâh said.
  20. And when Mûsâ did, the staff was instantaneously transformed into a snake in gliding motion.
  21. “Take it, Mûsâ,” Allâh said, “and do not be afraid. We will bring it back to its original state.
  22. “Clasp your hand, Mûsâ, to your side; it will come out transfigured in a radiance of white divine light, unharmed and all sound: another sign (of your messengership).
  23. “This is just to show you of Our greatest signs.”
  24. “Go to Pharaoh,” Allâh said. “He has tyrannized”
  25. Mûsâ prayed, “Solace me, O Allâh my Creator, and expand my breast (to the joyful thought of performing my duty).
  26. “And make my task go easily.
  27. “And loosen the impeding knot of my tongue (to allow me free expression)
  28. “So that people may understand my speech and comprehend all that I say.
  29. “And appoint for me a counsellor from my family,
  30. “Hârûn (Aaron), my brother,
  31. “To uphold power and to have security of position
  32. “To engage him as associate in my task (Your cause)
  33. “So that much (we glorify You and) extol Your glorious attributes,
  34. “And remember You much,
  35. “For You have beheld us with favor.”
  36. “And there,” Allâh said, “you are granted your request, Mûsâ.
  37. “And We have been bounteous to you, Mûsâ, on another occasion
  38. “When We revealed a course of action to your mother what was revealed.
  39. “‘Put the child in the chest,’ We said, ‘and hurl the chest into the river; the waves will drive the chest to the bank, and there he will be picked up by a common enemy of Mine and of his.’ And I endowed you with belovedness and I had an eye upon you so that you grow and develop under My Eye.”
  40. “Your sister,” Allâh said, “marches to the gate of the palace and says to the household, ‘Shall I indicate you of an acceptable woman who would nurse and rear the child?’ There, We returned you to your mother so that she would be delighted and her eyes speak comfort, and she would not grieve. Moreover, you killed a man (when helping the Israelite against the Egyptian), and We relieved you and freed you of the anguish and tempted you (heavily). And by consequence you stayed for a number of years among the people of Madyan. Then you were impelled upon My will to come to serve Me here as I had determined, Mûsâ.”
  41. “And I chose you,” Allâh said, “for My revelation and to shoulder My message.
  42. “Now, go together with your brother Hârûn equipped with My divine signs betokening your prophethood and My message, and do not slack Me or My words so that you may remember Me.
  43. “Go you and your brother to Pharaoh. He has transgressed all bounds and played the tyrant.
  44. “And speak leniently to him so that he might, it is hoped, remind himself and entertain a profound apprehesion for Allâh.”
  45. Mûsâ and Hârûn said, “O Allâh our Lord, we fear he might show a strong dislike to us or he might play the tyrant.”
  46. “Do not ever be afraid,” Allâh said. “I am with you all along. I am All-Hearing, and I see all that is being done.
  47. “Go to him and say, ‘We are Messengers of Allâh your Lord. We ask you to release the Children of Isrâ’îl from bondage and to send them with us and not to torment them. We have brought you an evident sign from Allâh your Lord, and peace be upon those who have Providence their guide.’”
  48. “It has been revealed to us by Allâh,” they continued, “to indicate that torment will befall whoever cries lies to Allâh’s messengers and turns his back upon Allâh’s message.”
  49. There Pharaoh said defiantly, “Who is the Lord of you two, Mûsâ?”
  50. “Our God, Allâh the Lord,” Mûsâ said, “is He Who gave form and features to every entity He created (and vested each entity with its qualities and attributes), guiding each creature to its inherent role in life.”
  51. “What about the earliest generations?” asked Pharaoh, (“And what do you say to that?”)
  52. “Only Allâh knows what happened to them,” they said. “Knowledge of the hidden is an attribute of Him, our Creator, Who puts everything on record, and He never errs or forgets.
  53. “He it is Who made the earth a livable place suitable for your livelihood and furnished it with paths, roads, and channels; and He sent from the heaven water, the means of producing pairs of diverse plants,
  54. “To eat from and put cattle to pasture. Indeed, these are tokens representing convincing divine signs, tokens symbolic of Allâh’s omnipotence and authority to those endowed with intelligence.”
  55. From the earth We created you and back to it We will return you at death, and out of it We will bring you once again on the Day of Judgment.
  56. We presented Pharaoh with all Our evident and convincing signs, but he simply cried lies and refused.
  57. Pharaoh said to Mûsâ, “Have you come back to us to drive us out of our land by your sorcery (with which you killed people, Mûsâ)?
  58. “We will meet your threats with defiance and your sorcery with a similar art. Therefore, make an appointment that neither you nor we will fail to keep, and the place where we meet will be equidistant and open.”
  59. “The appointment,” said Mûsâ, “is on your festive day and the place is where people are mustered for festive celebration in the forenoon.”
  60. There, Pharaoh turned away and gathered a plot of sorcerers and came back.
  61. “Woe betide you,” said Mûsâ to the magicians. “Do not fabricate a lie against Allâh lest He should uproot you by a torment He lays upon the damned. The hopes of those who fabricate falsehood are doomed to disappointment.”
  62. There and then the sorcerers contended their plan among themselves in a secret counsel.
  63. They concluded, thus, “These two men, Mûsâ and Hârûn, are sorcerers planning to drive you people out of your land by their sorcery and do away with your exemplar way.
  64. “Therefore, gather up your plotting and your wits to work out an over-mastering plan and come in imposing lines, for he who gains the upper hand will prosper.”
  65. (Face to face) with Mûsâ, they said to him, “Would you like to cast down your staff first or shall we cast ours first?”
  66. Mûsâ said, “You cast first.” And their ropes and their staffs seemed by their sorcery as though they were living serpents in gliding motion.
  67. A wave of fear swept over Mûsâ in his innermost being (lest people should take sorcery for a miracle).
  68. Allâh revealed to him, “Do not be afraid, Mûsâ. You have mastery over them and, indeed, you are most exalted.”
  69. He added, “Cast down what you hold in your right hand. It will swallow up all that they worked out. Indeed, all they presented was simply plotting by sorcerers, and no sorcerer can accomplish a useful purpose nor prosper, no matter where he came from.”
  70. There and then the sorcerers fell prostrate in adoration of divine revelation and said, “We believe in Allâh, the Lord of Mûsâ and Hârûn.”
  71. “Have you believed in,” said Pharaoh, “the god of Mûsâ before I permit you to do so? Indeed, he is your chief who taught you sorcery that has misled you. I will amputate your hands and feet on opposite sides, and I will have you all crucified on the trunks of palm trees, and you will come to know which of us can inflict greater and more enduring torment, me or the god of Mûsâ.”
  72. The magicians said to Pharaoh, “We will not look with favor on your system of faith in preference to the truth and the enlightenment we have received, nor in preference to Him Who created us. Therefore, decree what you will; you can only sit in judgment for this life in this world.
  73. “We have believed in our Lord, Allâh. May He forgive us our sins and the sinful act of sorcery you forced us to practice. Allâh is, indeed, Charitable, and He is Enduring.”
  74. Indeed, he who presents himself to his Lord (Allâh), on the Day of Judgment invested with crime will be destined to Hell, wherein he neither dies nor lives.
  75. Whereas he who presents himself a believer to Him impressed with righteous deeds will be rewarded with the highest and most exalted places in life in the hereafter.
  76. They will be rewarded with the abode in the Gardens of Eden beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will have passed to eternity. This is the reward of those who have cleansed themselves from defilement (and purposed to meet their Creator pure in heart).
  77. Meanwhile, We revealed to Mûsâ to conduct My servants by night to the sea and to strike for them a dry path across, and We assured him thus: “You will not be overtaken by Pharaoh. They will not catch up with you, nor should you fear them or the sea.”
  78. Pharaoh in command of his hosts went in pursuit of Mûsâ and  his  people, but  Pharaoh  and  his  men  were

overwhelmed with the sea water, which overpowered them.

  1. In effect, what Pharaoh did was that he led people astray, and never really guided them to a path of righteousness.
  2. O Children of Isrâ’îl, We delivered you from your enemy and We ordained for you the divine assignation—through Mûsâ on the right side of Mount Sinai to receive the commandments—and We provisioned you with manna, the continual dew of the blessed victuals, and with quails.
  3. And We said to you, “Eat of the good victuals We provisioned you with; do not transgress nor carry anything to excess lest you should come within the measure of My anger, for he who suffers My anger sways his destiny to loss.
  4. “However, I am, indeed, Forgiving; I extend forgiveness to him who repents and believes firmly, and who is guided to righteous deeds until he meets Allâh.”
  5. Allâh asked, “And what made you hasten on, Mûsâ, and (outstrip) your people?”
  6. “They are tailing me,” Mûsâ said, “but I hastened on to You, Allâh my Lord, so that You might be satisfied with me.”
  7. “We have tempted your people, Mûsâ, after you left,” Allâh said. “As-Sâmirî, led them astray.”
  8. And there, Mûsâ returned to his people angry and sorrowful, indeed. He said to them, “My people, did Allâh your Lord (not afford you safety and guidance)? Do you believe the covenant took too long or did you intend to come within the measure of His anger and by consequence you failed to keep your promise to me to remain faithful?”
  9. “We did not break our promise of our own accord,” they said, “but we were made to carry encumbrances of ornaments (of Egyptian women, which we thought portend evil), and we hurled them in the fire (to get rid of them), and so did As-Sâmirî.”
  10. And he fashioned the melted gold into the shape of a calf’s body that lowed like cattle. No sooner did they see a golden calf emitting a sound than they (forgot Allâh, Who had delivered them, and) gave themselves up to worshiping the Calf, saying to each other, “This is your god, the god of Mûsâ, whom he forgot, and by consequence he missed his way.”
  11. Did they not see that it was unable to respond to their speech, nor could it harm them or help them?
  12. Hârûn had said to them earlier, “O my people, you have consented to this temptation while Allâh is your Lord, The All-Merciful; therefore, follow me and obey my command.”
  13. But they said to him, “We will not renounce our consecration to the Calf until Mûsâ comes back to us.”
  14. And when Mûsâ returned, he said to Hârûn, “What kept you, Hârûn, from acting when you saw them erring away from the path of righteousness?”
  15. “What hindered you,” Mûsâ added, “from following my instructions (and fulfilling your obligation)? Have you disobeyed my command?”
  16. “O son of my mother,” Hârûn said, “do not take hold me by the beard or by the head. I was afraid you would say I have set the Children of Isrâ’îl at variance and did not listen to your saying.”
  17. Turning to As-Sâmirî, Mûsâ ask, “What is this grave matter (that you have fallen into), Sâmirî?”
  18. “I have seen,” said As-Sâmirî, “what they failed to see (meaning the Spirit Jibrîl [Angel Gabriel]) and so I took a handful of dust from the track of the messenger of Allâh and I tossed it (toward the Calf), for so did my self instigated me.” (A made-up excuse for his unforgivable sinful act.)
  19. “Go away,” Mûsâ said. “You shall be punished in this life by isolation, (and you shall have a conviction of this fact that) you shall say, ‘I am an untouchable.’ That is besides the promised punishment, which will not fail, nor will you be able to escape it (in the hereafter). And now, look at your god to whom you lingered consecrating yourself. We will burn it and blast it in the sea.”
  20. “Indeed,” Mûsâ said, “your god is Allâh; there is no god but Him. His knowledge embraces everything that took place and that will happen.”
  21. Thus do We narrate to you, Messenger, tidings of Mûsâ and preceding nations, and We have given you by Our grace a Book (the Qur’ân) helping you to keep Allâh in remembrance.
  22. A Qur’ân (the spirit of truth) and he who veers away or turns his back upon it, will suffer the heavy burden he carries on the Day of Resurrection.
  23. There and then he and such persons will have passed to eternal suffering. And, indeed, this burden will be odious to them on the Day of Resurrection.
  24. The Day will come when the trumpet is sounded and We muster the criminals, who will look blue, being stricken with terror.
  25. They whisper to each other in a hushed voice, guessing their duration in life below, and some think it was so short that it lingered only ten days.
  26. We know best what they say, but those among them with veracious exemplary life will say, “You lingered no more than one day.”
  27. And they ask you, Messenger, about the mountains. Say to them, “Allâh my Lord will blast them,

l06. “So that He leaves them leveled with the ground’s smooth-faced surface,

  1. “Wherefore you cannot see curves, elevations, or curving (as if it were never inhabited before).”
  2. There and then all resurrected beings will faithfully follow the announcer who, with no crookedness, marches straight on, and all voices submit to The All-Merciful and you can only hear the soft and fair submitting sound (of their footsteps treading the straight path).
  3. This is the Day when no intercession will be accepted from anyone on behalf of another except from him who is granted permission from Allâh The All-Merciful on the basis of his virtuous attributes, and his speech is acceptable to Him.
  4. He knows full well what doings they have brought into His presence, and He knows their past which they do not presently comprehend nor do they encompass what Allâh knows.
  5. All countenances will be subservient before Him, The Ever-Living, The Omnipotent Sustainer (Who preserves existence). But defeated and miserably disappointed of their expectations will be those who bear the burden of iniquity and unjust actions.
  6. And he who imprints his deeds with righteousness and he is a believer will not fear injustice nor forfeiture of privileges.
  7. Thus have We revealed it—the Qur’ân—in the Arabic literary form, and therein We expounded enough threats that they may keep on piety of Allâh or keep Him in remembrance.
  8. Exalted be Allâh and extolled are His glorious attributes, The Supreme Sovereign. Do not rush, Muhammad to recite the Qur’ân before the revelation is completed (that is, while the Angel Jibrîl is imparting the divine revelation) and invoke Allâh to augment your knowledge (thus: “O Allâh, my Lord, advance my knowledge by means of the Qur’ân”).
  9. We made a covenant with Âdam, but he forgot and We found him of no resolve.
  10. We said to the angels, “Prostrate yourselves to Âdam.” And the angels prostrated to Âdam in comely order, praise, and admiration, except Iblîs, who was among them although he was a jinn, and who refused.
  11. And there We said to Âdam, “This Iblîs is an avowed enemy to you and to your spouse; let him not drive you out of the Garden, so that you will be wretched.”
  12. “Herein you will never suffer hunger or go naked.
  13. “Nor will you suffer thirst or be exposed to the parching heat of the sun.”
  14. But Satan (cunningly) whispered to him (instigating evil). He said to Âdam, “Shall I indicate to you the tree of eternity and the kingdom which suffers no decay?”
  15. (Deceived by Satan’s allurement and consenting to his enticement,) they both ate of the tree and there, their private parts were displayed so that they realized how shameful this was. They kept splicing leaves from the trees of Garden to cover their naked bodies, which aroused their sense of shame, and there Âdam disobeyed Allâh His Lord and became misguided from the path of righteousness.
  16. But Allâh his Lord reclaimed him and selected him for messengership, accepted his repentance, and guided him to the path of righteousness.
  17. “Upon Our command,” Allâh said, “We down both of you from here some of you an enemy from the others. You will receive from Me truth guiding into all truth, and he who follows the path of righteousness and has Providence as his guide will not err, nor suffer wretchedness.”
  18. And he who veers away from My truth that guides into all truth will live a life of cramped misery and hardness of fate and circumstances, and We will muster him on the Day of Resurrection as blind.
  19. Then he will say, “O Allâh my Lord, why have You mustered me blind when in life I was able to behold?”
  20. “That is it,” Allâh says. “You blinded yourself to Our revelations and signs, and you forgot them, and by consequence you are this day forgotten.”
  21. Thus do We recompense him who has exceeded his limitations and who did not believe in his Lord’s (Allâh’s) revelations and signs. And the torment hereafter is, indeed, more strict and more enduring.
  22. Do they, Muhammad, get guidance from the significance of Allâh’s penalties? And have they failed to realize how many generations before them did We cause to perish? They tread their dwellings they once occupied (and they see with their own eyes the consequence of disobeying Allâh). Indeed, such outcome is emblematic of Allâh’s signs recognized by people of intelligence.
  23. Had it not been for word proclaimed by your Lord beforehand (to put punishment in respite) it would have been timely to plant their hereafter in the now, but We grant them respite up to a predetermined point of time.
  24. Therefore, be patient, Messenger, and put up with what they (insolently and defiantly) say, and praise Allâh, your Creator, and extol His glorious attributes before sunrise and before its sunset and some time during the night and at both ends of the day so that you may, it is hoped, be satisfied with Allâh’s distinguished reward.
  25. And do not strain your sight wistfully, Muhammad, at the advantages We gave to some among some sects of disbelievers; it is the flower of life below and it is a means of temptation. (It is the gist with which We test their response and their behavior;) whereas the blessed provision by Allâh in the hereafter is charitable personified and more enduring.
  26. And command your family to observe the act of prayer, and you persevere in observing it patiently and in maintaining your piety. We do not expect you to provide sustenance for yourself. It is We Who provide for you and for all, and the happy ending is the reward for piety (and righteousness).
  27. And the disbelievers (insolently and defiantly) say, “If only he (the Prophet) comes up to us with a sign (other than the Qur’ân) from his Creator to evince both his wisdom and the truth of his mission!” Have they not been presented with enough signs in former Scriptures (which also foretold future events)?
  28. If We had caused them to perish before this Book (the Qur’ân) was revealed, they would have said, “O Allâh our Lord, if only You had sent to us a messenger (with the truth), we would have acknowledged Your revelations and signs and followed Your path of righteousness before we were humiliated and disgraced!”
  29. Say to them, Messenger, “Each of us awaits what lies in store for him; therefore, you wait until the Eventful Day comes to pass and then you will come to know which of us followed the level path of righteousness and who had Providence as their guide.”

 

SÛRAH 21

AL-’ANBIYÂ’

The Prophets

Revealed at Makkah

The sûrah is Makkan and has 112 verses. It warns mankind of the Day of Judgment and emphasizes that Allâh’s messengers are all human beings. The sûrah presents some of Allâh’s  immense signs, cosmic and biological: the creation of the heavens and the earth, life and its dependence on water, which forms an integral part of all living creatures, as well as other signs.

The story of Ibrâhîm (Abraham)—including his challenge of idolism and how he was saved from the fire—is elegantly and eloquently described. Also described are the narratives of Yûnus (Jonah), Dâwûd (David) and Sulaymân (Solomon) and the privileges bestowed on each. Other prophets are mentioned in short narratives alluding to their attributes. The sûrah ends with an invocation centering on Allâh’s help for enduring with blasphemies uttered by the disbelievers against Allâh, The All-Powerful and All-Mighty.

 

 

 

 

 

 

In The Name of Allâh,

 The All-Merciful, The Ever-Merciful

  1. Mankind’s Day of Judgment is approaching, yet they are veering away in heedlessness.
  2. No recent divine message or a warning comes to them from Allâh their Lord but they listen to it playfully and laugh it to scorn.
  3. Their hearts are closed for revelation but open for mockery and amusement. Being wrongful of actions, they say in their secret counsel, “Is he, Muhammad, not human like yourselves? And so will you accede to the sorcery in his discourse when you have insight?”
  4. The Prophet said, “Allâh my Lord knows all that is being discoursed in the heavens and on earth; He is The All-Hearing and The All-Knowing.”
  5. (The disbelievers went further and fared worse in their description of the Qur’ân and of the Prophet.) They said, “Jumbled dreams, no, but he fabricated it, no, but he is a poet; he must present us with a (miraculous) sign like those the prophets of old were sent with.”
  6. In response to their insolence and defiance, Allâh says: Miraculous signs were presented to towns before them, whom We caused to perish on account of their rejection and denial of divine truth; therefore, what chance is there that these disbelievers will believe in Allâh?
  7. We never sent before you, O Prophet, but men chosen from among the town dwellers to whom We revealed the Message. Therefore, you disbelievers, may ask those who are well versed in the previous Scriptures (Jews and Christians) if indeed you do not know!
  8. Nor did We make bodies able to survive without consuming food, nor were they destined as immortals.
  9. And We fulfilled Our promise to them and delivered them out of danger together with whom We willed, and We made to perish the extravagant disbelievers (who held the prophets as liars, and disbelieved in their messages).
  10. And We have sent down to you people a Book (the Qur’ân) serving as a reminder to you, and honor. Will you not understand?
  11. And think but this: How many towns whose inhabitants were wrongful of actions did We shatter and replace with other people!
  12. And when they sensed Our violence approaching, in vain they scampered for their lives to other places.
  13. In irony they were told, “Do not scamper but go back to your lustful life and to your dwellings; you may have much to answer for.”
  14. There and then they exclaimed thus: “Woe betide us; we were indeed unjust wrongdoers.”
  15. They kept crying their misfortune until We made them like a field of grain mown down.
  16. We never created the heavens and the earth and all that is in between just for playing.
  17. Had We purposed to have diversion, We would have had recourse to what We have in Our Heaven’s realm, if indeed We are performing that.
  18. But what befits Our Supremacy is to hurl falsehood with truth so that it expires; therefore, woe betide you for what you (insolently) ascribe to Allâh.
  19. And to Allâh alone belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth, and the angels serving in His realm of Heaven do not pride themselves for worshiping Him (and prostrating to Him in adoration), nor do they grow weary.
  20. They glorify their Creator and extol His glorious attributes night and day, and they never lose vigor, nor do they flag.
  21. Could it be that the disbelievers have taken earthly gods who can raise the dead (and restore them to life)?
  22. Indeed, if there be gods other than Allâh (sharing His divine nature and attributes), the heavens and the earth would have been corrupted. Therefore, praise be to Allâh and extolled are His glorious attributes, the sole Sovereign of the Supreme Throne. He is far above what they ascribe to Him.
  23. He is never questioned for whatever He performs (since He is the sole Sovereign); whereas they will have much to be questioned for (because they err due to their feebleness, ignorance, and lust).
  24. Or have they taken besides Allâh other gods (which were indicated to them in previous Scriptures)? If so, say to them, O Muhammad, “Give us convincing proof to this effect. This Qur’ân is the message to be followed by my fellows in faith, and those before me.” But, indeed, most of them fail to know the truth, and so they veer away.
  25. Nor did We send a messenger before you, Prophet, but We reveal to him with the truth clearly indicating that there is no god but Me (the Creator); therefore worship Me (with extreme devotion).
  26. And some disbelievers say, “Allâh The All-Merciful has taken up a child.” Glory be to Him and extolled are His glorious attributes! The angels are but honored and distinguished worshipers.
  27. Never do they speak before Him unless He permits or commands them to do so; similarly conditioned are their acts.
  28. He knows all that is before them and all that is behind them, and they never intercede on behalf of anyone except on behalf of those satisfied to Him (those to whom He intends to be gracious). The angels keep timorous of Him on account of the apprehensive veneration and the profound reverence due to Him.
  29. And should any of the angels or men claim godship besides Allâh, then he is bound to Hell, for thus do We recompense the unjust wrongdoers.
  1. Do the disbelievers who disbelieve in Allâh not see into the creation of the heavens and the earth? Both were one integrated mass and We split them asunder and We made every living being from water. Will the disbelievers not believe (and realize that there is a Creator)?

Commentary:

1) Life as we know it is a complex series of chemical reactions occurring in small jelly-like bags called cells. It is a fact that life started as one single cell (algae) with a remarkably complex system of interlinked chemical reactions that allow it to move, digest food, grow, and reproduce.

2) Life and dependence on water The cells that are the bricks from which the bodies of plants and animals are built, are principally carbon and water. Water allows the carbon atoms to dissolve and the carbon compounds to move around and react. Every living cell is three-quarters water, and so our solid bodies are, in fact, mainly composed of liquid.

Water constitutes 55 percent of body weight in the obese person and 65 percent in the thin. This means that in a thin person who weighs 60 kg, approximately 40 kg of his weight is water.

3) Where is the water found?

Two-thirds of it is found inside the cells  and one-third outside the cells, that is, in the tissues and the plasma (fluid of the blood). Water balance is controlled by several factors, and its depletion causes serious disorders ending in death.

  1. And We furnished the earth with firm stays (mountains) placed in a certain setting, fixed as with an anchor, to stabilize it (lest it should sway you from side to side or in all directions). And We furnished it with paths, roads, channels, routes by land and water and between mountains so that they may be guided (in their journeys between the different places).
  2. And We made the heaven with their spheres and regions which resemble a vast vault or canopy, being itself protected and well preserved. Yet they are veering away from the signs (stability, regularity, precision, immensity—and fail to ascribe them to their maker, Who is Allâh).
  3. And it is He Who created the night and the day-time, the sun and the moon, each revolving in its own orbit.
  4. And never did We destine a human being before you, Prophet, to eternity (you are no exception). Is it, then, that when you die they will live eternally?
  5. Every self will taste death, and We tempt you people by evil and good (and by making Our grace abound in you to determine your true belief and inclination, and your way and course of acting). Then in the end will all of you be brought back to Us.
  6. And when the disbelievers see you, Prophet, they receive you with nothing but mockery and scorn and they say, “Is this the one who mentions (with blasphemes) your gods?” And when The All-Merciful is mentioned, their countenances speak disbelief against Him.
  7. Man has been created with the innate propensity to be hasty; I will exhibit to you My signs and My marvels (serving to demonstrate divine power and authority); therefore, do not ask Me to hasten them on.
  8. And yet the disbelievers ask the Muslims, “When will that promised punishment come to pass, if indeed you declare the truth sincerely?”
  9. If only these disbelievers (who deny Allâh) knew that there will come a time when they will not be able to restrain the blazing fire from their faces nor from their backs, nor will they be afforded vindication!
  10. The Day of Resurrection will surprise them. Pale and dumb, they will stand confused and confounded, unable to turn it back, nor will they be granted respite.
  11. Messengers who were sent before you, Muhammad, were also mocked at; the disbelievers mocked them. In consequence, the scoffers were beset on all sides by the same things they had turned into mockery.
  12. Say to them, Prophet, “Who can defend you by night and by day from The All-Merciful (and his torment)?” But they veer away from divine revelation, nor to Allâh’s warning.
  13. Or have they gods besides Us who can defend them? They (the gods) are themselves unable to hold their own, nor can they vindicate themselves, nor do We protect them.
  14. We granted these people, together with their fathers, comfort and enjoyment and all that advantaged them of Our blessings in life as long as they lived. Do they not see that We reduce their territories and straiten their outlying borders (by rapid progress of Islâm)? Is it, then, they who are the winners?
  15. Say to them, O Prophet, “I only warn you of the promised punishment of which I have been informed by the revelation. But those who counsel deaf are oblivious of Allâh’s warning.”
  16. And if afflicted with a gust of your Lord’s torment, the disbelievers will say, “Woe betide us; we were indeed unjust wrongdoers.”
  1. And We set the equitable scales even on the Day of Resurrection. Accordingly, no self will ever be unjustly wronged in the least. Every deed, good or bad, will We present with precision, even if it be as light as a mustard seed. Enough are We as Reckoners.
  2. And We gave Mûsâ and Hârûn the criterion (imparting the soundness of judgment in the choice of means and ends and in the choice of what is morally good, honest, and straightforward), serving as an illumination and enlightenment, besides being a divine light and a constant reminder of Allâh to the pious,
  3. Who stand in apprehension of Allâh, their Lord, albeit they cannot perceive Him by sight, and who think of the Day of Resurrection being timorous of the Final Hour of Judgment.
  4. And this Qur’ân is a blessed Book that We have sent down to guide into all truth. Will you disbelievers reject and deny what is good and advantageous to attain and possess?
  5. Aforetime, We directed Ibrâhîm to employ forthrightness in forming conclusions, and We were knowledgeable of him (of his thoughts and of his innermost being).
  6. And remember, O Prophet, Ibrâhîm. He asked his father and his people, “What are these statues and images you regard with reverence and consecration?”
  7. They said, “We found our fathers revering them with acts and rites of worship.”
  1. “But you and your fathers,” said Ibrâhîm, “were evidently erroneous, indeed (in your system of faith and worship).”
  2. “Have you brought us the truth,” they asked, “or are you one of those who play and make this the object of a joke?”
  3. “But your Lord, Allâh,” said Ibrâhîm, “is the Lord of the heavens and the earth Who generated them and brought them into existence, and to this effect I sincerely testify.”
  4. “And, by Allâh,” said Ibrâhîm, “I will plot (to destroy) your idols after you have withdrawn and turned your backs.”
  5. And so he destroyed the idols into scraps, except their biggest, so that they might turn to it (for information).
  6. And when they returned, they exclaimed, “He who has done this to our gods is indeed an unjust wrongdoer.”
  7. Some of them said, “We heard a young man by the name of ‘Ibrâhîm calling them (names).”
  8. “Bring him here before the multitude,” they said, “so that they may witness with their own eyes the consequence (for Ibrâhîm has much to answer for).”
  9. And when he was brought over, they asked him, “Was it you, Ibrâhîm, who performed this to our gods?”
  10. “But it was their chief who performed it,” said Ibrâhîm “Ask them if they are able to pronounce (a word)!”
  11. And there, they returned to themselves saying, “You are indeed the unjust wrongdoers.”
  12. But, overturned to themselves, they said to him, “You knew very well that these idols do not pronounce (a word)!”
  13. “Do you worship besides Allâh,” asked Ibrâhîm, “(objects) that neither profit you nor can do you harm?”
  14. “Fie on you and on those (objects) you worship besides Allâh. Can you not consider (in forming conclusions)? (These idols do not deserve to be worshiped.)”
  15. “Nevertheless,” they said, “burn him and uphold your gods if indeed you intend to maintain our system of faith.”
  16. We said, “O fire! Be cool and afford Ibrâhîm safety and peace.”
  17. They thought of plotting against him, but We made them the losers (who lost the most).
  18. And We delivered him together with Lût (Lot), and delivered them to the land We had blessed, the land where many divine messages were revealed for all the worlds.
  19. And We bestowed on him Ishâq (Isaac), and Ya`qûb (Jacob), each of whom We characterized by virtue and righteousness.
  20. And We made them leaders of faith guiding people into all truth as We commanded, and We revealed to them the charitable deeds of piety and keeping up of prayer and the giving of zakâh. And they worshiped Us alone.
  21. And to Lût We imparted wise judgment, and knowledge; and We delivered him out of the town whose inhabitants had established the most evil deeds (and abnormal sexual practice of homosexuality). They were perverse people given to shameful deeds and immorality.
  22. And We admitted him to the domain of Our mercy. He was one of those characterized by righteousness (and vindication from Us).
  23. And Nûh (Noah) who called out to Us aforetime and We responded favorably to his invocation and rescued him and delivered him together with his family from the distressful agony.
  24. And We delivered him from the people who cried lies Our divine signs (and denied Our omnipotence and authority). They were woeful people, and in consequence We drowned them all.
  1. And recall, Prophet, Dâwûd (David) and Sulaymân (Solomon), who passed judgment* upon the owners of the sheep that escaped from their enclosure and strayed in people’s field. And We were witnesses of their Judgment.
  2. But We made Sulaymân understand the matter**, and to each one of them We brought correct judgment and knowledge. And We subdued the mountains as well as the birds to join Dâwûd in praising Allâh and in extolling His glorious attributes, and We have always been All-Powerful to perform what We will.
  3. And We taught Dâwûd the art of making armor for people’s protection to defend you from injury and to shield you from the violence exercised against each other. And now will you be thankful?
  4. And to Sulaymân We subjected the wind raging and blowing tempestuously to flow at his command to the blessed land We had marked with grace***, and We were All-Knowing of everything.

—————–

* Dâwûd’s decision centered on compensation, that is, the sheep for the crop.

** The plaintiff makes use of the sheep until the defendant makes the necessary repairs and restores the field to the original state, then each takes back his property.

*** Sulaymân was endowed with the power to tame evil with wisdom.

  1. Those among the jinn were also subdued to him to dive into the waters (after the treasures of pearls and corals), in addition to other jobs, and We were their Preservers.
  2. And recall, Prophet, Ayyûb (Job), who called out to Allâh, his Lord, for relief. He said, “O my Lord, I have suffered long-lasting adversity and You are the Most Merciful of all the merciful.”
  3. And We responded favorably to his invocation and freed him from all adversity, and We compensated to him his family and the like of them, a mercy extended to him from Us and a Reminder for the worshipers.
  4. Also Ismâ`îl, Idrîs, and Thal-Kifl, each of whom faced hardship and tribulations with patience and endurance.
  5. We admitted them in (the domain of) Our mercy, for they were of those characterized by righteousness.
  6. And Than-Nûn (Yûnus) (who met the opposition of the people to whom he was sent with impatience). Moved by anger, he left them thinking that We would not master and reprove him for such a behavior. (In the sea he was swallowed by the fish, wherein he was constrained.) In the depth of darkness he called (on Allâh and invoked His mercy), saying, “O Allâh, there is no god but You; glory be to You and extolled are Your glorious attributes. I have been unjustly wrongful of actions.”
  7. And there, We responded favorably to him and delivered him from the suffering and the distress, for thus do We deliver those who believe (admit their wrongdoing, and invoke Us).
  8. And recall Zakariyya (Zachariah) when he called out to his Lord and said, “O Allâh my Lord, leave me not childless. (Give me a child not to inherit from me but to pursue the same line of action so that Your word may have a free course.) When it comes to inheritance, You are, indeed, The Most Charitable of Inheritors.”
  9. We responded favorably to him and bestowed on him Yahyâ (John), having made his wife righteous (and made her fruitful). These were people who vied swiftly in charitable deeds, and they invoked Us expressing their due affectionate devotion, keeping in awe of Us and hopeful of Our mercy, and they were indeed submissive to Us alone.
  10. And recall Maryam (Mary) who attended to her private parts (guarded her chastity), and so We sent to her Our messenger (the angel Jibrîl—Gabriel) to breathe life into her of Our Spirit (in her womb). And We made her and her son `Îsa (Jesus) (of Our omnipotence and authority) a sign to the worlds.
  11. This nation of yours is one nation. (This is the religion eminently professed by all the previous prophets, the one and only system of faith and worship established by Allâh.) And I am Allâh your Lord; therefore, worship Me alone (and do not associate other deities with Me).
  12. Yet people, differed among themselves about their Command, but all will (inevitably) return to Us.
  13. Therefore, he who does righteous deeds and is a believer while his heart believes in Allâh and His religion, will be the recipient of Our mercy. His deeds and his endeavor will not be disavowed nor denied, and We record his endeavor to his advantage.
  14. The punishment We inflict on any town to cause it to perish is certainly not the end, nor does it mean that they will not rise again. They will rise (they have much to answer for and pay for their sinful deeds in the Hereafter).
  15. And when the gates of evil are wide open, and Ya’jûj and Ma’jûj (Gog and Magog) press down from every slope (overcoming all barriers and ramparts),
  16. And the promised Event draws near, there and then will the disbelievers’ eyes be wide open glazing fixedly in horror, and they say, “Woe betide us; we were not only heedless of this event, but we were also unjust wrongdoers.”
  17. And there they are told, “You and those you worshiped besides Allâh are the gravel of Hell, to which you will now herd.
  18. “Had these objects of worship you associated with Allâh been gods who deserved to be worshiped, they would not have herded with you therein. And now all and each of you will be eternally therein.”
  19. There will they pant, emitting with difficulty a deep breath and drawing with more difficulty a long breath, groaning (and the painful emotion compounded of loathing and fear), and the feeling excited by fright will deafen their ears so that they cannot hear.
  20. But those in whom Allâh’s fair grace has abounded beforehand are those who will be kept far away from Hell and its torture.
  21. They do not hear the sharp continual hissing sound its flames emit; to the contrary, they will be eternally enjoying what they craved for.
  22. Nor will they be disturbed, grieved, or shocked by the overwhelming alarm of the Day of Resurrection, and they will be received with a hearty welcome by the angels who say to them, “This is your happy day, the day you were promised.”
  23. This is the Day when We fold the heavens the way the scribe rolls together the books, so that as We effected the first creation so will We effect re-creation—a promise that We are All-Powerful to fulfill.
  24. And We decreed and wrote in the Zubûr (the Book revealed to Dâwûd; Psalms) after the Remembrance (the Tawrâh [the Book revealed to Mûsâ [Moses]), that the earth will be inherited by My righteous worshipers.
  25. This proclamation is made evident in this Book (the Qur’ân) and stands as a proclamation to people who are well prepared to worship Allâh alone.
  26. We did not send you, Prophet, except as a mercy (that Allâh has extended) to all the worlds.
  27. Therefore, say to the people, “What is revealed to me is that your God, Allâh, is One God; will you then be Muslims?”
  28. And should they turn their backs, then say to them, “I have done my duty and I have proclaimed to you all alike the word of Allâh and notified you of the consequences. And I just do not know whether what you have been promised, good or bad, is close at hand or far and distant.
  29. “Allâh knows what is avowed aloud and openly, and He knows all that you do out of sight and keep back.
  30. “Nor do I know the reason for the respite granted to you people. It may be a temptation to test your true belief and inclination, or to give you enough enjoyment up to a predetermined point of time (in accordance with His Wisdom).”
  31. And invoke Allâh, Prophet, to give judgment upon your matter, thus, “Your Judgment, my Lord, is the truth. Judge, my Lord, between me and those who rejected Your Word.” And say to them, “And Allâh The All-Merciful is He Whose present help is sought to endure with whatever you utter.”

SÛRAH 22

AL-HAJJ

The Pilgrimage

Revealed at Madînah

This sûrah was revealed at Madînah, except verses 52 through 55. There are 78 verses in the sûrah.

The sûrah starts by a call to regard Allâh with reverence and awe, and reminds people of the astounding Day of Resurrection and the intense horror it excites. It then shows the characteristics of those people who argue unjustly and in ignorance. This is followed by giving evidence of the resurrection by the token of the development of the creation of man and the growth of plants. The sûrah then deals with the consequences of arguing about Allâh by want of guidance. It then deals with pilgrimage and holding rites in esteem. After this Allâh allows believers to fight in defense of their religion and themselves. This is followed by comforting the Messenger for what his people inflicted on him, by mentioning the injustice and persecution that fell on messengers before him. The sûrah also includes verses containing signs of the omnipotence and oneness of Allâh Almighty. It also defines the mission of the messengers as conveying warning, not compulsion. At the end of the sûrah there is defiance of those who associate other deities with Allâh and holding the disbelievers in ridicule, stating that they cannot create even the feeblest of creatures, namely flies, and that if flies ravish something, people cannot get it back from them. The sûrah then calls Muslims to perform prayers, give zakâh (alms), worship Allâh truly, and strive in the path of Allâh. It calls upon Muslims to abide by the religion of their forefather Ibrâhîm (Abraham), father of Ismâ`îl (Ishmael).

 

In The Name of Allâh,

The All-Merciful, The Ever-Merciful

  1. O you people, regard Allâh your Creator with reverence and piety. The quake of the universe at the Final Hour on the Day of Judgment is indeed tremendous and excites intense horror.
  2. The day you see it, every nursing mother distracted from her suckling child and every pregnant female will lay down what she conceived, and you see the people drunken while not intoxicated. But it is actually the reflection of Allâh’s severe torment.
  3. Yet among the people is he who disputes about Allâh without knowledge and follows every insurgent devil (and follows those with characteristics befitting Satan).
  4. Satan has been designated as evil itself, and he who takes him as his patron guardian will be misled and be lost in the maze of error and will be led to where he suffers the torment of the blazing Fire (laid upon the damned).
  1. O you mankind, if you are in suspicion of resurrection, We created you from dust, then We made you evolve from a seed (a constituent part of emitted fluid), then from a clinging organism, then from a bolus-like mass of coherent body of matter partly shaped and partly not yet shaped, to realize Allâh’s omnipotence. And We repose in the wombs what We will for a determined period of time. We then disburden the wombs of you as a newborn baby, then you grow to maturity. And among you is he who is caused to die and also he who is carried through to a decrepit age that he loses the wits that were once about him and he loses remembrance of knowledge he formerly mastered. And you see the earth torpid and barren, and when We send rain down and it shakes, it thrives, flourishes, and vegetates delightful pairs of vegetal growths.
  2. This is by reason of Allâh’s attributes. He is The Truth, and it is He Who raises the dead and restores them to life, and He is indeed All-Determiner over all things (and able to accomplish what He wills).
  3. He authoritatively states that the Final Hour (Day of Judgment) is above suspicion (and an absolute certainty), and that Allâh will resurrect those in the graves (for reckoning and reward or punishment).
  4. Yet among the people is he who disputes about Allâh without knowledge and by want of guidance and by want of a Book imparting Divine enlightment.
  5. You see him bending his side in disdain (and slipping aside from righteousness and piety in order to mislead the people from the way of Allâh. He will suffer shame, dishonor, and disgrace in the present world, and We will make him taste the blazes of burning in the Day of Resurrection.
  6. “This is in consequence,” he is told, “of what your wrongful hands have forwarded, and Allâh is not He Who does not observe the principles of justice when He judges His bondmen.”
  7. And among mankind is someone who worships Allâh, standing on the border. If all goes well with any of them and he makes worldly gains, he is gratified and he is composed. And should he be afflicted by temptation; he turns over on his face and turns renegade so that he loses both worlds, here and the hereafter. And this is indeed the utmost loss.
  8. He erroneously invokes besides Allâh objects unable to harm him if he does not worship them, nor profit him if he worships them, and this is erring far away.
  9. He invokes an object which would sooner hurt him than profit him. How bad is the patron and how bad is the consort!
  10. Allâh does, indeed, cause those whose hearts have believed and done righteous deeds to enter Gardens beneath which rivers flow, and Allâh does what He wills.
  11. He who surmises that Allâh will not help (His Prophet in this world and the Hereafter) may attach or stretch a rope heavenward to hang himself and cut it off to see (if this stops the Prophet’s help from Heaven) whether such plotting will annul his rage!
  1. Thus did We send down the Qur’ân, embodying evident signs (guiding out of darkness into enlightenment). Allâh does, indeed, guide whom He wills.
  2. Those who have believed (and acknowledged the Prophet Muhammad) and those who believed in the prophets of the past, and those who profess Judaism, the Sâbi’în (Sabeans), and the Nasârâ (Christians), as well as the Magians and those who associated other deities with Allâh, Allâh will distinctly judge between them on the Day of Judgment; He (is the All-Powerful Who) witnesses all actions and all things.
  3. Do you not see (you who are oblivious of Allâh’s omnipotence), that to Allâh all creatures in the heavens and on earth prostrate in praise and worship, and so do the sun and the moon, the stars and the mountains, the trees and the beasts, and a great many among mankind. Likewise, a great many have deserved torment. And he whom Allâh degrades—no one will be able to restore his honor. Allâh performs what He wills*.
  4. There you people have an acquirement to comprehend: two adversaries who argued, one in favor and the other against Allâh their Lord. As for those who have disbelieved, their measures have been taken for fitting them with an exclusive attire— vesture made of fire, and on their heads will be poured scalding water (bubbling over in agitation),

———————

* A prostration should be performed here.

  1. Scalding water diffusing itself throughout to melt what is in their bellies and their skins.
  2. They will be restricted in solitary confinement, with hooked rods (within cells vaulted with iron).
  3. As often as they (seek relief they) try to get out from there, only to be returned and be told, “Taste the torment of burning in the Fire (as a punishment for your disbelieving).”
  4. As for those who believed and did righteous deeds, Allâh admits them to Gardens beneath which rivers flow, where they will be ornamented with golden and pearled bracelets and vested in silken attire.
  5. They are guided to use gracious words in their speech, and they were graced with Allâh’s guidance to His path, the path of The All-Praiseworthy.
  6. Indeed, those disbelievers who disbelieve in Allâh and His prophets and bar from the way of Allâh and the Inviolable mosque, (will have much to answer for). We made the Mosque a refuge at the disposal of all people alike, the consecrating therein and the “visitors”. He among them whose intention is irreverence and profanity, We will make him taste the torment laid upon the damned.
  7. We had located to Ibrâhîm (Abraham) the site where he would build the House and We instructed him thus: “Do not associate other deities with Me, and purify My House from defilements (idols and the like, placed by the pagans), and impart to it real sacredness, and make it ceremonially clean for those who go round it in procession and for those who perform the act of worship standing and for those who bow down in supplication and prostrate in acknowledgement of Allâh’s omnipotence and authority.
  8. “And proclaim pilgrimage to the mankind; they will come to you on foot and mounted upon the back of every lean and exhausted beast of burden from every ravine (and deep and distant places).
  9. “They will be eager to respond to your call to observe events considered a source of knowledge, and to participate in the intercourse of life. And they will extol and proclaim the glorious attributes of Allâh throughout the predetermined days in appreciation of Allâh’s blessings, and be impelled to the feeling of gratefulness for what He provided for them of camels, cows, and cattle for sacrifice, and to fulfill what He has enjoined. Eat therefrom if you may, and feed the indigent and the needy.
  10. “Thereafter they will be permitted to remove the unwanted biological accumulations on their bodies (hair, dirt, nails) and to fulfill their promises and pay their vows—if any—and again go round the Ancient House in procession.”
  11. So be it, and he who honors what Allâh has ordained to be observed will have accomplished what is laudable and acceptable to his Lord. (And in that connection), the flesh of cattle has been rendered lawful to you (camels, cows, sheep and the like animals reared for food) except those designated and recited to you as forbidden. And avoid abominating and sacrificing animals under the immolation to idols, and avoid telling a forgery (as well as the intentional assertion of what is false).
  12. Sincerely maintain unswerving the precepts of Allâh’s system of faith and worship authoritatively established by Him, and do not associate other deities with Him. And he who associates other deities with Him will stand exact similitude of someone who has fallen from heaven and been snatched by the birds of prey or been swept away by a storm in its fury to a distant place.
  13. And he who honors Allâh’s waymarks (acts and rites and turns his thoughts upon the duties owed to Him will have won Allâh’s affection), for honoring Allâh’s rites is (an endearment) of the hearts reflective of piety.
  14. You advantage yourselves of them up to a determined point of time; then they are taken to where they belong, the ancient Ancient House, where they are sacrificed, and pilgrimage will have had all its rites.
  15. And to every nation did We authoritatively determine certain rites of sacrifice so that they may use the sacred event to commemorate Allâh’s Name and perform the sacrifice under His Name as a form of warm feeling of good will and gratitude for what He has provided for them of livestock reared for food. Indeed, your Allâh is One and only. Therefore, surrender your will to His will in Islâm. Meanwhile, announce, O Prophet, joyful tidings to those who humble themselves and entertain the profound reverence due to Allâh;
  16. Who when Allâh is mentioned, lift to Allâh their hearts are tremulous with veneration at the mention and the thought of Him; who exercise patience in the face of misfortunes or calamities (in peace and in war); and who observe the act of prayer and spend in benevolence of advantages We have provided them.
  17. And We make lawful for you the camels and cows, as the waymarks of Allâh, to use in the event of your oblation of thanksgiving and in your offering. They serve as a store from which you obtain advantages in plenty. Therefore, pronounce Allâh’s Name on them as they are lined up, slaughtered, and laid on their sides. You may eat from them and feed him who is content and satisfied in mind despite poverty, as well as him who is needy and circumstances compel him to beg. Thus did We make these animals subservient for you that you may, it is hoped, impel yourselves to the feeling of gratitude and thank (Me).
  18. It is not their flesh nor their blood that reaches Allâh. It is only the piety on your part, the obedience, and the faithfulness to the duties owed to Him. We made them subservient to you so that you may magnify Allâh and extol His glorious attributes in return for His guiding you to all truth. Meanwhile, Prophet, proclaim joyful tidings to those whose deeds are imprinted with fairness and piety.
  19. Indeed, Allâh defends those whose hearts have believed; whereas He simply does not love the dishonest, the unfaithful, and the treacherous given to infidelity and disbelief.
  20. Those who have been unjustly attacked by the disbelievers who waged war against them for their belief in Allâh are permitted to fight in defense of the wrong inflicted on them; Allâh is indeed All-Powerful to give them victory.
  21. The Muslims were unjustly driven out from their homes for no reason other than saying, “Our Allâh is the Lord of the whole and of all in all.” And were it not that Allâh represses some people by others, monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques where He is much remembered and His glorious Name extolled would have been demolished. But Allâh does indeed vindicate those whose purpose is to serve Him and vindicate His cause; Allâh is indeed All-Powerful and All-Mighty.
  22. These are they who will not neglect religious observances (the act of prayer, zakâh, enjoining what is just and right, and forbidding what is evil) when given power and authority in the land. The ultimate decision of all affairs rests with Allâh, here and in the hereafter.
  23. Should the disbelievers accuse you, Prophet, of lying, so did those before you, the people of Nûh (Noah), of `Âd and of Thamûd. They charged their prophets with lies.
  24. So did the people of Ibrâhîm (Abraham) and those of Lût (Lot).
  25. And companions of Madyan accused Shu`aib, and Pharaoh and his people accused Mûsâ (Moses) of lies. In consequence I reprieved them to a predetermined point of time, then I took them away (from a position of prosperity and power and brought them to ruin). And how unbearable was their disclaiming (and how intolerable was the fitting retribution)!
  26. Many were the towns We destroyed with their wrongful unjust inhabitants so that they stood devastated but of dilapidated trellises over hills of ruin, and the wells and the spacious and highly decorated palaces neglected, empty, and abandoned!
  27. Have these disbelievers not traveled through the land and employed hearts with which they consider and ears with which they hear? Indeed, it is not the eyes of the body that go blind but the hearts in the breasts.
  28. And the disbelievers ask you, Muhammad, to hasten on the promised torment. But never will Allâh fail His promise. And a day with your Lord is as a thousand years of your reckoning.
  29. And how many towns of unjust inhabitants did I reprieve, then I took them down (from a position of prosperity and power and brought them to ruin). And to Me will in the end be the Destiny.
  30. Say to mankind, “O you mankind, I have been sent to you all as an evident warning.”
  31. Consequently, those who believe in Allâh and do righteous deeds will be mercifully forgiven and be graced with honorable provision (in this world and in the hereafter).
  32. Whereas those who strive to oppose and defy Our authoritative and divine signs will be the companions of Hell-Fire forever.
  33. Nor did We send before you, Prophet, a messenger or a prophet but when he covets, Ash-Shaytân cast in his coveting. But there and then does Allâh abrogate what Ash-Shaytân casts. And He clearly confirms His signs. Allâh is All-Knowing, All-Wise.
  34. Allâh makes the incitement instigated by satan as a temptation for those in whose hearts reigns sickness and those who are hard-hearted. And the unjust wrongdoers are in disagreement (producing extreme contention and discord).
  35. And those who are given knowledge know that this Qur’ân is the truth from Allâh your Lord, and in consequence they believe in it, and their hearts venerate to it. And Allâh guides those who believe in Him to the straight path of righteousness.
  36. Nevertheless, the disbelievers continue to be wrangling of the divine nature of the Qur’ân until the sudden encounter with the Hour, or until the torment of sterile Day comes.
  37. There and then will the sovereign authority and the right of controlling be exclusively that of Allâh, Who gives judgment to confer the Gardens of bliss on those who have believed and who have done righteous deeds.
  38. Allâh will requite the disbelievers who defiantly cried lies to Allâh’s divine and authoritative signs with the degrading torment.
  39. And those who emigrated to serve Allâh’s purpose and strive in His cause, whether killed in action or died of natural causes, will be honored. Allâh will provide them with a fair provision, for He is indeed the most Charitable of providers.
  40. He will admit them into favor and grant them an honorable entry actuating them with satisfaction. Allâh is indeed All-Knowing and Ever-Forbearing (toward His bondmen).
  1. And he who punishes with the like of that with which he was punished, and should the plaintiff be inequitably offended further by the offender, then will Allâh help the former against the latter, and give him victory over him. Allâh is indeed ever All-Clement and All-Forgiving.
  2. This is, for Allâh inserts the night into the day and inserts the day into the night. And Allâh is indeed Ever-Hearing and All-Seeing.
  3. Allâh is The Truth, and any other object of worship they invoke besides Him is falsehood and untruth. Allâh is indeed The Ever-Exalted, The Ever-Great.
  4. Do you not see that Allâh sends down from the heaven rain water and makes it instrumental (in springing up vegetation and) rendering the land verdant? Allâh is, indeed, Ever-Kind, Ever-Cognizant.
  5. To Him belong all that is in the heavens and all that is on earth, and Allâh is indeed Ever-Affluent, Ever-Praiseworthy.
  6. Do you not see that Allâh has subjected to you all that is on earth, and the ships move in the sea by His invisible command (producing their buoyancy and their motion)? And He sustains and supports the heaven and keeps it from falling on the earth unless it be permitted by Him (meteorites, shooting stars, fire balls). Indeed, Allâh displays kindness to mankind, those who serve Him and those who do not. He is Ever-Compassionate, Ever-Merciful.
  1. And it is He Who (brought you into existence and) gave you life. Then He occasions your death, and at the predetermined point of time your resurrection. Man is indeed a disbeliever.
  2. To every nation did We prescribe certain rites and articles of faith and the order of celebrating religious services, and it was incumbent on them to follow (until the system was modified or replaced by a new system suitable for the time at the hands of another messenger). Therefore, Prophet, do not let them contend with you upon the question, and keep calling for Allâh’s acceptable system of faith and worship. You are indeed on a straight guidance, the path of righteousness, the path of Allâh.
  3. And should the disbelievers dispute with you, then say to them, “Allâh knows best what you do.
  4. “Allâh will judge between you on the Day of Resurrection in all matters for which you are ready to differ.”
  5. Do you not know that Allâh is All-Knowing of all that is in heaven and on earth? It is all on record in a Book, and this is quite easy for Allâh to do.
  6. Yet they worship besides Allâh objects for which He has not sent down authority and of which they have no knowledge. And the unjust wrongdoers will have no vindicator to afford them help.
  7. And to their misfortune when Our evident signs (revelations) are recited to them, you instantly recognize maleficence in the faces of the disbelievers. They are almost ready to attack with hostile action and words to those who recite to them Our revelations. Say to them, Prophet, “If these divine revelations are distasteful to you, shall I tell you of what will be far worse and more distasteful to you? It is the fire, which Allâh has promised to those disbelievers who denied Him. And how evil is the Destiny!”
  8. O you mankind, an allegorical representation is introduced to describe a subject under the guise of some other subject of aptly suggestive resemblance. Thus, those whom you invoke besides Allâh (idols or human), will not be able to create a fly even if they get together (and combine their efforts). And if a fly should rob anything out of their hands or out of their environ, never will they be able to rescue (reclaim) it. How weak is the seeker who is defeated by a fly and the creature sought (the fly)!
  9. The Makkan disbelievers did not estimate Allâh with the true estimates asserted as His own. Indeed, Allâh is All-Powerful and All-Mighty.
  10. Allâh elects from the angels messengers as He chooses from mankind. He is, indeed, All-Hearing and All-Seeing.
  11. He knows what is before them and it is behind them, and to Him, the Ultimate Authority, are committed and submitted all matters (and all affairs for consideration, decision, and execution here and in the hereafter).
  12. O you who believe, bow down and prostrate yourselves (in reverence and submission to Allâh), and worship (Allâh) your Lord, and do righteous and charitable deeds so that you may prosper.
  13. And strive in the cause of Allâh and make His purpose the heart of your purpose. He has selected you. He did not intend to put you in difficulty nor to create for you restrictions in the religion and worship He has chosen for you, the same creed followed by your father Ibrâhîm. It is Allâh Who gave you people the descriptive and distinctive appellation “Muslims” in previous Scriptures as well as in this Book (the Qur’ân) so that the Messenger Muhammad would be a witness of your actions and you come to be witnesses of mankind’s actions which interpret their thoughts and characterize their rival systems. Therefore, engage in the act of prayer, give the zakâh, and adhere to Allâh, and see that you be under His tutelage. He is your Patronizer, and how ultimate in excellence is The Patronizer and The Vindicator!

SÛRAH 23

AL-MU’MINÛN

The Believers

Revealed at Makkah

This is a Makkan sûrah of 118 verses. It starts with ascribing prosperity to the believers, followed by a statement of their attributes. Then the sûrah mentions the origin of man’s creation and the development of this creation and its successive stages, as well as some signs of the omnipotence of Allâh. This is followed by stories of prophets, signifying the oneness of messages and the unity of man, even though people may be believers or disbelievers. The sûrah  then describes one who seeks guidance as well as one who is misguided. It expounds the attitude of the polytheists towards the Prophet, then it moves to showing the signs of Allâh’s omnipotence as manifested in the creation of man. Allâh poses questions to people so that they may answer Him by means of their innate nature, in a way that ascertains His existence and ascribes Godhood to Him. Then the sûrah  shows the conditions of people on the Day of Resurrection and that they will be justly reckoned. The sûrah ends with a statement of Allâh’s sovereignty and calls the attention of His Messenger to ask for forgiveness and mercy from The Merciful.

In the Name of Allâh,

The All-Merciful, The Ever-Merciful

  1. Prosperous has been the outcome achieved by those who believe in Allâh (and in what His messengers conveyed),
  2. Who habitually exercise submission when standing before Allâh in prayer,
  3. Who veer away from small or idle talk, gossip, and slander,
  4. Who perform the religious duty of giving zakâh (with the sympathetic feeling toward the poor and their due),
  5. Who preserve their sexual morality (and refrain from unlawful sexual intercourse, sexual perversion, and sexual abuse)—
  6. But absolved are they to satisfy their instinctive sexual desire with those (spouses) to whom they are united in matrimony or with those whom they choose to marry from those on hand, and there they incur no blame;
  7. And those who do not confine their sexual activity within these limitations are the aggressors, (who will have violated and disregarded the set limits instituted by Allâh)—
  8. Who are trustworthy, an attribute including fulfillment of the confidence reposed in them when entrusted with anything, meeting their obligation or responsibility, honoring the legal ownership of property vested in them to hold or use for the benefit of others, keeping their covenant.
  9. And those who faithfully observe their prayers.
  10. Such persons are the inheritors of Allâh’s mercy and blessings here and on the Day of Resurrection.
  11. They will inherit Al-Firdaws (Paradise) in which they enjoy the unsurpassed beauty and supreme bliss for eternity.
  12. We brought man to being by special creation from an extraction of wet and soft earth matter.
  13. Then We made him evolve from a nutfah amshâj (union of male and female seeds), the zygote that We embedded in the depth of a safe and secure reposing.
  14. Then We created the nutfah (sperm-drop) into a clinging organism. Then We created the clinging organism into a bolus-like chewed-up mass of coherent body of matter. Then We created the bolus-like chewed-up mass into bones, and We dressed the bones flesh. Out of this We brought it forth as a different creation. So, blessed be Allâh, The Fairest of creators.
  15. Thereafter, all of you (sons of Âdam) will inevitably come upon the encounter with death (and be deposited in the graves).
  16. And the Day of Resurrection all of you will be made to rise again for reckoning.
  17. And We created seven (heavenly) roads that hang high above your heads, and We are not heedless of Our creation. It is We Who maintain them in existence and in order.
  18. And We sent down from heaven rain water in due measure inside the land and on its surface—enough to dwell in the earth (and to effect the necessary equilibrium between the opposing forces of land and water, between cloud formation and fresh water in rivers and lakes maintaining life, between the clouds and the water deposited underground), and We are certainly able to take it away.
  19. We made it instrumental in springing up for you gardens and orchards of date palms and vines supplying you with abundance of fruits and food,
  20. In addition to the tree (olive) springing out of Mount Sinai, growing with oil and nutrition seasoning for eaters.
  21. And you have in cattle a divine lesson of Allâh’s omnipotence and authority, a sign for you to ponder. From their bellies We supply you with a pure drink (milk) and other great benefits you advantage yourselves of, and of them you eat.
  22. And on their backs and on board ships you are carried from one place to another (thus creating for you means of transportation on the land and at sea, by means of which you communicate).
  23. (Yet people have always been averse to Allâh’s divine message, past and present, and this is exampled in the people of Nûh (Noah) and in those who followed.) We sent Nûh with Our divine message to his people. He said to them, “My people, worship Allâh. You have no god but Him. Will you entertain the profound piety due to Him?”
  24. But the disbelieving chiefs among his people exclaimed, “He is only a human like yourselves. He simply wishes to have superiority over you. And had Allâh willed, He would have sent down angels to serve as His messengers. We never heard of this by our forefathers.”
  25. “Indeed,” they continued, “he is but a madman. Watch him for some time with patience.”
  26. There did Nûh invoke Allâh for His aid: “O Allâh my Lord, give me victory over them; they have accused me of lies.”
  27. There and then, We revealed to him: “Construct the ark under Our Eyes and Revelation. And when Our command comes to pass and you see the water bubbling up and rising in billows (and erupting through the earth’s surface inundating the land), you just dispatch with you on board ship a pair (a male and a female) of every kind together with your family, except those against whom Allâh has already passed His word. And do not address Me, Nûh, for those unjust wrongdoers; they will most certainly be drowned.
  28. “And when you and those in your company have leveled yourselves (express your gratitude to Allâh in words thus): ‘Praise be to Allâh Who has delivered us from those unjust wrongdoers.’
  29. “And pray, ‘O Allâh my Lord, help me disembark encompassed by Your blessing, and let the place where I make abode be a place of blessing. You are the Most Charitable Host Who can accommodate whom You will to the best.’”
  30. These are signs signalizing Allâh’s omnipotence and authority, and We have always been trying people for their true belief.
  31. After Nûh, We brought about another generation (the `Âd).
  32. And We sent to them a messenger from among them (to convey to them Our divine message). He said to them, “Worship Allâh alone; you have no god other than Him. Will you not then entertain the profound piety due to Him?”
  33. The chiefs among his people who disbelieved in Allâh and cried lies to the Meeting of the Hereafter, and We made them luxurious in this life, said, “But he is only a mortal like yourselves. He eats the same food you eat and drinks of what you drink.”
  34. “And,” they added, “should you follow a mortal like yourselves (your hopes will be doomed to disappointment) and you will be great losers.”
  35. “Does he promise you,” they said, “that after you have died and been reduced to dust and (degenerate) bones, you will be brought out and will be resurrected and restored to life?
  36. “How inconceivable and how far-fetched is what you are promised!”
  37. “In fact,” they said, “there is only this present life. We die (and so will our posterity); they will also die and their posterity will live until time does away with life, and never will we be raised again.”
  38. “He is simply a man,” they continued, “who fabricates falsehood against Allâh, and never will we believe him.”
  39. And there he prayed, “O Allâh my Lord, give me victory over them; they have accused me of lies.”
  40. “Rest assured,” said Allâh to His messenger, “their defiance and their pride are short-lived and soon enough they will be really remorseful (when the torment befalls them).”
  41. And there in due time they were justly overtaken by a direful shout from heaven, stirring up a merciless blast reducing them to an assemblage of stubble; and so away with the unjust wrongdoers.
  42. And We raised after them other generations, such as the people of Sâlih, Lût (Lot), and Shu`ayb.
  43. No people or nation can outstrip their set period of time, nor can they postdate it either.
  44. Thereafter, We sent Our messengers, one succeeding another, and whenever a messenger presented himself to his people, he was accused of lies. In consequence, We punished them successively, following one upon another, and We made them the talk of all towns. Away with people disbelieved in Allâh!
  45. Then We sent Mûsâ (Moses) and his brother Hârûn (Aaron) with divine signs and divine power and authority.
  46. We sent them to Pharaoh and his chiefs, but they prided themselves on their arrogance and discourteous refusal, and displayed arrogance and exalted themselves.
  47. And they said to them in arrogance and denial, “Shall we submit to two mortals like ourselves while their people are reduced by us to a worshipping us?”
  48. And they accused them of lies, and consequently they were among those who perished by drowning.
  49. And We gave Mûsâ the Book of the Tawrâh so that his people (the Israelites) might be guided to the truth.
  50. And We made the son of Maryam (Mary)—`Îsâ (Jesus)—and his mother a sign of Our omnipotence and authority, and We provided them with an abode on a high land, affording them security and reposing, and beneath which flowed a spring.
  51. We said to each and all Our messengers, “O you messengers, exhort your people to eat of all that has been rendered lawful and all that is worthy, good, and wholesome, and imprint your deeds with righteousness, for I am All-Knowing of all that you do.
  52. “All of you are but one nation and you constitute one nation. Allâh’s message is one. His system of faith and worship is one and I am Allâh your Lord. Therefore, I exact from you (obedience and that you entertain the) profound piety due to Me.”
  53. Yet the people were divided among themselves into denominations and set at variance, and the ties among them were severed. Instead of unity in feeling, action, and purpose, each party exulting with his own views.
  54. Therefore, leave them, Muhammad, for the time being in the depth of error and perplexity; there is a fitting point of time for every event.
  55. Do the disbelievers think that because We bestow on them wealth and children,
  56. We are pleased with their perverted adoration and by consequence hasten on to make all Our grace deservedly abound in them? To the contrary, they are not aware that We give them enough rope to allow them free scope of action to commit themselves.
  57. Conversely, those who are inspired with timorous dread and fear of Allâh their Lord (being careful for the profound reverence due to Him),
  58. Who sincerely believe their Creator’s revelations and His authoritative divine signs,
  59. Who do not associate any deities with Allâh, their Lord,
  60. Who give in benevolence, no matter what, lifting to Allâh their inward sight and laying to their tremulous hearts their fate on the Day of Judgment—
  61. These are they who strive to imprint their deeds with piety and are outstrippers (to gain more of Allâh’s mercy and blessings).
  62. And on no self do We impose more than its capacity, and We have a Book in which all records of deeds are kept, and it simply speaks the Truth and no one will ever be unjustly wronged.
  63. But the disbelievers are oblivious of all this, and their hearts are sunk in perplexity about this, and besides that they engage themselves in work of irreverence (and of evil that is wrought by want of thought).
  64. And when We lay hold of the affluent among them who live in luxury, they implore and invoke Allâh for relief.
  65. “Do not implore for help today or relief in the hereafter, for no help nor vindication will you expect from Us ever.
  66. “My revelations were recited to you and My evident signs were presented to you, but you always shunned the truth and turned the other way on your heels.
  67. “Ostentatiously exhibiting pride and inordinate self-esteem, forsaking the Qur’ân and seeking entertainment.”
  68. Do these disbelievers not ponder over the Saying of Allâh to realize that it is the truth? Or have they received a message not conveyed to their forefathers?
  69. Or do they not recognize their Messenger Muhammad who is one of them and, therefore, do not avow him (as one of their own out of injustice and envy)?
  70. Or do they accuse him of being mad? Indeed, he is a person steadfast in adherence to his Creator and His cause, and he brought these pagans the very truth guiding to all truth. But how hateful to most of them is the truth!
  71. Indeed, if the truth were to accord with their prejudices, the heavens and the earth and all created beings, the animate and the inanimate, therein would have broken into corruption and fallen into disorder. But We have sent them the truth that refers them directly to Allâh. Yet they evade the truth. They are averse to admitting the truth and they veer away from all that reminds them of the duties owed to Allâh.
  72. Or do you ask them, Prophet, to pay you a tribute for the divine service you render? Never! and they do know that. And they had better realize that the tribute granted by Allâh your Lord is more charitable than what is given by all others, for He is the best Provider Who makes provision for the needs of all.
  73. Besides, you are indeed the best guide who leads them to righteousness, the straight path (of Allâh).
  74. But those who do not believe in the hereafter are eschewing from the path of righteousness.
  75. And if We had extended to them Our mercy and blessings and lifted off their adversity, they would insist on blundering in their inordinance.
  76. In fact, We formerly inflicted them with torment and penalized them for disobedience and transgression that they may repent. But they never yielded nor humbled themselves to Allâh their Lord, nor did they entreat Him for mercy, nor did they supplicate of Him what He would have mercifully given.
  77. They persisted in wrongdoing until We (closed the gate of mercy in their faces and) opened the gate of torment. But on the contrary, they only nursed dumbfounded despair.
  78. But Allâh is He Who blessed you, mankind, with the faculties of hearing and sight, and He implanted in you the heart. Yet how little you give thanks (or express gratitude in acknowledgment of His favors)!
  79. And it is He Who propagated you on earth (and made you increase in number by natural generation), and in the end all of you will be mustered before Him.
  80. And it is He who gives life and causes animate existence, and it is He Who occasions death and deprives of animate existence. And to Him is related the natural phenomena of the variations in duration and the constant alternation and succession symbolic of the night and the day and their contingent physical phenomena. Will you not, therefore, consider?
  81. No. They said the like of what the earliest people said.
  82. They say, “Is it (at all conceivable) that when we die and are reduced to dust and bones we could be resurrected?”
  83. “We had been promised that before,” they add, “and so had been our fathers. This is nothing but the myths of the earliest people.”
  84. Ask them, Muhammad, “To whom belong the earth and all (the animate and the inanimate created) beings thereon? Tell me if you know!”
  85. They will say, “To Allâh.” Then say to them, “Can you then not remember? (Why do you associate with Me other deities? Do not you realize that He Who owns this has the right to be worshiped alone?)”
  86. Ask them, “Who is the Lord of the seven heavens and the Lord of the Magnificent Throne?”
  87. Again they will say, “Allâh.” Then say to them, “Will you not, then, entertain the profound piety due to Him?”
  88. Ask them, “Who is He Who has the gripping hands of nature and the controlling power over the universe and Who protects the whole and all in all but needs no protection? Tell me if you know.”
  89. Again they will say, “Allâh.” Then say to them, “Then how can you be bewitched?”
  90. But We have constantly presented to them the truth (at the hands of all the messengers), but they persistently are liars.
  91. Never did Allâh take or beget a son, nor did He share His sovereignty with any god; for if He did, then each god would have had a kingdom of his own independent of the others, and each would have exalted himself above the others. Extolled are His glorious attributes! (He is infinitely far beyond all that they falsely attribute to Him.)
  92. He is The All-Knowing of all the unseen, the hidden, and the unknown (and of all that is perceived by sight and all that is evidently known). Praise be to Him and exalted are His glorious attributes. He is infinitely far beyond all those whom they associate with Him.
  93. And pray, O Prophet, “O Allâh my Lord, if You have destined me to see the devastating punishment that they have been promised,
  94. “Then, I pray and beseech You, O Allâh my Lord, not to make me the unjust.”
  95. However, We are certainly able to show you, Muhammad, the scene of the promised (devastating punishment).
  96. Repel what odious with what is fairest in words and in action. We are All-Knowing of the falsehood they describe and attribute to you and your call (and We will punish them for it).
  97. And pray, “To You, Allâh my Lord, do I commit myself counter to the satanic promptings.”
  98. “And to You, Allâh my Lord, do I commit myself counter to their presence near me (so that all my deeds will be intended solely for You).”
  99. And when any of these disbelievers who have been promoting falsehood comes upon the encounter with death, he prays and beseeches Allâh his Lord to have him sent back to life.
  100. He says, “If given the chance, I may be able to do all I have neglected and left undone and imprint my deeds with piety.” Never! But this is a wish he expresses in words! Beyond them is isthmus until the Day they are made to rise again.
  101. And when the trumpet is blown on the Day of Judgment, no ties of kinship will be of avail, nor will they be able to ask or discourse on any point.
  102. There and then, those whose deeds of piety surpass in weight will be the fortunate who will be the prosperers.
  103. And those whose inequities surpass in weight on one scale of the balance will be losers. Their iniquities and unjust treatment of Our revelations and signs have lost themselves in Hell eternally abiding.
  104. Their faces will be seared with the Fire, their countenances will be expressive of pain and torture, and they are therein glumly glowering.
  105. And there, they will be told, “Were not My verses recited to you and My evident signs presented to you? And did you not always treat them as lies?”
  106. And there they will say, “O Allâh our Lord, our pride and wretchedness got the better of our prudence, and we were certainly lost in the maze of error.”
  107. “O Allâh our Lord,” they will add, “Get us out of Hell. We will conform to Your system of faith and worship and if we should turn renegades then we will be unjust wrongdoers.”
  108. “Be spurned into it,” Allâh will tell them, “(with hardship and torture) and do not speak to Me.
  109. “When some of My servants pleaded for mercy and forgiveness and prayed, ‘O Allâh our Lord, we have believed in You. Forgive us and have mercy on us. You are the Most Merciful of all who can extend mercy,’
  110. “You just made them the object of scoffing that you forgot all about My Remembrance and you laughed them to scorn.
  111. “But as you can see, I have recompensed them this day for their patience and forbearance. They are the triumphant ones.”
  112. “How long,” says Allâh, “do you think you lingered in the earth (year in and year out)?”
  113. “A day or a part of a day,” they say, “but You may ask those (the angels) who keep count (since we are preoccupied by our torture).”
  114. Allâh will say to them, “You only lingered for a short while, if you had only known!
  115. “Did you reckon that We created you and brought you in the world below purposelessly and that you would not be brought back to Us (when there is much to answer for? Never).”
  116. Exalted be Allâh, the Supreme Sovereign King. There is no god but Him, the Sovereign Who occupies the Most Honorable and Supreme Throne.
  117. And he who invokes or associates with Allâh another god without presenting proof will have much to answer for. This is in reply to the charges put against him by Allâh his Lord on the Day of Judgment. Never will the disbelievers (who deny Allâh and His statutes) find an instance of prosperity in the hereafter.
  118. And so, pray to Allâh my Lord, invoking Him for mercy, thus: “O Allâh my Lord, (You ascribed mercy and forgiveness, forbearance, and indulgence unto Yourself.) Forgive me and have mercy on me and on those whom You will; You are indeed the Most Gracious and Merciful Whose mercy is extended to the wide circle of all.”

SÛRAH 24

AN-NÛR

The Light

Revealed at Madînah

This sûrah was revealed in Madînah and has 64 verses. It is the sûrah in which Allâh enjoins the purification of the Muslim community from adultery. It warns against giving a speaking tongue to scandals, indicating the deterring punishment. The proof of the act of adultery requires four witnesses except in the case of husband and wife, where it admits of certain relaxation. False accusation without proof is severely punishable. The sûrah also indicates the rules of behavior, conditions of society, the moral code which must be embodied in general custom, and the manners which must prevail in the Muslim community on entering strange houses, the position of children and servants, and those entitled to see women’s embellishment. This is the sûrah in which Allâh describes His light in a way perceived by the human mind in the invisible influence irresistibly attracting whom He wills. Then mosques are made mention of, and the deeds of the disbelievers are contrasted with those of the believers. The sûrah then deals with the manners to be observed in families, as regards relations, children, and adults in relation to mingling among family members, and whom a believer is allowed to eat with. Finally, it describes the traits of believers when the Messenger calls upon them to join hands for a serious matter. The sûrah also shows the absolute authority and knowledge of Allâh Almighty.

In the Name of Allâh,

The All-Merciful, The Ever-Merciful

  1. This is a sûrah We have revealed enjoining certain specific precepts in which Allâh authoritatively binds mankind by a moral tie and a religious rite, a sûrah in which divine signs of enlightenment, wisdom, and spiritual light are intended to influence peoples’ ideas and actions that they may keep Allâh in mind.
  2. The woman and the man stained by adultery must be flogged. Flog them with repeated strokes one hundred times and do not be moved with compassion for them, or else you will have failed to fulfill the duty ordained by the religion of Allâh if, indeed, you believe in Allâh and acknowledge His system of faith and worship and confess the Last Day. And it is mandatory that their punishment be witnessed by a section of believers.
  3. The man stained by adultery does not approach or cohabit but with a woman similarly stained or an idolatress. And the woman stained by adultery does not approach or cohabit but with a man similarly stained or an idolater. This defiled union is absolutely prohibited to the believers.
  4. And those who bring ill fame upon women in wedlock and do not support their accusation by four witnesses are offenders who must suffer for their offense. Flog them with the lash eighty strokes and never accept of them any testimony, for such persons are, indeed, immoral.

Crimes in Islamic law pertain to the forbidden and to the neglected. The reasons for the prohibition are           (1) protection of the self, (2) protection of religion,          (3) protection of reason, (4) protection of wealth,             (5) protection of honor.

Thus, murder is an aggression against the self or the life. Intoxicants lead to aggression against the reason. Stealing is an aggression against people’s personal property.

Jurists divide crimes into three categories: (1) transgression against restrictive ordinances of Allâh, (2) retaliation or ransom where peoples’ rights are infringed upon, (3) lesser offenses.

As to the restrictive ordinances, the Qur’ân has clearly indicated the punishment for the violation of each, and at times this has been supplemented by what the Sunnah has added. Retaliation and ransom have been legislated partly by the Qur’ân and partly by the judgment of those in authority as has been sanctioned by the Qur’ân. As to offenses of lesser degrees, Islâm ordained punishments that range between a minimum and a maximum judged by those in authority.

Crimes which come under restrictive ordinances are seven: (1) fornication, (2) slander of virtuous women, (3) iniquity, (4) stealing, (5) brigandage, (6) drinking intoxicants, (7) turning renegade.

The punishment for each of these has been specified by the Qur’ân with the exception of adultery (stoning), drinking (flogging), and turning renegade (death), whose punishments were ordained by the Sunnah.

State laws ordained confinement, which never served as a check or a deterrent. However, just as Islam was harsh in the punishment of adultery, it was also fair. The punishment is carried out only when the act has been proved by four witnesses who actually saw it committed. Punishment that is executed in public is no doubt more effective in serving its end.

  1. Exempt from this condemnation are those who humbly repented and imprinted their deeds with righteousness and piety. They (will find) Allâh Oft-Forgiving, Ever-Merciful, indeed.
  2. And when those who accuse their wives of adultery have no witnesses but themselves, then the evidence given by any of them alone will be accepted if he binds himself by a sincere oath by Allâh solemnly declared four times in attestation of the truth of his statement.
  3. Then the fifth object to which he is sworn is that Allâh’s curse be upon himself if he is lying.
  4. (If the wife keeps silent after her husband’s attestation, she will be subjected to the punishment for adultery.) And the expedient which would shove off the wife’s torment is that she binds herself by an oath solemnly declaring four times by Allâh in attestation of her husband’s lying.
  5. And the fifth object to which she is sworn is that of an invocatory prayer inviting the anger of Allâh upon herself if he is telling the truth.
  6. And had it not been for Allâh’s efficacious grace and mercy abounding in you, He would not have granted people respite. But Allâh accepts repentance and the atonement made by people, and He is the Source of Wisdom.
  7. Indeed, those who invented the falsehood—to defame the virtuous woman `Â’ishah, the Prophet’s wife—are a band of people among you. Do not consider the incident an evil that has befallen you; on the contrary, it is charitable for that it came out to light (instead of being whispered about with bated breath). Every one of those involved in discrediting the faith will be requited with what is commensurate with his share in the falsified incident. As to him who has moved to lead the imprudent move, he will suffer tremendous torment (laid upon the damned).
  8. If only the Muslims, men and women, as they heard the rumor had realized, as they should have, that they are people who conformed to His will (and thought of themselves as the model of chastity), and rejected the charge as evident falsehood!
  9. If only those who laid the charge had supported their claim by four witnesses! Since they did not come up with the witnesses, then with Allâh, they are the liars.
  10. And had it not been for Allâh’s efficacious grace and mercy abounding in you here and in the hereafter, you would have been touched with the tremendous torment laid upon you for pressing on into this affair.
  11. You simply give it a speaking tongue, and you utter words with your mouths of a subject you have but no knowledge of, and you reckoned it a simple thing when in fact with Allâh it is a tremendous thing.
  12. If only when you Muslims heard the news you exclaimed, “Allâh forbid! We must not give this subject a speaking tongue. All Extolment be to You, Allâh, and extolled are Your glorious attributes; this is indeed evident falsehood.”
  13. Allâh admonishes you not to reiterate such vile conduct ever if, indeed, you believe in Him (since belief directly contradicts such conduct).
  14. Allâh renders His signs explicit that they impart to you divine knowledge, and wisdom, and He is All-Knowing and Ever-Wise.
  15. Indeed, those ill-tongued who just love to circulate obscenity on people—guilty or not guilty—among those who have believed will suffer torment for it here and in the hereafter. Allâh is All-Knowing; whereas you are not.
  16. And had it not been for Allâh’s efficacious grace and mercy abounding in you, and that He displays mercy to those who serve Him and to those who do not (He would have punished you); but He is Ever-Compassionate, Ever-Merciful.
  17. O you who believe, do not follow the footsteps of Satan (nor walk in the footsteps of those with characteristics befitting him). And he who follows the footsteps of Satan must realize that he commands to commit themselves to maleficence and to all that is wrongful and obscene. And had it not been for Allâh’s efficacious grace and mercy, He would never have cleansed any of you, but He does cleanse whom He wills, and Allâh is All-Hearing and All-Knowing.

The following verse refers to the decision of the Prophet’s father-in-law Abû Bakr, who resolved to stop his financial aid to his cousin who was involved in spreading the evil news referred to above. Allâh ordered him and those of wealth and means to forget and forgive.

  1. And those of you in whom Allâh’s grace abounds must not swear against helping the needy among their kindred and those in want, as well as those who immigrated to where they could best serve Allâh’s way. Let them pardon and forgive. Would you not like Allâh to forgive (your iniquities)? And Allâh is Oft-Forgiving and Ever-Merciful.
  2. Cursed, indeed, here and in the hereafter are those who accuse the virtuous women in wedlock who are unaware and believing. These traducers will have a tremendous torment.
  3. The Day will come when their tongues, their hands, and their (legs) feet will have much to bear witness to their (evil) actions.
  4. There and then Allâh will requite them in full with what is commensurate with their deeds (and what is owed to Him of acts and rites); because of that they will know that Allâh is The Evident Truth.
  5. Wicked women are for wicked men, and, similarly, wicked men are for wicked women. (They both accord in one and their principles and practice accord well together), whereas good women are for good men, and good men are for good women. These are innocent of all that the wicked traduce in propagation and these are blessed with the forgiveness of Allâh and with honorable provisions.
  6. O you who have believed, do not enter houses not your own until you have announced yourselves and asked permission and greeted those who dwell therein. This is best for you and mannerly; it is incumbent that you remember this.
  7. And if you find no one therein (or they may be in but not in a condition to receive you), then you must not enter until you are permitted. And if you are told to go back, then simply go back. This imparts to you purity of manners. Allâh is All-Knowing of all that you do.
  8. However, it is no fault in you to enter houses not inhabited but where you get your belongings or attain your object (hotels, guest houses, sanctuaries); Allâh is All-Knowing of all that you display as well as of all that you keep back.
  9. Say, Prophet, to the believers, to restrain their eyes—which includes obliquity of the eyes, staring a person out of countenance, staring a person up and down, guarding their sexual morality, refraining from unlawful sexual intercourse, and guarding the chastity of their speech. This imparts to them sanctity of manners and chastity. Allâh is All-Knowing of all that they do.
  10. And say to the female believers to restrain their eye-sight (which includes obliquity of the eyes, staring a person out of countenance, staring a person up and down), to preserve their private parts, (refraining from unlawful sexual intercourse, and guarding the chastity of their speech) and not to display their embellishment (adventitious ornaments and false additions) but not what is naturally exposed (face and hands), to draw their veils over their shoulders and their bosoms, not to display their adornments or embellishment except to their husbands, their fathers or fathers-in-law, their sons or stepsons, their brothers, their nephews, to their brothers or to their sisters, their women associates, be they friends or reduced to servile state or those on hand, or the male servants who are rendered harmless through age or physical defect, or the children who are still at the stage of knowledge of sex; nor should they stamp their feet to attract attention to what is hidden of their embellishment. Allâh exhorts you believers to keep in awe of Him and to entertain the profound piety due to Him so that you may prosper.
  11. And you may unite in matrimony with those who are single, man or woman, and among the men and the women who have been reduced to a servile state. If they are poor, Allâh will make His grace abound in them. Allâh’s grace embraces the universe, and He is All-Knowing.
  12. And those who cannot marry because they lack the means may abstain and conduct with the principles of morality until Allâh makes His grace abound in them. And those on hand who wish to buy their freedom by performing certain paid services deserve attention. You commit a mutually binding agreement to writing if you believe that they qualify—stamped with virtues and sound minds—and give them in benevolence or alms something of the grace of Allâh abounding in you. And do not force your female slaves—or any of your females—into prostitution for a worldly gain (a pagan custom) nor make them recover their liberty by prostituting their honor if they seek chastity and purity. And he who forces them into sin will suffer for it; whereas the women will, under the circumstances, be recipients of Allâh’s mercy and forgiveness, for Allâh is Oft-Forgiving and Ever-Merciful.
  13. We have sent down to you evident signs. (We quoted to you instances of punishment), and We referred to those who existed before you, all serving as an admonition for the pious.
  14. Allâh is The Light of the heavens and the earth. (His Light is beyond all comparison); it may be likened to a niche wherein is a lamp in a glass, the glass as it were a glittering planet kindled from a blessed tree, an olive tree. It is not confined to the east nor to the west. Its oil almost emits light although not touched by a fire. (Majestic) light superimposed upon (splendorous) light. Allâh attracts to His Light whom He wills, and Allâh sets forth to mankind parables (by which moral and spiritual relations are typically set forth). And He is All-Knowing of all things.

Allâh’s light floods the universe and attracts the believers. Its power of attraction is especially found in places where He is worshiped and His attributes are glorified.

  1. In these houses of prayer that Allâh had permitted to be erected, and His Name be remembered and where He is extolled mornings and evenings.
  2. By people whose feet are irresistibly drawn to these places, people who are not distracted by trade or sale from remembering Allâh. Nor are they distracted from religious observances, namely the act of pray, zakâh, and holding in fear the Day of Judgment when the hearts sink of extreme fear and the beholdings roll toward all (and weep at what they are glad of or afraid of).
  3. By consequence Allâh will recompense them for every deed at the gauge of the best of what they had accomplished and will make all grace abound in them. Allâh provides livelihood and fits out meritoriously or gratuitously whom He wills without reckoning.
  4. As for those who disbelieve in Allâh, their deeds are as a mirage in a low land falsely viewed by the parched and thirsty (traveler) as water, and when he reaches the spot in question his hopes are doomed to disappointment. But he finds Allâh, The All-Knowing, Who requites him with what is commensurate with his deeds, and Allâh is swift, indeed, in reckoning.

When a thirst-racked traveler is ready to sell his life for water, the desert may tantalize him with intangible rains and imaginary lakes. His heart may leap when he sees spread before him a sudden shimmering sea of water; but as he advances toward it, the bright expanse melts into nothingness. This illusion is created by the difference between the densities of warm and cool air. In the desert, light rays slanting down through the cooler upper air are bent upward when they strike the hot air close to the ground. It is as if a mirror were placed on the desert reflecting the light from the sky. This is similar to poking a stick into a pond: it appears bent at the point where it enters the water. As a result, a man looking at the horizon may see a piece of misplaced sky gleaming like a lake on the sand.

  1. Or a world of darkness similar to that found in the depth of an ocean where billowy waves are superimposed upon billowy waves topped by dark clouds, creating a coat of darkness superimposed upon coats of darkness where he sits or moves misted with darkness so that if he stretches his hand he can hardly see it. And he for whom Allâh has not appointed light, will have no light.

Allâh controls the fate of all and governs the vital functions of all in the heavens and on earth. This comprises animal and plant physiology as well as human physiology. Created beings (plants, animals, and inanimate beings), therefore, submit in their entirety (body and self) to Allâh and extol in their mode of prayer, His glorious attributes. Man, however, is different; whereas his bodily structures and vital functions extol the glorious attributes of Allâh, he himself, pitifully, may not. Some do, others do not. With this in mind, it is then true to say that all creatures (animate and inanimate) in the heavens and on earth extol Allâh’s glorious attributes.

  1. Do you not see that all created beings, animate and inanimate, in the heavens and on earth submit to Allâh and celebrate His praises and extol His glorious attributes (whether through the bodily structures or through thoughts expressed in words), and so do the birds upon the wind extending their wings. Each group knows its mode of prayer and its mode (of expressing reverence to Allâh) and extolling His glorious attributes, and Allâh is All-Knowing of all that they do.
  2. And to Allâh alone belong the Kingdom, the supreme dominion, and supreme controlling power of the heavens and the earth; and to Him is the purpose for which all are destined.
  3. Do you not see that Allâh wafts the clouds as they form and by the air in motion makes them accumulated together in one body, then He condenses them into a dense mass so that you see rain drops issue from their midst. And He causes the clouds to heap upon each other like towers of mountains. Charged with hail or frozen raindrops, He makes them fall in showers to assail whom He wills and He drives them away from whom He wills. The brightness of lightning emitted between the groups of clouds and the ground almost goes away with the sight.

When a cold front arrives, the sequence of events is fast and dramatic. The cold oncoming air is too heavy to override the warm air in its path and instead burrows underneath. Forced upwards by the intruding cold air mass, the warm, moisture-laden air condenses forming a great vertical bank of dense cumulonimbus cloud, which at times appears as a squall line of dark ominous clouds.

For snow to form, a cloud must be chilled to a few degrees above or below zero. The cloud droplets are super cooled and freeze together into crystals. Because the crystals carry a thin film of unfrozen water, they mat into snowflakes when they collide. In extreme cold, the crystals are drier and fall as granular snow. Rain that starts in warm air and falls through a cold layer does not turn into snow, but to translucent ice pellets called sleet. Frozen raindrops from high clouds moving through a thunderstorm and hurled about in violent updrafts pick up concentric layers of snow and ice. Finally they plummet to earth as hailstones, pea-sized or golf-ball sized depending on their rough and rumble experiences aloft.

  1. Allâh is He Who causes the day and the night to succeed one another (or occur in alternation). This is, indeed, an instructive example and a lesson to those who lift to Allâh their inward sight.
  2. And Allâh created every (beast) animate being from water. Some walk, moving or crawling with their bellies touching the ground (worms, reptiles); others are bipedal, walking on two feet (man and some animals); and others are quadrupedal, walking on four feet. Allâh creates what He wills, and Allâh is, indeed, All-Determiner over all things.
  3. We have sent down evident signs. And Allâh guides whom He wills to a path of righteousness.
  4. And they say, “We have believed in Allâh and in the Messenger, and obeyed his principles and commands.” Then a group of them refrain from joining the faithful in serving Allâh’s cause. They are not really believers.
  5. When asked to submit to revelation and accept Allâh and His Messenger as the arbiters who would judge between them, some of them object and veer away.
  6. But when they know they are in the right, they do compliantly submit.
  7. Do they reflect the sickness inherent in their hearts, or do they suspect the Messenger’s justice, or do they fear that Allâh and His Messenger may encroach upon them? No, but they are indeed the unjust wrongdoers.
  8. Contrasted by contrary motives, the response of those who have truly believed to the call by the Messenger to decide between them according to Allâh and His Messenger, is a response of obedience. They always say, “We have heard and we do obey.” These are they whom Heaven will prosper.
  9. And those who obey Allâh and His Messenger and keep in apprehension of Allâh and entertain the profound piety due to Him will be the triumphant with Allâh’s mercy and blessings.
  10. And the hypocrites swear a solemn oath with an appeal to Allâh that should you, Muhammad, command them to join forces even though it be at the cost of quitting their homes and forsaking their families, they will go out. Say to them, “Do not swear. The nature of your obedience declares itself in your actions (which do not accord with your words). Allâh is, indeed, All-Cognizant of all that you do.”
  11. Say to them, Muhammad, “Obey Allâh and obey the Messenger and comply with their commands.” And should you people turn your backs and close your heart’s ears, then the Messenger’s responsibility is simply the fulfillment of his duties and you, your people, are responsible for the duties you bear. Therefore, if you obey him, you shall be guided and he is only responsible for relating the Divine Proclamation (and the elucidation of its text).
  12. Allâh has promised those who have believed and done deeds of righteousness. “I will depute them on earth,” He declares, “and delegate them to keep the scale, and commission them with power to maintain the right.” I will set them in the appropriate social scale just as I deputed those before them in whose hearts reigned piety. And I will confirm for them the religion I have chosen for them as the appropriate system of faith and worship. I will also exchange the fear and the dread which fell upon them for peace, provided they worship Me with appropriate acts and rites and do not associate other deities with Me.” And he who henceforth disbelieves—he and such persons will be (the faithless perverse who are) morally depraved.
  13. And perform the prayer and give the zakâh and obey the Messenger of Allâh so that you may, it is hoped, invite His mercy and blessings.
  14. Do not reckon, Prophet, that the disbelievers are in a position to defy Allâh or upset His plan for those on earth. They are destined to the abode in Hell, and how miserable indeed is the destination!
  15. O you who have believed: Those on hand serving you, and the children who have not reached the age of discretion must ask your permission three times before entering your rooms when you are improperly dressed—before dawn prayer, when undressed for the mid-day rest, and following your last night prayer (when you are ready to go to sleep): three prescribed periods of privacy. Other than these particular periods, you are absolved and so are they to move freely and to come round attending to each other. Thus does Allâh distinctly express to you people His signs (revelations) guiding you to the proper way of life relative to moral conduct. Allâh is All-Knowing and the Ever-Wise.
  16. And when your children come of age or reach puberty, they must ask permission before they enter homes that are not their own and before they enter rooms where you are admitting of relaxation or sleeping, just as those who preceded them asked permission. Thus does Allâh distinctly express to you His signs (guiding you to the proper way of life relative to moral conduct). Allâh is All-Knowing and Ever-Wise.
  17. And those of the women who have lost hope of matrimonial union are absolved to take off their outer vestment provided they do not display any adventitious ornaments (which draw forth men’s interest or cause them to come to them by influencing their appetites). However, if they keep abstaining and conform their life and conduct to the principles of morality and use their outer garment, it is much charitable for them (and may guard them against temptation and from being supposed). And Allâh is All-Hearing and All-Knowing.
  18. There is no restriction on the blind and the lame, the sick and yourselves to eat at the homes of your fathers or your mothers, your brothers or your sisters, at the homes of your paternal uncles or your paternal aunts, your maternal uncles or your maternal aunts, or at the homes whose keys you possess or at the homes of your friends. Nor is it a fault should you eat together or separately. And when you enter houses, greet one another with words expressive of good wishes and of Allâh’s blessings (and expressive of courteous recognition). Thus does Allâh make evident to you the signs so that you may comprehend.
  19. Indeed, the believers are those who believe in Allâh and His Messenger. And when they are in council with him on a matter of common interest, they do not break off individually or together until they have been permitted. Those of them who ask your permission under the circumstances, Muhammad, are indeed those who believe in Allâh and His Messenger. Therefore, should they ask your permission to leave (for a valid reason), then you may give permission to whom you will and invoke on their behalf Allâh’s forgiveness. Allâh is, indeed, Ever-Forgiving and Ever-Merciful.
  20. O you who have believed, do not address the Messenger in the same manner you address one another, nor mention his name without annexing to it an attribute irrespective of whether he is present or absent. Allâh is fully aware of those of you who slip away quietly from the assemblies screening themselves behind others. Those who transgress the Messenger’s command or willfully neglect it had better know (that he who disobeys the Messenger disobeys Allâh), and by consequence may Allâh wed them to a calamity here and torment them painfully in the hereafter.
  21. Indeed, to Allâh belong all that is in the heavens and all that is on earth. He is All-Knowing of your innermost being and of your disposition and your condition, and on the Day of Judgment when all are sent back to assemble before Him for Judgment, He will inform them of all that they had done. Allâh is All-Knowing of everything.

SÛRAH 25

AL-FURQÂN

The Criterion

Revealed at Makkah

The sûrah has 77 verses. They are all Makkan except verses 68 – 70.

The sûrah starts by a statement of the high status of the Qur’ân, and the vastness of the creation of Allâh Who sent it down, and Who  has supreme dominion of the heavens and the earth. Despite His sovereignty, the disbelievers associate idols with Him, hold the Qur’ân as false, and deny the mission of the Messenger on the ground that he is a human being who eats food and walks in marketplaces. They adamantly demand angels to convey the message to them. Had He made His messengers angels, He would have made them in the shape of men that could communicate with human beings, and then the same confusion would have remained. The disbelievers objected to the revelation of the Qur’ân in portions, and so were informed of the wisdom behind this. Following this, there are expressive parables of prophets and their nations who followed their own vanity and thus became like cattle or even worse. Then follow cosmic verses providing evidence of the omnipotence of Allâh, and calling for learning and acquiring knowledge. The sûrah concludes with the characteristics of believers that make them the inhabitants of the higher chambers of Paradise, where they are with greeting and peace.

In The Name of Allâh,

The All-Merciful, The Ever-Merciful

  1. Blessed be Allâh Who has sent down to His bondman (the Messenger Muhammad) the Qur’ân, which He sent down serving as the Criterion (illuminating the intellect and imparting the soundness of judgment in the choice of means and ends). It conducts the Messenger to act as a warning to all the worlds.
  2. (Blessed be He) Who has the Kingdom, the supreme dominion, and the supreme controlling power of the heavens and the earth. He is the Creator Who has never begotten a son and has never allowed anyone to share His sovereignty. He created everything, and each and all He has determined in due proportion (and to attain a certain object and a precise purpose).
  3. Yet the disbelievers fared worse by taking false gods besides Allâh, objects of worship that can create nothing (animate or inanimate); in fact, they themselves were created. Furthermore, they have no power to control their own destiny, nor can they defend themselves against what is destined to do them harm, nor stop what is meant to profit them, nor do they have the power to give life or to cause death, nor can they effect resurrection.
  4. And the disbelievers go on to say, “This (the Qur’ân) is a fraud which Muhammad has fabricated with the help of others [the People of the Book] (and he deceitfully uses it for the advancement of his religion).” How wrongful can they get and how unjust can they be to cause what is true to be rejected as forgery!
  5. And they designate the divine discourse myths and say, “Tales of old which he (the Messenger) dictated and read out to him morning and evening.”
  6. Say to them, Prophet, “This Qur’ân is a divine discourse sent down from heaven; it is sent down by Him Who is All-Knowing of the secrets in the heavens and the earth. He has always been All-Forgiving, and Ever-Merciful.”
  7. And they foolishly say, “What kind of a messenger is this who eats food and walks about in marketplaces? If only an angel be sent down (to accompany him and share his duty) and help him accomplish his purpose of warning people against infidelity!
  8. “Or a treasure were sent down to him from heaven or an orchard put in his possession to use as a source of food!” This is besides the allegation of the unjust who say (to those who think alike), “You simply follow a man bewitched.”
  9. Look how they strike, Prophet, irrelevant similes reflecting such error that they are unable to strike on the way of truth.
  10. Blessed be Allâh and exalted are His glorious attributes Who is All-Powerful to provide you if He decides, with what is far better (than what they describe) gardens beneath which rivers flow and to confer on you gratuitously ownership of palaces.
  11. But the truth is that they denied the predetermined Final Hour. However, We have prepared for those who deny the Final Hour the fierce blazes of Hell.
  12. No sooner do they come within the range of its sight than they hear its roaring under the influence of rage, heaving sighs of groaning for the evil that will befall them.
  13. And when they are cast into its grim strait confines bound to their kind, and their feet chained to their necks, they will invoke detriment (and wish they could perish).
  14. But they are told, “Do not invoke detriment once but invoke it repeatedly. (You will never get rid of the situation you are in, and will suffer different kinds of torture.)”
  15. Say to them, “Is this troublesome and distressing situation better or the garden of eternity (Paradise) promised to those who have piously believed— the garden which Allâh has set apart for the recompense of those faithful to Him, and He has determined that it will be their eternal destination?”
  16. It is the garden wherein they will have any object to decide on (affording pleasure and satisfaction). Any wish they express in words or in thought will be instantly fulfilled, for they will have passed to eternity—a promise of your Lord Allâh to be requested (and fulfilled).
  17. And on the Day of Judgment when He musters them together with those objects (animate or inanimate) they worshiped apart from Allâh, He will question those false gods, “Did you mislead these bondmen of Mine, or did they err from the prescribed way of their own accord?”
  18. “Extolled be to You, Allâh,” they will say, “how could we when it is not at all befitting to take patrons apart from You? The truth is that You, Allâh, granted these people, together with their fathers, all the enjoyment of Your blessings in life until they forgot to remember You (and became oblivious of divine revelation). And by consequence they had sealed their own fate and became lost.”
  19. Then the disbelievers will be told, “You see, your gods have accused you of lies and want of conformity to fact (and consequently you will not escape the torment, nor can you be afforded help).” (And now a warning is issued to all.) Thus, you people at large must know that he who is unjust of actions will taste the great torment.
  20. We never sent messengers before you, Prophet, but they were human who ate food and walked in the markets. We also tested the people by exposing opposites to each other. Therefore, will you people who have conformed to Islâm be persistent, constant, and patient in the face of difficulties and hindrances and exercise patience? Your Lord, Creator is All-Seeing Whose constant vigilance has always been extended to all His creatures.
  21. And those who do not hope for a meeting with Us on the Day of Judgment, say, “If only the angels would be sent down to us or we could see Allâh!” They are extravagant in their accounts of themselves. They display inordinate pride and insolently rebel in disobedience and in false pride.
  22. But the Day they see the angels, no joyful tidings will there be to the criminals who had been given to sin. “You disbelievers,” say the angels, “created an impassable barrier between yourselves and Allâh’s mercy, a barrier which shuts you up in this vast dungeon.”
  23. And We go forward Ourselves to all that they accomplished in life and reduce it (together with their infidelity-based hope springing eternal in their breasts) to a worthless waste as if it were dust dissipated in the wind (or mist dispelled by dispersion).
  24. The occasion for those destined to win the Garden will be a great occasion for the splendid and stately repository where they repose and live in splendor.
  25. And keep in mind, Prophet, that the Day will come when the heaven break into mists and the angels are sent down in succession.
  26. There and then will the true sovereign authority and the true supreme control be exclusively that of Allâh, The All-Merciful. What a day it will the disbelievers—a day of extreme hardships!
  27. This is the day the unjust wrongdoer will bite his hands to intimate regret for all that he had done and for what he had left undone; he will wish he had taken the way with the Messenger.
  28. And he adds, “Woe betide me, I wish I had not taken such a man for a close fellow.”
  29. “He misled me and caused my loss in the maze of error (and made me reject and neglect the divine and noble words). Indeed, Satan seduces man and abandons man constantly.”
  30. And there will the Messenger say to Allâh his Lord his discontent at his people: “O Allâh my Lord, I presented to my people Your divine message, but my people took a dislike to the Qur’ân and they were adamant in forsaking it.”
  31. Thus We made to every prophet some enemies from the criminal transgressors against the divine law. But enough is Allâh your Lord to be the Guide and Vindicator to whom He wills and to afford help to whom He wills.
  32. Again the disbelievers say, “If only the Qur’ân were sent down to him all at once!” But We reveal it in this manner to lay it to your heart and establish it firmly so that it prevails upon you, Muhammad, and you be confirmed in action and purpose, and We recite it distinctly.
  33. Nor do they present you with challenging questions and unreasonable similitudes but We present you with the truth and the best explanation (meeting their objections and their arguments).
  34. These are they who will be mustered on the Day of Judgment dragged on their faces (in chains to take their abode) in Hell. These are they who have assumed the worst position here and in the hereafter and have erred away from the way.
  35. They are not different from those to whom We sent Mûsâ (Moses). We gave Mûsâ the Book (the Tawrâh) and We made with him his brother Hârûn (Aaron) as a minister (to help him accomplish his mission).
  36. And We said to them, “Go both of you to the people who have denied Our revelations and treated Our divine authoritative signs as lies. We destroyed them altogether.
  37. “And the people of Nûh (Noah) who cried lies to the messengers, We drowned them and made of them an example and a deterrent to the people; therefore We have prepared for the unjust wrongdoers the painful torment.”
  38. Met with a similar destiny were the people of `Âd, the people of Thamûd, and the people of the Rass and many generations in between (who sealed their fate).
  39. And to each and all of them did We set parables. We set examples of typical instances forming a particular case of a principle. We set examples, some relative to action and conduct, that induce imitation, and others to serve as a warning, and each and all We annihilated utterly.
  40. In fact the people of the Quraysh tribe in their commercial travels have come repeatedly by the town of Lût (Lot), which was showered with the direful rain. It makes you wonder: Did they not see it? No, but they do not entertain the fact of uprising (nor do they regard it with fear should it be true).
  41. And as usual (their pride gets the better of their prudence), and when they see you, Muhammad, they insolently receive you with nothing but disdain and mockery in their eyes, and they say, “Is this the Messenger whom Allâh has sent to convey His message!”
  42. “He almost succeeded,” they add, “in influencing our thoughts against our gods, and he nearly made us err, and our sober wishes almost learned to stray, had it not been for our endure patiently and constantly.” But on the Day they see the torment laid upon the damned, they will then know who had been led in misguidance away from the way.
  43. Do you see, Messenger, the one whose ruling prejudices have been taken as a god? Do you think you will be a trustee over his behavior or for his inclination? (You are only a sign and a warning.)
  44. Or do you reckon that most of them hear or consider? They are like cattle, in fact even worse, for the only way they see is that leading to loss in the maze of error.
  45. Do you not see how Allâh your Lord extended the shadow of any object (intercepting the sun or other luminary)? Had He willed, He would have made it still, and We made the sun the indication asserting the phenomenon, its presence and its dimensions.

The shadow caused by a body intercepting the sun or other luminary is short-lived because it moves and accompanies or follows the source of light and, by consequence, becomes prolonged. Had the earth been still, not moving round its axis with a slight tilt, nor round the sun, the shadow would have remained still. This holds good also if the earth’s motion round its axis equaled the time it takes to revolve round the sun. Who could have made such mechanism so precise but the Creator, Allâh?     

  1. And then We reduce it to a smaller compass and make it gradually disappear (having been made to contract and vanish by the same invisible hand that made it and created it).
  2. And it is He Who made the night a vestment sleep a repose (and black was the color chosen to absorb all light and sleep), and We made the day a phase of rising up (and activity).
  3. And it is He Who sends forth the winds as glad tidings of His mercy heralding a joyful event (rain, vegetation, fertilization) and We send down from heaven pure fresh water—

Rainwater as it forms is, indeed, pure. As it comes down, it inevitably becomes somewhat polluted by the impurities in the air, especially in areas where man-made impurities prevail. Polluted rain is man-made.

  1. With which We revive the dead land of a given town and supply drinking-water to the living among Our creation, including cattle and a great many human beings.
  2. And We propounded it among the whole so that they may remember Allâh. But most mankind refuse to choose but ungratefulness, disobedience, and disbelief.
  3. And had We willed, We would have sent to the people of every town (a sign and) a warning.
  4. Therefore, do not obey, Muhammad, to the disbelievers and strive against them with great striving by the divine means (the Qur’ân). (But should they wage war against you, then fight back by physical means.)
  5. And it is He Who sent the waters of the two seas merging together, one fresh and sweet and the other salty and bitter, and between both He installed an isthmus and an invisible partition which serves as an impassable barrier. (The fresh water floats above the salty and there are laws that govern the separation and the depth.)
  6. And it is He Who brought into being, out of a watery liquid, a human mortal and made him evolve lineal by blood and join affinity with others through marriage, and Allâh your Lord has always been All-Determiner.
  7. And yet some people worship, apart from Allâh, those who do not profit them or harm them. But the disbeliever has always been a help, corroborating and substantiating disobedience to Allâh.
  8. Nonetheless, We only sent you, Muhammad, to humanity as a bearer of good tidings and a warning.
  9. Say to the disbelievers, “I do not charge you a price for imparting to you Allâh’s divine knowledge. My only reward is to see the one who has decided to set himself on the way of righteousness (the path that leads directly to Allâh, his Lord).”
  10. And rely, Muhammad, on The Living Who does not die, and praise Him and extol His glorious attributes, and enough is He to be Ever-Cognizant of His bondmen’s guilty deeds and wrongdoings (and to equitably punish them for such deeds).
  11. Praise be to Him Who created the heavens and the earth and all that lies between them and brought them into existence in six days (determined by His own unit of time). Then He levelled Himself on the Throne of supremacy and dominion and of grace and mercy, the All-Merciful, as He is, Whose attributes you may learn when asking any cognizant about Him, the One Who knows, Who is All-Knowing of everything.
  12. And when the disbelievers are asked to prostrate to Him, the All-Merciful, they ask, “Who is The All-Merciful? Shall we prostrate in reverence and submission to an object of worship just because you enjoin us to do so?” Their statement accords with their actions. They withdraw further, and their mental attitude is an incitement to their repulsion*.
  13. Praise be to Him and blessed are His glorious attributes Who installed in the heavens a belt of the celestial sphere divided into twelve equal constellations (signs of the zodiac—through one of which the sun passes each month). (The belt extends eight or nine degrees on both sides of the ecliptic within which the apparent motions of the sun, moon, and principle planets take place.) He installed therein a lamp, the sun, glowing for illumination and a moon, earth’s satellite dispersing light (to dispel the darkness of the night).

——————-

* A prostration should be performed here.

  1. And it is He who caused the night and the day to follow one upon another and occur in succession, a phenomenon inciting whoever wishes to ponder the marvels of Allâh and keep remembering Him, lifting to Him his inward sight, wishing to be thankful.
  2. And how richly rewarded will be the bondmen of Allâh who observe acts of worship enjoined by The All-Merciful. They walk on earth softly, gently, and in humility. When addressed by the ignorant (whose imprudence gets the better of them), they answer them with the expression of good will, “Peace.”
  3. Also richly rewarded will be those who spend a good part of the night prostrating upright in worship of Allâh their Lord. (They stand in awe of Him and entertain the profound reverence due to Him.)

65.Rewarded also are those who express their thoughts in their invocatory prayer thus: “Save us and turn about from us, O Allâh our Lord, the torment of Hell, for its torment is indeed painfully grievous and eternal.”

  1. How odious it is for a repository and how evil it is for a habitation!
  2. Rewarded will be the worshipers who are neither extravagant nor niggardly; when they spend they do not play the prodigal, nor do they act parsimoniously, but they follow a medium way.
  3. Rewarded, too, will be the worshipers who do not invoke besides Allâh another god, nor do they kill that Allâh has prohibited, unless it be justified for a truthful cause, nor do they commit adultery. He who commits himself to such an evil line of conduct will pay a penalty for these sinful acts.
  4. His torment will be doubled on the Day of Resurrection when he will have passed to eternal suffering degraded by multiplied wrongs and humiliations,
  5. Unless he had repented and believed and did righteous deeds. For such persons will Allâh exchange their odious deeds for fair and virtuous deeds, and Allâh has always been All-Forgiving and Ever-Merciful.
  6. He who repents and views his past actions with dissatisfaction and regrets, and does righteous deeds will have humbly repented (and will have turned faithfully) to Allâh.
  7. Rewarded will be the worshipers who do not give false evidence nor listen to it, and should they come upon someone whose mouth is full of idle talk, they pass by withdrawing honorably (and with self-sustained dignity).
  8. Richly rewarded will be the worshipers who are submissive to Allâh. When they are reminded of their Lord’s (Allâh’s) revelations, marvels, and authoritative signs, they do not collapse upon them with deaf and blind.
  9. The worshipers Who invoke their Lord (Allâh) to give them wives and progeny, who make their eyes speak content and to this effect they pray thus: “We pray and beseech You, O Allâh our Lord, to grace us with wives and progeny whom we view with concord and content and are comfort to our eyes, and make of us leaders of righteousness for the pious.”
  10. These (with all the above-mentioned attributes combined) are they who are destined to receive the richest reward. They will occupy the high and mighty compartment in the Garden of Eden, the epithet of dignity and great honor. This is in token of their patience, forbearance, and endurance. Therein they will be received with hearty welcome and greeted with the best expressions of good will, and will rest eternally assured of peace and security,
  11. Wherein they will have passed to eternity. How excellent it is for a repository and how excellent it is for a destination!
  12. Say, Muhammad, to the disbelievers, “Allâh my Lord would not, in fact, care for you nor attach importance or weight to you had it not been for the few among you who pray and invoke Him for mercy and forgiveness. You have cried lies to the truth, (and your transgression will be laid to your charge), and you will have much imposed on you and much to answer for.”

SÛRAH 26

ASH-SHU`ARÂ’

The Poets

Revealed at Makkah

This sûrah is Makkan and has 227 verses.

At its beginning the sûrah includes a reference to the status of the Qur’ân. Then it moves to threatening the disbelievers that Allâh is All-Powerful to inflict punishment on them. The sûrah then comforts the Prophet as regards his people’s holding him as a liar by means of narrating what a group of Allâh’s messengers were met with and how their people accused them of lying. It tells the story of Mûsâ (Moses) and Hârûn (Aaron) meeting with Pharaoh and how he charged them with lying. Then Allâh Almighty mentions the stories of Ibrâhîm (Abraham), the Father of Prophets; Nûh (Noah) with his people; Hûd with the `Âd; and Sâlih with the Thamûd. Following this, the sûrah expounds the call of Lût and the story of Shu`ayb with the woodlanders.

Anyone who contemplates the stories of these eight prophets will see that the essence of their message was the same and that the way the disbelievers rejected their message was the same. The sûrah then ends with calling attention to the high rank of the Qur’ân, exactly as it started with the same notion. It concludes by a refutation of the claim that the Prophet was a poet, or that the Qur’ân was poetry.

In The Name of Allâh,

The All-Merciful, The Ever-Merciful

  1. T (tâ). S (sîn). M (mîm). The sûrah opens with these introductory letters from the Arabic alphabet to draw attention to the miracle of the Qur’ân, which, though written in the people’s tongue, cannot be emulated.
  2. These are divine verses flowing with the evidence and grace symbolic of the Book (the Qur’ân).
  3. Seemingly, Prophet, you are betaking yourself in pursuit of the disbelievers with distress, regret, and discontent.
  4. If We will, We could easily send down to them from Heaven a physical sign revealing to them Our omnipotence and authority, a sign to which they will have to bend their necks in subjugation and submission.
  5. The truth is that no recent Reminder comes to them from The All-Merciful, but they (habitually oppose it, and) turn away from it.
  6. They labeled the truth (the Qur’ân) as lying. But soon they will realize the tidings of all that has been said in this Book that they mock at.
  7. Do they not see how We made the earth a source of vegetation and made vegetal growth of like things of every kind emerge from it?
  8. This is indeed emblematic of Allâh’s omnipotence and authority, but most of the disbelievers turn a deaf ear to Allâh’s message.
  9. Allâh your Lord is indeed The Ever-Almighty, The Ever-Merciful (Who sends signs and warnings and puts punishment in respite).
  10. And tell your nation, Muhammad, the story of Mûsâ (Moses) when Allâh called him and commanded him thus: “Go to the people of Pharaoh who are unjust wrongdoers,
  11. “Who seem to be unwilling to be pious and for their own sake fear Allâh (and stop persecuting the Children of Isrâ’îl)!”
  12. “O Allâh my Lord,” Mûsâ said, “I have a feeling of the probability of their crying lies to me.
  13. “And my chest becomes drawn tight and my tongue becomes restrained from free expression in arguing with them; therefore I pray (and beseech You, Allâh my Lord), to send to my brother Hârûn (Aaron).
  14. “And the guilt of blood is against me and I have ground for alarm, for they might kill me.”
  15. “They will not kill you,” Allâh said. “Both of you just go with Our signs (evincing both omnipotence and authority). We will be there with you, listening and vindicating you.
  16. “And so, both of you go to Pharaoh and say to him, ‘We are bearers of the divine Message sent by Allâh, Lord of the worlds,
  17. Who commands us to tell him to release the Children of Isrâ’îl from bondage and to let them go with us.’”
  18. “Did we not nurture you, Mûsâ,” said Pharaoh, “from infancy as one of us, and you spent of your life among us a good number of years?
  19. “And you did what you did (the terrible crime of killing a man of my people), and you have impelled yourself into disbelief and ungratefulness to our grace which abounds in you (when you claimed that you are the Messenger of the Lord of the Worlds).”
  20. “I did what I did then,” Mûsâ said, “when I was one of the erring.
  21. “In consequence I took flight when I feared that you might avenge your right. But Allâh my Lord, (knowing that the guilt did not reside in my intention), vested me with soundness of judgment, and made me one of the Messengers.”
  22. “And do you, Pharaoh,” Mûsâ added, “make me feel indebted to you for reducing the Children of Isrâ’îl to slavery and subjecting them to bondage?”
  23. Pharaoh asked, “And who is Allâh, the Lord of the world?”
  24. “The Lord of the heavens and the earth,” Mûsâ said, “and of all that is in between if you and your people care for certitude.”
  25. “Do you listen to that?” Pharaoh said to those around him.
  26. “He is Allâh,” said Mûsâ, “your Lord and the Lord of your ancestry (among whom some claimed godship as you do).”
  27. “Your messenger,” Pharaoh said to his people, “who has been sent to you is, indeed, a madman.”
  28. “Not only that,” Mûsâ added, “but He is Allâh, the Lord of the East and the West and of all that lies between them if you really care to come to consideration.”
  29. “Let me warn you,” Pharaoh said to Mûsâ, “should you take a god besides me, I will shut you up as one of the prisoners.”
  30. “Even if I present you,” Mûsâ said, “with an evident sign?”
  31. “Then exhibit it to view,” Pharaoh said, “if indeed you are telling the truth.” (Pharaoh said that in an attempt to find a weak point in Mûsâ’s argument.)
  32. And there did Mûsâ cast his staff on the ground and instantaneously it was transformed into an evident serpent.
  33. And he drew his hand (from the folds of his garment), and there it was instantaneously transfigured to white radiance to the onlookers.
  34. There and then Pharaoh said to the chiefs around him, “Indeed, this man is skilled in sorcery.” (He said that lest they should submit to the truth brought by Mûsâ.)
  35. “He means,” Pharaoh added, “to drive you people out of your land by his sorcery. Therefore, what course of action do you suggest we take?”
  36. They said, “The time to degrade him has not come yet, so put him off and his brother. Meanwhile, Pharaoh, send some of your recruits to the cities to muster the multitude of men who practice magic.
  37. “And ask them to bring back those who are skilled sorcerers.”
  38. And the sorcerers were assembled (before noon) on their known (festive) day.
  39. And the people were urged to attend the event. (Expressing their thoughts in words), they added,
  40. “We accept the authority of the sorcerers should they win (and espouse their opinions and their cause).”
  41. And when the sorcerers came, they said to Pharaoh, “We will be rewarded should we be the winners?”
  42. “Yes, indeed,” Pharaoh said, “and you will be near-stationed (and entitled to be among my retinue).”
  43. Mûsâ said to the sorcerers, “Cast upon the ground all that you wish to cast.”
  44. And as they were casting their ropes and rods (they invoked Pharaoh in supplication for aid and success). They prayed, “By Pharaoh’s might, we will be the winners!”
  45. And when Mûsâ cast his staff, it swallowed all the fraudulent devices they had cast upon the ground.
  46. (Overwhelmed with wonder,) the sorcerers were cast down, prostrating themselves (in comely order and praise of Allâh).
  47. And they declared submission: “We believe in Allâh, and we surrender ourselves to Him, the Lord of the worlds,
  48. “The Lord of Mûsâ and Hârûn.”
  49. And here said Pharaoh to them, “Have you believed him and surrendered yourselves to his God without my permission? This is indeed a deceitful plan designed by your master who taught you sorcery, and you will soon come to know how heavily you will pay for this! I will amputate your hands and your feet on opposite sides and I will have you all crucified.”
  50. “We are not afraid of this (of your torture),” they said. “We return to our Lord, Allâh, we are turning back to Him Who might confer on us the glorious privilege of martyrdom.
  51. “In fact,” they added, “our only hope is that Allâh our Lord extends His mercy to us and forgives us our sins and our sinful acts of fraudulent magic, for being foremost in acknowledging His supreme sovereignty, omnipotence, and authority.”
  52. Meanwhile, We revealed to Mûsâ to conduct the Israelites My bondmen by night to the sea and We said to him, “Be sure you will be followed by Pharaoh and his people.”
  53. Pharaoh sent musterers to all his cities to call up the people to organize themselves for the defeat of Mûsâ and his people.
  54. He said to them, “Mûsâ and his people (the Israelites) are a gang of few contemptible bodies.
  55. “And they provoked our anger and came within the measure of our rage.
  56. “And we are all cautious and on our guard.”
  57. Wherefore, We expelled Pharaoh and his people from the land of gardens and springs,
  58. The land of treasures (of gold and silver), and of an honorable station (of homes and accommodations so splendid).
  59. And so it was, and We made the land inheritable by the Children of Isrâ’îl, to whom We conveyed the right of the property (after We drowned Pharaoh and his people).
  60. Pharaoh and his people followed Mûsâ and his people at sunrise.
  61. And when the two bodies of men came within each other’s sight, the companions of Mûsâ exclaimed, “We are evidently overtaken.”
  62. “Not at all,” Mûsâ said. “Allâh my Lord is with me to guide me as He wills.”
  63. We revealed Mûsâ to strike the sea with his staff, and there did the sea split into two enormous divisions, each partition as immense as a huge mountain.
  64. And We drew forward Pharaoh and his people to tail Mûsâ and his people (who were then in the footpath).
  65. And We delivered Mûsâ and all those with him (by keeping the sea solid until they had crossed).
  66. Thereafter We drowned Pharaoh and all those with him (by making the seawater envelop them when they tried to cross).
  67. This is, indeed, a sign of Allâh’s omnipotence and authority, but most of them disbelieved in Allâh the Creator.
  68. And Allâh your Lord is indeed Ever-Almighty and Ever-Merciful.
  69. And recite to the people, Messenger, the narrative of Ibrâhîm (with his father).
  70. He asked his father and his people, “What do you people worship?”
  71. “We worship idols” they said in pride, “and we linger consecrated to them.”
  72. “Do they hear you,” Ibrâhîm asked, “when you praise them or invoke them?
  73. “Or do they profit you (if you obey them), or harm you (if you disobey them)?”
  74. “No,” they said, “but this is exactly the system of worship our fathers adopted, which we followed suit.”
  75. “Do you see,” Ibrâhîm said in rebuke, “all those you revered as objects of worship,
  76. “And you and your fathers and your ancestors treated with devotion?
  77. “They are enemies to me (and to Allâh, the Creator of the worlds); therefore, I do not worship them, but I worship Allâh,
  78. The Creator, Who brought me into existence, and it is He Who guides me (to the path of righteousness).
  79. “It is He Who provides me with food and drink.
  80. “And when I fall sick, it is He Who cures me.
  81. “And it is He Who determines my death and occasions my resurrection (for reckoning and reward or punishment),
  82. “The Creator Who I hope will forgive me all my offenses on the Day of Doom.
  83. “And to Him I say, thus: ‘Confer on me, O Allâh my Lord, wisdom to help me judge rightly in matters and to impart to me soundness of judgment, and join me, Allâh, with the society of the righteous.
  84. “‘And furnish me, Allâh my Creator, with a tongue uttering the truth and that is believed among posterity.
  85. “‘And if You destine me, I will be one of those inheriting the Garden of the supreme bliss.
  86. “‘And extend, Allâh my Creator, Your mercy and forgiveness to my father who was lost in the maze of error.’” (A prayer invoked by Ibrâhîm before he realized that his father was not on the path of guidance.)
  87. “‘And do not occasion me to fall from grace on the Day of Rising again,
  88. “‘The Day when neither wealth nor sons will be of profit.
  89. “‘Except to him who comes to the audience of Allâh with a sound heart (filled with devotion).’”
  90. This is the Day when the Garden will be brought quite near to these (in whose hearts reigned piety).
  91. And Hell is brought forward to those who were misguided (and spent their days in vanity).
  92. They will be asked, “Where now are those gods you worshiped (instead of Allâh),
  93. The gods you venerated apart from Allâh? Do they afford you help or can they even vindication themselves?”
  94. There and then the misguided will be cast in Hell headlong one batch after another.
  95. And added to them will be those people and jinn who served Iblîs [Satan] (all into one gathering and in one place).
  96. And when all have been gathered in Hell and have exchanged angry contention, the disbelievers will say,
  97. “By Allâh, we wandered, indeed, from the path of rectitude and were lost in error.
  98. “We have equalized you false gods with Allâh, Lord of the worlds.”
  99. And they add, “No one led us to the maze of error but the wicked who were given to sin and crime.”
  100. “And now,” they will exclaim, “no one can defend us, nor will we find intercessors (who would interpose on our behalf).
  101. “Nor do we find an intimate friend.
  102. “If only we could be given another chance of life below, we would be among those believers (who exercise low submissive obeisance to Allâh and entertain the profound reverence due to Him).”
  103. This is, indeed, a sign of Allâh’s omnipotence and authority, but most of Ibrâhîm’s people disbelieve in Allâh, Who brought them into existence.
  104. Allâh your Lord is indeed Ever-Almighty and Ever-Merciful (Who avenges those who deny Him and bestows grace on the benevolent).
  105. Just as averse were the people of Nûh (Noah); they declined to accept Allâh’s message (basically the same message conveyed by all the messengers of Allâh before and after Nûh).
  106. Their brother Nûh said to them saying, “Will you not keep being pious to Allâh your Lord (and revere Him as He deserves)?
  107. “I come to you,” he added, “with a message that Allâh has entrusted to me.
  108. “A message exacting your piety to Allâh and obedience to me.
  109. “I do not charge you a reward for imparting to you Allâh’s divine knowledge. My reward rests in the hands of Allâh, the Lord of the worlds.
  110. “And so be pious to Allâh as He deserves and obey me.”
  111. They said to Nûh (in rejection), “Shall we believe you and when it is only the decrepit who espoused your cause?”
  112. “But how would I know,” said Nûh, “what they were doing earlier?
  113. “Their reckoning will only be judged by Allâh my Lord, if only you could apprehend.
  114. “Nor would I drive away those who are disbelievers.
  115. “I am only a messenger sent by Allâh as a warning.”
  116. They said, “We warn you Nûh, unless you cease your course of action, you will be stoned to death.”
  117. And there Nûh prayed, “O Allâh my Lord, my people disbelieved me and belied me.
  118. “Judge, Allâh, and arbitrate my cause and decide between me and them in Your way, and save me and those believers with me (who conformed to Islâm).”
  119. And there, We delivered him along with all those in his company on board the loaded ship.
  120. And We drowned all the others who remained behind (after saving Nûh and those with him).
  121. This is, indeed, a sign of Allâh’s omnipotence and authority, but most of them disbelieved in Allâh (Who brought them into existence).
  122. And it is Allâh your Lord Who is indeed The Ever-Almighty and The Ever-Merciful.
  123. Just as averse were the people of `Âd, who cried lies to Allâh’s message and Messengers.
  124. Their brother Hûd said to them, “Will you not be pious to Allâh?
  125. “I am a trustworthy messenger entrusted with a divine message to you.
  126. “So be pious to Allâh and obey me.
  127. “I do not charge you a reward for this. My reward is only from Allâh, the Lord of the worlds.
  128. “Do you erect buildings,” he added, “on the top of every high places, signs, mansions, and stately buildings of no avail?
  129. “And do you take for yourselves fortified palaces as though they would protect you and help you abide forever?
  130. “And when you assault, justly or unjustly, you assault as potentates.
  131. “So be pious to Allâh, and obey me.
  132. “And be pious to Him Who made all His grace abound in you.
  133. “He graced you with cattle and sons,
  134. “And with (fortified) orchards and (flowing) springs.
  135. “In fact,” he said, “I fear for you an immense torment on a momentous Day.”
  136. But they (insolently and defiantly) said to him, “Whether you admonish us, Hûd, or you do not (it is to us one and the same).
  137. “This is nothing other than the customary manner of thinking of those of old.
  138. “Nor will we be subjected to a (retributive) torment.”
  139. And they refused to believe in Our message; therefore, We caused them to perish. This is, indeed, a sign (of Allâh’s omnipotence and authority), but most of them were not believers.
  140. And Allâh your Lord is, indeed, The Ever-Almighty, The Ever-Merciful.
  141. And just as averse were the people of Thamûd, who refused to accept Allâh’s (message and) messengers.
  142. Mention to them, Messenger, their brother Sâlih, who said to them, “Will you not be pious (and keep in awe of Allâh your Creator, and entertain the profound reverence due to Him)?
  143. “I am a messenger to you entrusted with a divine message.
  144. “So be pious to Allâh and obey me.
  145. “I do not charge you a reward for imparting to you Allâh’s divine knowledge. My reward rests in His hands, the Lord of the worlds.
  146. “Do you think,” he said, “you will be left secure, expecting to enjoy the grace of Allâh which abounds in you?
  147. “(You live in splendor), and you hold in possession orchards and (flowing) springs,
  148. “And vegetal growth and date palms whose enclosed spathes carries tender, delicious, and easily digestible fruits.
  149. “And you skillfully hew the mountains into homes (wherein you make abode),
  150. “So be pious to Allâh and obey me”.
  151. “And I advise you not to obey those who are extravagant (in their accounts of themselves, nor yield to their irreverent principles and authority).
  152. “They corrupt in the earth natural to them, and never do they attempt reform that makes the land thrive.”
  153. They said to him, “You are one of those (influenced by witchcraft and, therefore), bewitched.
  154. “You are only a mortal like us (therefore you could not be singled out for prophethood). And if you are, indeed, sincere, then present us with a divine sign.”
  155. “This,” he said, “is a she-camel that is entitled to a share of the drinking water, just as you are entitled to a share. She is to have her share on a certain day and you have yours on a known day.
  156. “And you are warned not to touch her with harm lest you suffer the torment laid upon the damned on a Tremendous Day.”
  157. Nevertheless, they defiantly hamstrung it, which led to pining regrets and vain remorse.
  158. They were overtaken by Allâh’s torment. This is, indeed, a sign of His omnipotence and authority, but most of your people were not believers.
  159. Allâh your Lord is, indeed, The Ever-Almighty and The Ever-Merciful.
  160. (Just as averse were the people of Lût.) They cried lies to Allâh’s messengers.
  161. Their brother Lût said to them, “Will you not be pious to Allâh?
  162. “So be pious to Allâh and obey me.
  163. “A message that exacts your reverence for Allâh and obedience to me.
  164. “I do not charge you a reward for imparting to you Allâh’s divine knowledge; my reward rests in His hands, the Lord of the worlds.”
  165. “Of all created beings, you go in to males.
  166. “And you leave behind spouses who are created by your Lord. In fact, you are a people who have defiantly transgressed the divine and the moral laws.”
  167. “We warn you, Lût,” they said, “unless you do not refrain, you will be among those